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Final Anatomy and Physiology II
Sec5on 1
1- Organs with secondary endocrine func5on
Thymus: Is a lymphoid organ that produces func7onal T cells. Secrets hormones involved in
s7mula7ng and coordina7ng the immune response. Produces several hormones that are
important to the developmental of func7onal T cells, and thus to the maintenance of normal
immunological defenses.
Thymosin: is the name originally given to an extract from the thymus that promotes the
development and matura7on of lymphocytes.
2- Hormones of the posterior pituitary lobe
Oxytocin: s7mulates smooth muscle contrac7on in the wall of the uterus, promo7ng labor and
delivery. ADer delivery, promotes the ejec7on of milk. It is known that circula7ng concentra7ons
of OXT rise during sexual arousal and peak at orgasm in both sexes. Posi7ve feedback
3- Organs with secondary endocrine func5on
Heart: Secrets hormones involved in regula7ng blood volume.
Atrial natriure5c pep5de (ANP): When Blood pressure and volume increase, the cardiac muscle
cells release ANP, increased Na+ loss in urine, increased water loss in urine, inhibi7on of ADH,
aldosterone, epinephrine and norepinephrine release.
4- Hormones of the anterior pituitary lobe
FSH (follicle s5mula5ng hormone): promotes ovarian follicle development in females and
promotes the physical matura7on of developing sperm.
5- Hormone ClassiEca5on
Steroid hormones: are released by the reproduc7ve organs (androgens by the testes in males,
estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries in females), by the cortex of the adrenal glands
(cor7costeroids), and by the kidneys (calcitriol).
-cor7sol (the main glucocor7coid), aldosterone (the main mineral cor7costeroid) and
androgens (testosterone, estrogens and progesterone).
6- Pancrea5c Hormones
Glucagon: produced by alpha cells. Raises blood glucose levels.
Insulin: produced by beta cells. Lowers blood glucose levels.
7- Pineal Gland
Melatonin: is secreted by pineal gland and set circadian rhythms.
8- Hormones of the anterior pituitary lobe
Growth Hormone (GH): s7mulates cell growth and reproduc7on. Skeletal muscle cells are
par7cularly sensi7ve to GH.
-Gigan7sm: results from an overproduc7on of GH before puberty.
-DwarYsm: inadequate produc7on of GH, children can be treated with synthe7c human GH.
-Acromegaly: if GH levels rise abnormally during adulthood
9- Adrenal Cortex
Adrenal Cortex Hormones
-Cor5sol: is an steroid hormone and is the main glucocor7coid. PASTELES
-Aldosterone: is the main mineralocor7coid. CROQUETAS
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-Androgens: testosterone SEX
Sec5on 2
10- Plasma Proteins
Fibrinogen: func7ons in clo`ng, is converted to Ybrin and closes the blood vessel that are
11- Granulocytes
Neutrophils: phagocy7c cells, bacterial infec7on, the most abundant, increase amount of
neutrophil is suspected infec7on for bacteria, FIGHT IT
12- Plasma Proteins
Gamma globulins: An7bodies, also called immunoglobulins, aback foreign proteins and
pathogens. Fight infec7ons
13- EPO
Erythropoiesis: Is the process of forma7on of the red blood cells. Occurs only in the red bone
marrow. The process is s7mulated by erythropoie7n, is produce by the kidneys, especially when
they are exposed to low oxygen concentra7ons.
Erythropoie7n is released:
- During anemia
- When blood cow to the kidneys decreases (ex: car accident, hemorrhage)
14- Blood Types
Universal Donor: O15- EPO
Hypoxia: the state of low 7ssue oxygen levels.
16- Blood Types
(A+) A+, A-, O+, O(A-) A-, O(B+) B+, B-, O+, O(B-) B-, 0(AB+) A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, O- UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT
(AB-) A-, B-, AB-, O(0+) O+, O(O-) O- UNIVERSAL DONOR
17- Agranulocytes
Monocytes: agranulocytes, are phagocy7c cells at 7ssue level, they are monocytes in blood
18- Hemostasis
Hemostasis phases
1ra vascular phase: vasoconstric7on or vascular spasm
2da platelets phase: platelet plug, platelet aggrega7on.
3ra coagula7on: conver7on of Ybrinogen into Ybrin
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19- Anemia
Pernicious Anemia: a deYciency in Vitamin B12 prevents normal stem cell divisions in the bone
marrow. Fewer red blood cells are produced, and those that are produced are abnormally large
and may develop bizarre shapes. Pernicious anemia can also result from a lack of intrinsic factor,
a mucoprotein secreted by the stomach that is necessary for adequate vitamin B12 absorp7on.
