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Stats Assignment 1

In this study the researchers had an aim to understand the detrimental effects of preperformance anxiety on table tennis athletes. The researchers placed importance on the
efficacy of emotional regulation strategies that are necessary for ideal athletic performance.
Prior research suggests that pre-performance pressure to perform places athletes under stress
which is ultimately detrimental for their performance (di Fronso et al., 2013). Ultimately,
researchers set out to understand a correlational relationship between how situation
modifications, attentional deployment, and positive cognitive change prior to competition
positively increases performance outcomes (Kubiak et al., 2019).
To examine the relationship between dispositional pre-competition emotional
regulation and competitive performance, the researchers examined 310 table tennis players
with a mean age of 39.07 (Kubiak et al., 2019). To establish a correlation between performance
and emotional regulation, self-report measures were utilized and paired with objective
performance data.
Table tennis players from the German federal states of Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate
were given a questionnaire to fill out to determine if they met the criteria for the study. 358
participants were selected for this study but a dropout rate of 12.85 (n=46) was present.
Ultimately, the sample consisted of 240 men and 70 women. For the purposes of this study a
cross-sectional design relying on self-report measures and objective performance data were
The variables of interest in this study were pre-competition emotional regulation and
performance. In terms of pre-competition emotional arousal, situational modification,
attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation strategies were of interest
(Kubiak et al., 2019). The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) was given to
athletes to assess current emotional regulation strategies. The scores from the CERQ were
examined with each athlete’s table tennis rating scoring (TTR) to examine correlation. The CERQ
and TTR resulted in interval data that was compared with each other
Kubiak et al., (2019) found that the use of positive cognitive strategies prior to
performance were correlated with increased athletic performance for table tennis athletes.
Additionally, research suggested that negative cognitive strategies prior to performance
resulted in decreased athletic performance.
Overall, research suggested the possibility for increased training on pre-competition
emotional regulation techniques for athletes to increase athletic performance. Research found
that Skills such as physical preparation, positive self-talk, response modulation strategies, etc.
seem to provide athletes with the ability to lower pre-competition anxiety ultimately resulting
in increased performance (Kubiak et al., 2019).
di Fronso, S., Nakamura, F. Y., Bortoli, L., Robazza, C., & Bertollo, M. (2013). Stress and recovery balance
in amateur basketball players: Differences by gender and preparation phase. International
Journal of Sports and Physiological Performance, 8, 618–622.
Kubiak, J., Rother, S., & Egloff, B. (2019). Keep your cool and win the game: Emotion regulation and
performance in table tennis. Journal of Personality, 87(5), 996–1008. https://doiorg.uws.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/jopy.12451