Outline Background Problem statement Methodology Result Conclusions 2022-04-21 1 Background SSR for Grid-tied Inverter-based Renewables Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR) Weak grid Trigger 1. 2. 3. Accidental grid disturbance (grid fault), wind farm output variation, etc. High renewable penetration rate; Low transmission grid capacity; Regular transmission grid maintenance. [4] H. Liu et al., "Subsynchronous Interaction Between Direct-Drive PMSG Based Wind Farms and Weak AC Networks," in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 47084720, Nov. 2017. 2022-04-21 2 Problem Statement & Objectives Attack 1 Steps 1 • Attackers get into the intranet of the control center though access point (A1,A2) of remote access network; 2 • Attackers stay inside the system and gather static information including grid parameters and wind farm capacity; 3 • Attackers eavesdrop dynamic information including output prediction of wind farm, active power request and operation state; 4 • Attackers gain access to user interface (D1) and send fake power request or launch man-in-the-middle attack; 5 • Wind farm operator(C3) receive the request from TSO and start up the reserved wind turbines (C4); 6 • An SSR may happen in wind farm. [5]C. Ten, K. Yamashita, Z. Yang, A. V. Vasilakos and A. Ginter, "Impact Assessment of Hypothesized Cyberattacks on Interconnected Bulk Power Systems," in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 4405-4425, Sept. 2018. 2022-04-21 3 Problem Statement & Objectives Attack 2 Steps 1 2 3 4 5 •Attackers hack into one PMU or into the WAMPAC system; •Attackers stay inside the system and gather static information including grid parameters and adaptive protection scheme; •Attackers eavesdrop dynamic information including output prediction of wind farm, operation state of transmission grid; • Attackers Manipulate PMU to send a fake switch-on command to relay for specific circuit breaker; •An SSR may happen in wind farm. 2022-04-21 4 Outline Background Problem statement Methodology Result Conclusions 2022-04-21 5 Methodology 1) Circuit breaker status; Synchronized, sampling rate is the same as PMU 2) Wind farm current output; (48samples/s) 3) U&I at PCC 4) Wind farm output Vital Information for 5) Wind farm output prediction; SSR Attack 6) Grid short circuit capacity at PCC. Random Forest SSR Intrusion Detection System Support Vector Machine K-Nearest Neighbor Certain IED or Wind Farm Power Request 2022-04-21 6 Methodology Define a ML problem and propose a solution 1819 samples (15 predictors, 5 classes) N: 49% A_1: 18% A_2: 14% W_A1: 10% W_A2: 9% Construct your dataset Transform data First 11 predictor could cover 95% variance in samples. Oversampling & down sampling Train a model Use the model to make predictions 1800samples (11 predictors, 5 classes) N: 21% A_1: 20% A_2: 21% W_A1: 20% W_A2: 18% 2022-04-21 7 Decision tree A decision tree is a specific type of flow chart used to visualize the decision making process by mapping out different courses of action, as well as their potential outcomes. Root Node: This top-level node represents the ultimate objective. Branches: Branches, which stem from the root, represent different options—or courses of action—that are available when making a particular decision, indicating with an arrow line and often including associated costs, as well as the likelihood to occur. Leaf Node: The leaf nodes—which are attached at the end of the branches—represent possible outcomes for each action. • square leaf nodes indicate another decision to be made; • circle leaf nodes indicate a chance event or unknown outcome. https://venngage.com/blog/what-is-a-decision-tree/ 2022-04-21 8 Decision tree • • • Fine tree Medium tree Coarse tree Maximum number of splits Split criterion: • Gini’s diversity index • Twoing rule • Maximum deviance reduction https://venngage.com/blog/what-is-a-decision-tree/ 2022-04-21 9 Support Vector Machine SVM: The objective of the support vector machine algorithm is to find a hyperplane in an N-dimensional space(N — the number of features) that distinctly classifies the data points. To separate the two classes of data points, there are many possible hyperplanes that could be chosen. Our objective is to find a plane that has the maximum margin, i.e the maximum distance between data points of both classes. Maximizing the margin distance provides some reinforcement so that future data points can be classified with more confidence. https://towardsdatascience.com/support-vector-machine-introduction-to-machine-learning-algorithms-934a444fca47 2022-04-21 10 Support Vector Machine • Linear SVM: Kernel function: Linear • Quadratic SVM Kernel function: Quadratic • Cubic SVM Kernel function: Cubic • Gaussian SVM Kernel function: Gaussian https://towardsdatascience.com/support-vector-machine-introduction-to-machine-learning-algorithms-934a444fca47 2022-04-21 11 The k-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm Assumption: Similar things are near to each other. Nearest neighbor algorithm captures the idea of similarity by calculating the distance between points on a graph. KNN: An object is classified by a plurality vote of its k neighbors, with the object being assigned to the class most common among its k nearest neighbors. Note: If k = 1, then the object is simply assigned to the class of that single nearest neighbor. The input consists of the k closest training examples in the feature space The output is a class membership https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K-nearest_neighbors_algorithm 2022-04-21 12 The k-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm Step 1: Load the data Step 2: Initialize k to your chosen number of neighbors Step 3: Calculate the distance between the query example and the current example from the data. Step 4: Add the distance and the index of the example to an ordered collection Step 5: Sort the ordered collection of distances and indices from smallest to largest by the distances Step 6: Pick the first k entries from the sorted collection Step 7: Get the labels of the selected k entries i) Fine KNN: k=1, Euclidean distance metrics. ii) Medium KNN: k=10, Euclidean distance metrics. iii) Coarse KNN: k=100, Euclidean distance metrics. iv) Cosine KNN: k=10, Cosine distance metric. v) Cubic KNN: k=10, Cubic distance metric. vi) Weighted KNN: k=10, Euclidean distance metrics (distance is weighted). 2022-04-21 13 Outline Background Problem statement Methodology Result Conclusions 2022-04-21 14 Results Status of System (under maintenance or not) Attack 1 Warning for attack 1 Status of circuit breaks Power output of wind plant Attack 2 Warning for attack 1 Forecast of power output of wind plant Normal Input Accuracy Output Machine learning Decision tree SVM KNN Fine 99.1% Linear 98.2% Fine 99.1% Medium 99.1% Quadratic 98.6% Medium 98.2% Coarse 97.5% Cubic 99.2% Coarse 96.1% Gaussian 99.1% Cosine 98.3% Cubic 98.2% Weighted 99.2% 2022-04-21 15 Results Decision tree Maximum number of splits: >=6 Split criterion: • Gini’s diversity index • Twoing rule • Maximum deviance reduction 2022-04-21 16 Results Cubic SVM Kernel function: Cubic Box constraint level: 2 Multiclass method: one-vs-all 2022-04-21 17 Results KNN k=4 Euclidean distance metrics 2022-04-21 18 Outline Background Problem statement Methodology Result Conclusions 2022-04-21 19 Conclusions • Required for BOTH project types • Draw brief conclusions of your project • Review the work you have completed in this project (1-3 sentences) • State the main conclusions/outcome of your project • May provide comments on future works if applicable 2022-04-21 20 References [1]H. 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