Sec5on 3
20- Heart Sounds
Normal Heart Sounds
S1- Closing av valves (ventricles contrac7on, atria relax)
S2- closing semilunar valve (atria contrac7on, ventricles relax)
21- Cardiac Cycle
Ventricular Systole/Diastole
ventricles and atria contrac7on: systole
ventricles and atria relaxa7on: diastole
22- Cardiac Output
CO Compensa5on: is regulated by adjustments in heart rate and stroke volume
When HR increase, SV decrease; when HR decrease, SV increase
HR increase:
- High body temperature
- Exercise
- Sympathe7c s7mula7on (FIGHT OR FLY)
23- Pulmonary Circuit
Pulmonary Veins
The right atrium receives blood from the systemic circuit and passes it to the right ventricle,
which pumps blood through the pulmonary trunk into the pulmonary circuit. The le\ atrium
collects blood from the pulmonary circuit through the pulmonary veins, and emp7es it into the
le\ ventricle, which pumps blood into the systemic circuit.
24- Pericardium
Cardiac Tamponade: cuid accumula7on in the pericardial cavity can cause cardiac tamponade.
25- Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary Ischemia: cardiac muscle cells need a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients, so any
reduc7on in blood cow to the heart muscle produces a corresponding reduc7on in cardiac
performance. Such reduced circulatory supply, known as coronary ischemia.
If we have an obstruc7on in the coronary artery, we have a reduc7on of the blood oxygen, we
are not being able to perform cellular respira7on, and we going to develop coronary ischemia.
26- Factors a]ec5ng the heart rate
Parasympathe5c e]ect: parasympathe7c s7mula7on decreases HR (REST AND DIGEST)
27- Pulmonary Circula5on
Pulmonary Trunk (see 23)
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28- Conduc5ng System: is a network of specialized cardiac cells, that ini7ate and distribute this
s7mulus to contract.
Conduc5ng System Components
Sinoatrial (SA) node
Internodal pathways
Atrioventricular (AV) node
Atrioventricular (AV) bundle
Bundle branches
Purkinje Ybers
29- Heart Valves
Heart Valves func5ons: prevent back cow
-Tricuspid: between the right atrial and right ventricle
-Bicuspid or Mitral: between the leD atrial and leD ventricle
-Semilunar: between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
-Aor7c valve: between leD ventricle and aor7c artery.
Sec5on 4
30- Blood Vessels
Types of Capillaries
-Con5nuous: no pores, no opening (formed the blood brain barrier, central nervous system and
in the thymus).
-Fenestrated: lible pores for Yltra7on (located along absorp7ve areas of the intes7nal tract and
at Yltra7on sites in the kidneys).
-Sinusoidal: big openings. (Liver, bone marrow, spleen, and many endocrine organs, including
the pituitary and adrenal gland).
31- Blood Pressure
Blood Pressure Regula5on
-Short term e]ect: E and NE s7mulate the heart and blood vessels increasing cardiac output
and peripheral vasoconstric7on, resul7ng in increased blood pressure and blood volume.
-Long term e]ects: Kidneys release EPO increases red blood cell forma7on resul7ng in
increased blood pressure and blood volume.
Kidneys release Renin leads to Angiotensin II ac7va7on (ADH is released, aldosterone secreted)
resul7ng in increased blood pressure and blood volume.
Heart release ANP, kidneys and blood vessels respond increasing sodium loss in urine, water loss
in urine. Occur inhibi7on of ADH, aldosterone, epinephrine and norepinephrine. Vasodila7on
32- Blood Vessels
Arteries: carry blood away from the heart. Emerent vessels EXIT
33- Blood Vessels
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Capillaries: Interconnect the smallest arteries and the smallest veins. Capillaries are called
exchange vessels because their thin walls allow the exchange of nutrients, dissolved gases, and
wastes between blood and the surrounding inters77al cuid.
34- Blood Vessel
Blood Vessel Wall
tunica in7ma (epithelium)
tunica media (smooth muscle)
tunica externa (connec7ve 7ssue)
35- Systemic Circula5on
Aor5c Arch Branches
1ra brachiocephalic trunk
-Right subclavian artery supplies right upper limb
-Right common caro7d artery supplies right head
2da le\ common caro5d artery- supplies the leD side of the head and neck
3ra le\ subclavian artery supplies leD upper limb
Sec5on 5
36- Lympha5c Organs
Lympha5c Organs ClassiEca5on
-Primary lymphoid 7ssues and organs: are sites where lymphocytes are formed and mature.
They include the red bone marrow and the thymus
-Secondary lymphoid 7ssues and organs: are where lymphocytes are ac7vated and cloned.
These structures include the lymph nodes, tonsils, mucosa-associated lymphoid 5ssue
(MALTA), appendix and spleen.
37- Lympha5c Collec5ng Ducts
Right lympha5c duct: is collec7ng the lymph from the right por7on of the head, right neck,
right thorax, and right upper limb
Thoracic duct: the leD por7on of the head, leD neck, leD thorax, leD upper limb and all the
inferior por7on of the body.
38- Lympha5c System
Lympha5c System Components
-Lymph nodes, Lympha7c vessels, 7ssues and organs.
