Maria Nika Mae B. Garcia BSN – 1, RR12 Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Clinical Applications 37. Mrs. Jones has had a progressive decline in her mental capabilities in the past five or six years. At first, her family attributed occasional memory lapses, confusion, and agitation to grief over her husband's death six years earlier. When examined, Mrs. Jones was aware of her cognitive problems and was shown to have an IQ score approximately 30 points lower than would be predicted by her work history. A CT scan showed diffuse cerebral atrophy. The physician prescribed a mild tranquilizer for Mrs. jones and told her family that there was little else he could recommend. What was Mrs. Jones's problem? Based on the symptoms and the results of the tests, Mrs. Jones probably has Alzheimer's Disease. It is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain that ultimately results in mental deterioration or Dementia. Because of the disease, the victim may exhibit memory loss, a short attention span, disorientation, language loss and can even affect her mood and cognitive skills. Alzheimer's Disease is associated with a shortage of Acetylcholine (ACh). Prescribing the patient with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can ease the symptoms and slightly help her cognitive skills by inhibiting ACh breakdown. 38. Joseph, a man in his early 70's, was having problems chewing his food. He was asked to stick out his tongue. It deviated to the right side, and its right side was quite wasted. What cranial nerve was impaired? The cranial nerve that was impaired was the Hypoglossal Nerve. This nerve is the one in control with the tongue movements. This impaired nerve may be the reason why Joseph was having a problem chewing his food. 39. Andy is about to take the stage to play the guitar in front of the biggest audience he has ever played for. He can feel his heart pounding in his chest and his hands are sweating. Explain Andy's physiological signs in terms of the automatic nervous system. His sympathetic nervous system maybe is in control during this time. One division of the Autonomic nervous system is the sympathetic nervous system that mobilizes the body during extreme situations. Its activity is evident when we are excited or when we are frightened. In Andy's situation, it is visible that the sympathetic effects of performing in front of a huge crowd increases the rate and force of his heartbeat and stimulates the sweat glands to produce perspiration in his hands. 40. A semiconscious young woman is brought to the hospital by friends after falling from a roof. She did not lose consciousness immediately, and she was initially lucid. After a while, though, she became confused and then unresponsive. What is a likely explanation of her condition? She most likely has intracranial hemorrhage or bleeding from a ruptured vessel from her fall from the roof. Blood may have accumulated in her cranial causing her to be unresponsive and confused. Individuals who are initially alert and lucid following hear trauma and then begin to deteriorate neurologically are most likely hemorrhaging that compresses vital brain tissue. 41. During John's checkup, one year after an accident severed his right accessory nerve, the physician noted severe muscle atrophy. What two prominent muscles have been affected? The two prominent muscles that have been affected are the Sternocleidomastoid and Trapezius. The accessory nerve is the one in control with the motor fibers that activate the Sternocleidomastoid and Trapezius. With the affected nerve, the affected muscles may not be able to use in a lot of physical activities. The lack of mobility can result in muscle atrophy. 42. Mrs. Chen, a new mother, brings her infant to the clinic because he has suffered repeated seizures. When questioned, she states that her labor was unusually long and difficult. What condition do you suspect? Will the infant's condition worsen? Her son probably has Cerebral Palsy. Cerebral palsy is one of the results of difficult delivery because of the temporary lack of oxygen. It is a neuromuscular disability in which the voluntary muscles are poorly controlled and spastic because of brain damage. Victims may have seizures, impaired hearing or vision, or intellectually disabled. If not attended properly, the situation of the infant may worsen. 43. Jake has been recently administered medication through an injection in his right buttock. Now he is not being able to dorsiflex his right foot. His doctor suspects that he has a footdrop. What could have happened? During the administration of the injection, the attending medical staff probably hit the sciatic nerve that affected his common fibular nerve. Damage to this nerve may result in his present condition, having footdrop or inability to dorsiflex. 44. Mr. Harrison is an 82-year-old bedridden gentleman who has discovered a new interest in learning about his body. While being tended by the visiting nurse he remarks that the supporting cells in nervous tissue (such as Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes) act like rubber coating around the household wiring. What does he mean by this analogy? Schwann Cells and Oligodendrocytes are the producers of the fatty insulating coverings around nerve fibers called myelin sheath. Just like the rubber coating around the household wiring, the myelin sheaths act just like an electrical insulator and protects that axons. 45. Maria had an automobile accident that caused injury to her head. As a result, she could not understand what was said to her, though she was able to pronounce words herself. What was her probable condition? What caused it? Maria probably has Aphasia. It is a result of the automobile accident that causes damage to the left cerebral hemisphere, where the language areas are located. Specifically, she probably has sensory aphasia that causes the patient to lose her ability to understand written or spoken language thought their intellect is unimpaired. 46. Why does exposure to toxins have more devastating neural effects during early pregnancy that in late pregnancy? The nervous system forms during the first month of embryonic development. Maternal infections and exposure to toxins in early pregnancy can have extremely harmful effects on the fetal nervous system. A smoking mother may be sentencing her infant to possible brain damage. Radiation and various drugs, such as alcohol, opiates, and cocaine, can be very damaging if taken during early fetal development. 47. Jason is the star of his hometown ice hockey team. During a game, he is hit with a hockey stick so hard that he hits the ice. When he tries to get up he is unable to flex his left hip or extend his left knee, but he has no pain. Which nerve has been damaged? Because of the severe impact of the hockey stick, Jason's femoral nerve probably has been damaged. Damage to this nerve results in the inability to extend the leg and flex the hip. It can also result in loss of cutaneous sensation that's why he doesn't feel any pain. 48. Jerry got hit in the back of the neck with a baseball, and now he can't shrug one shoulder. What cranial nerve is involved? The cranial nerve that is involved is the accessory nerve that is in control of the two neck muscles, the trapezius, and sternocleidomastoid. These two muscles are involved in the extension and flexion of the neck and in raising the scapula or shrugging, Damage to this nerve can result in an inability to shrug a shoulder. 49. When Taylor begins to feel drowsy while driving, she opens her window, turns up the volume of the car stereo, and sips her ice-cold water. How do these actions keep her awake? Taylor is taking out her body out of habituation state by exposing herself to new and different stimuli. By changing the environment, she is allowing her brain to receive new sensory input, by this, her brain will integrate new information and generate motor output. This may activate the sympathetic division and may increase the heart rate and oxygen intake. 50. As the aroma of freshly brewed coffee drifted by Joe's nose, his mouth began to water, and his stomach started to rumble. Explain these reactions in terms of ANS activity. When we are hungry, the smell, sight o even thought of food will cause our digestive system to signal our brain to get all the systems prepared for the entry of food. The aroma of food activates the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. This prepares the body for a meal, which includes salivation and stomach activation. This causes the muscles that line the stomach and intestines to start moving and also to start releasing digestive fluids, which creates the rumble that we can hear.