Principles of Gestalt psychology: 1. Pragnanz law: The principle was introduced by Wettheimer.It can briefly be formulated like this: psychological organization will always be as “good” as the prevailing conditions allow. In this definition the term “good” is undefined. It embraces such properties as regularity, symmetry, simplicity and others. 2. Proximity and equality: when the field contains a number of equal parts, those among them which are in greater proximity will be organized into a higher unit. However, our law of proximity is so far dependent upon the equality of the parts in proximity. Even with this limitation it is important enough. 3. Law of good continuation: a straight line is a more stable structure than a broken one, and that therefore organization will, all things unchanged, occur in such a way that a straight line will continue as a straight line. We may generalize thus: any curve will proceed in its own natural way, a circle as a circle, an ellipse as an ellipse, and so forth 4. Closure: the tendency towards greater perceptual stability possessed by closed areas as compared with enclosed ones, and hence to the tendency for closed areas to be more readily attained and maintained in perception. 5. Figure-ground law: The figure depends for its characteristics upon the ground on which it appears. The ground serves as a framework in which the figure is suspended and thereby determines the figure.