39- Lymphocytes
B Lymphocytes: They mature in the bone marrow, as they mature enter the bloodstream and
become an7bodies.
40- Lymph Nodes
E]erent Vessel: carry the lymph toward the venous circula7on.
41- Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes Func5ons: are the primary cells of the lympha7c system. These cells respond to
the presence of invading pathogens (bacteria or viruses), abnormal body cells (virus-infected or
cancer cells) and foreign proteins (toxins released by some bacteria). They circulate within the
blood and lymph.
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42- Lymph Circula5on
Edema: Blocked or obstruc7on of the lympha7c drainage. Is a condi7on in which inters77al
cuids accumulate and the amected area gradually becomes swollen and grossly distended.
43- Lymphoid Tissue
Tonsil: are large lymphoid nodules in the walls of the pharynx. Associated with the opening of
the respiratory and diges7ve tract.
44- Lymphoid Tissue
Peyer’s Patches: lymphoid nodules, are found in the small intes7ne.
45- Lymphoid Organs
Primary Lymphoid Organs: bone marrow and thymus
46- Lympha5c System Organs
Bone Marrow: the lymphocytes mature or become competent in the bone marrow.
47- Adap5ve Immunity ClassiEca5on
Vaccine: Ac7ve and Ar7Ycial, we are receiving the an7gen ar7Ycially.
48- Adap5ve Immunity ClassiEca5on
Passive Immunity: Natural (the mother gives an7bodies to the baby through the placenta and
through breast feeding) and Ar7Ycial (serum: is a blood component containing gamma
49- T lymphocytes
Types of T Lymphocytes: they mature in the thymus, as they mature enter the bloodstream and
are responsible for cell-mediated immunity.
50- Innate Immunity
Interferon: is a protein that interfere with viral replica7on.
51- Innate Immunity
Second Line of Defense: we born with it
52- Innate Immunity
Innate Immunity Components
1st line: skin and mucous membrane OUTSIDE
2nd line: fever, incamma7on (pain, redness), phagocytosis, interferon, complement, NKc INSIDE
3rd line: Adap7ve immunity ESPECIFIC
53- Innate Immunity
NKCs: They mature in the bone marrow, as they mature enter the bloodstream in search of
abnormal cells (immune surveillance).
Sec5on 10
54- Urinary Bladder
Urinary Bladder Epithelium: transi7onal epithelium
55- Kidneys
Renal Faey: the faby 7ssue keeps de kidneys in place.
56- Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidneys
Nephron: the func7onal unit of the kidneys
57- Renal Corpuscle
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Renal Corpuscle components: consis7ng of the glomerular capsule and the glomerulus.
58- Hormonal Control
Angiotensin II: s7mulates the produc7on of aldosterone (retain sodium and release potassium)
59- Water Reabsorp5on
ADH: retaining water and vasoconstric7on of the blood vessels, increase blood pressure, if ADH
levels are low it can be a sign of diabetes insipidus
Sec5on 11
60- Electrolyte Balance
Na/Water balance
Aldosterone: retains sodium and water, release potassium
ANH/ANP: release sodio and water.
61- Water Balance
Hormonal Regula5on: depends on sodium balance, and the two are regulated simultaneously.
62- Acid-Base Balance
Blood pH
Acidosis<7.35. 7.45> Alkalosis TOME FOTO DE ESTO
63- Acid base balance
Respiratory acidosis: ver foto
64- Electrolyte balance
Main electrolytes: potassium inside the cell, Sodium outside the cell
65- Acid base balance
Respiratory alkalosis: ver foto
66- Electrolyte balance
Ca balance: calcitonin decrease, parathyroid increase
67- Acid base balance
Metabolic acidosis: ver foto
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Sec5on 12
68- Uterus
Uterine func5on: the site of embryonic and fetal development and of exchange between the
maternal and embryonic/fetal bloodstream. The site of implanta7on of the embryo, and most
of Yber contracts when deliver de baby.
69- Male external genitalia
Cremaster and master muscle: when this muscle contracts during sexual arousal or in response
to cool temperature, it tenses and pulls the testes closer to the body.
70- Glands of the male reproduc5ve system
Seminal glands: most of the semen is produced in the seminal gland, and the sperm in the
71- Regulatory hormones
GnRH: when s7mulated by GnRH from the hypothalamus, the anterior lobe of the pituitary
gland releases LH (ovula7on (aDer ovula7on the corpus luteum produces estrogen and
progesterone) and s7mulates testosterone produc7on) and FSH (follicle matura7on and sperm
72- Uterine tubes
Uterine tubes func5on: is the place when fer7liza7on occur
73- Male Sexual Func5on
Parasympathe5c s5mula5on: s7mulates the erec7on
74- Hormonal Regula5on of the female reproduc5ve cycle
LH: LH (ovula7on (aDer ovula7on the corpus luteum produces estrogen and progesterone) and
s7mulates testosterone produc7on
75- Duct System of the male
Duct system components: epididymis, ductus deferent, ejaculatory duct, urethra
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