Uploaded by sey Setor

Term paper 821

SEPTEMBER 21, 2021
In research, there are certain concepts and theories that are used to support the study. This
helps define the scope by setting general principles that explain the phenomena and predict
outcomes. The research requires applying an existing theory or concept to a research problem, the
analysis may include the expectation by your supervisor to offer modifications to the theory based
on your research findings.
The conceptual framework is defined as a network or a plane of linked concepts (Jarabeen,
Theories are also formulated to explain, predict, and understand phenomena and, in many cases,
to justify, challenge, and extend existing knowledge within the limits of critical bounding
assumptions. Theories are extensively tried and tested and generally accepted among scholars,
unlike hypotheses. The theoretical framework is the structure that can hold or support a research
study. The theoretical framework introduces, describes, and grounds the theory that explains why
the research problem under study exists. (Abend, 2008).
A theoretical framework usually consists of concepts, principles, and, together with their
definitions and reference to relevant scholarly literature, existing theory that is used for your
particular study. The framework must demonstrate an understanding of ideas and concepts that are
relevant to the topic of your research paper and that relate to the broader areas of knowledge being
Most often, the theoretical framework is not something readily found within the literature.
You must review course readings and pertinent research studies for theories and analytic models
that are relevant to the research problem you are investigating. The selection of a theory should
depend on its appropriateness, ease of application, and explanatory power. This appropriateness
should strongly align with the thesis title, research problem, variables, and assumptions or
The theoretical framework is used to limit the scope of the relevant data as it focuses on
specific variables and defines the specific viewpoint (framework) that the researcher will take in
analyzing and interpreting the data to be gathered. It also simplifies the understanding of concepts
and variables according to given definitions and builds new knowledge by corroborating or
challenging theoretical assumptions.
Most researchers undertheorize. Thus, where the theory is left hanging out there in the
introduction never to be mentioned again. Undertheorizing weakens your paper. The theoretical
framework you describe should guide your study throughout the paper. Be sure to always connect
theory to the review of pertinent literature and to explain in the discussion part of your paper how
the theoretical framework you chose supports analysis of the research problem or, if appropriate,
how the theoretical framework was found to be inadequate in explaining the phenomenon you
were investigating. In that case, don't be afraid to propose your own theory based on your findings.
Profession needs a base of theoretical framework in supporting practice. The education profession
which includes the process of learning contains a theoretical framework that holds the relationship
between theory and practice in place through empirical data; tried and tested. Behaviorism or the
behavioral learning theory is one of the popular concepts that focus on how students learn. A
school of thought believes that behaviorism is a psychological theory of human development that
posits that humans can be trained, or conditioned, to respond in specific ways to specific stimuli
and that given the correct stimuli, personalities and behaviors of individuals, and even entire
civilizations, can be codified and controlled. The focus of this theory is on the idea that all
behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment. This theory also states that innate
or inherited factors have very little influence on behavior. Behaviorism is key for educators as it
impacts how students react and behave in the classroom, and suggests that teachers can directly
influence how their students behave. It also helps teachers understand that a student’s home
environment and lifestyle can impact their behavior, helping them see it objectively and work to
assist with improvement. Learning is more than school, books, and tests. According to Bastable &
Alt (2014), learning is defined in this presentation as a “change in behavior (knowledge, attitudes,
and/or skills) that can be observed or measured and that occurs … as a result of exposure to
environmental stimuli”. The process of learning is deemed to cause a relatively permanent change
in behavior.
Edward Lee Thorndike (1898) is famous in psychology for his work on learning theory
that led to the development of operant conditioning within behaviorism. Thorndike also suggested
some laws; effect, exercise, and effect. Law of exercise one of the laws propounded by E. L.
Thorndike (1932) grounds my research on “Implementing the Standards-Based Curriculum:
Exploring Teachers Experiences in Developing Core Competencies in Pupils”. This law clearly
states that behavior is more strongly established through frequent connections of stimulus and
response. Based on Thorndike, learning is a phenomenon that grows associations between one
event to another event which is called stimulus (S) with a response (R). This law is also known as
connectionism or association theory. Stimulus is a change of the external environment that
becomes a sign to activate an organism to react and act. And, the response is the behavior that is
raised by the stimulus. This law also dissects two other laws; use and disuse. The law of use
projects that the more frequently a learning situation is repeated the better and more permanent the
learning and the law of disuse projects that, the less frequently a learning situation is the weaker
the bond established between stimuli and responses. This strongly asserts that practice is important
to polish skills or make one perfect in a skill. Thus, practice strengthens competence and lack of
practice weakens skills. To attain a suitable and satisfying response to stimuli, a learner needs
frequent practice. Regular trials or practice leads to improvement which makes knowledge
permanent in the memory; from the short-term memory to the long. According to Thorndike the
main principle of learning is repetition, because of that teacher who gives a question (Stimulus)
the students will answer it (Response), and make the prestige of student increase. This is evident
in the utilization of drill; the amount of repetition. This law of exercise is a connection between
condition and action which can be made strong by doing exercises and weakened if the connection
between both of them is stopped. In this case, exercises contain two things. First is the Law of Use;
thus, connections between condition and action can be strong if there are exercises. Second is The
Law of Disuse; that is, connections between condition and action can be weak if exercises are
My research seeks to explore the experiences of teachers as they develop the core
competencies in learners. The core competencies are one of the key features of the StandardsBased Curriculum (SBC) which was implemented in 2019. These competencies are to build
learners who are confident, literate, make critical decisions, have a positive character, and make
this curriculum a benchmark for international studies. This has become a crucial need as the old
curriculum (Objective Based Curriculum) was focused on the teacher (repertoire of all knowledge)
and on passing examinations. To ensure the six core competencies; critical thinking and problem
solving, creativity and innovation, communication and collaboration, global identity and
citizenship, personal development and leadership, and digital literacy, the SBC projects are
achieved, the curriculum implementers (teachers) should maximize its use. Ergo, to sustain the
permanency of the competencies, frequent or regular exercises should promote it. Hence, teachers’
experiences with developing these competencies in pupils are crucial to its attainment. Since the
National Council for Curriculum and Assessment has seen these competencies as essential for
every Ghanaian child, much time should be devoted to acquiring all these facts, abilities, arts, and
skills, which we shall find useful. Teachers who are the implementing agents of these
competencies should have constant and frequent use with learners in ensuring the basic
competencies featured under each strand are learned and mastered by any graduate of the pretertiary level.
Again, much time should not elapse between one practice and the subsequent one. Delayed
use or long disuse may cause forgetfulness. As such, the indicators of each day’s lesson should be
achieved. The competencies run through all the strands. The teacher should ensure that each day’s
competencies are achieved. If teachers do not fully comprehend the essence and how to develop
the competencies by linking each activity to it, it leads to a gap which if continued would result in
forgetfulness and finally disuse; expected competencies not achieved.
The law of exercise cannot be applied quantitatively, because other factors also come in.
consequently learning is not directly proportional to the amount of exercise. Interest and purpose
coupled with repetition make repetition more effective. Thorndike himself revised his views on
the ‘Law of Disuse’. He finds that disuse may play an important part in dissatisfaction with a
particular job. It is interest and satisfaction that comes in the success and repetition of a successful
response which helps in the selection of desired response. Emphasizing again, the role of the
teacher. These competencies should not be visualized as a journey to the sun. How teachers relay
the competencies through each activity can arouse or decrease learner’s interest. It is critical to
ergo examine teachers’ experiences as they develop these competencies, their challenges, how
innovative they are in ensuring these competencies are developed in pupils.
This theory would guide my review of the literature to ensure empirical data that supports
the significance of teachers’ experience to developing competencies in pupils as well as the
importance of practice support this study.
In the analysis of data from this study, the researcher will align data to the implications of the law
of exercise to access teachers’ use of repetition and examine its outcome in ensuring the core
competencies have been achieved or otherwise.
This theory is appropriate as it spotlights an understanding of the research problem.
Projecting a broader view of the study to be undertaken and functions as a fundamental base to
this study.
Abend, G., (2008). "The Meaning of Theory." Sociological Theory 26. 173–199; Swanson,
Richard A. Theory Building in Applied Disciplines. San Francisco, CA: BerrettKoehler Publishers 2013.
Asher, H. B., (1984). Theory-Building and Data Analysis in the Social Sciences. Knoxville,
TN: University of Tennessee Press.
Fleetwood, S., & Hesketh, A., (2006). "HRM-Performance Research: Under-theorized and
Lacking Explanatory Power." The International Journal of Human Resource
Management: Vol 17.
Jarabeen, Y. (2009). Building a conceptual framework: philosophy, definitions, and procedure.
International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8(4), 49-62.
Thorndike, E. L. (1898). Animal intelligence: An experimental study of the associative processes
in animals. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 2(4), i-109.
What is Theory?: Answers from the Social and Cultural Sciences. Stockholm: Copenhagen
Business School Press, 2013.