Uploaded by Jansie Kyle Magbanua

SHS Specialized Creative-Nonfiction

Grade 12
Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall
subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior
approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created
shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency
or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of
Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos,
brand names, trademarks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their
respective copyright holders. Every effort has been exerted to locate and
seek permission to use these materials from their respective copyright
owners. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim
ownership over them.
This module was carefully examined and revised in accordance with the
standards prescribed by the DepEd Region 4A and Curriculum and Learning
Management Division CALABARZON . All parts and sections of the module are
assured not to have violated any rules stated in the Intellectual Property Rights
for learning standards.
The Editors
Grade 12
Regional Office Management and Development Team: Job S. Zape, Jr.,
Fe M. Ong-Ongowan, Lhovie A. Cauilan, Eugene Ray F. Santos
August Jamora, Van Russel A. Robles
Creative Nonfiction
PIVOT IV-A Learner’s Material
Quarter 1, Version 1.0
First Edition, 2020
Published by: Department of Education Region IV-A CALABARZON
Regional Director: Wilfredo E. Cabral
Assistant Regional Director: Ruth L. Fuentes
Guide in Using PIVOT Learner’s Material
For the Parents/Guardian
This module aims to assist you, dear parents, guardians, or
siblings of the learners, to understand how materials and activities
are used in the new normal. It is designed to provide the information,
activities, and new learning that learners need to work on.
Activities presented in this module are based on the Most
Essential Learning Competencies (MELCs) in Creative Nonfiction as
prescribed by the Department of Education.
Further, this learning resource hopes to engage the learners in
guided and independent learning activities at their own pace and
time. Furthermore, this also aims to help learners acquire the needed
21st century skills while taking into consideration their needs and
You are expected to assist the child in the tasks and ensure the
learner’s mastery of the subject matter. Be reminded that learners
have to answer all the activities in their own notebook.
For the Learners
The module is designed to suit your needs and interests using
the IDEA instructional process. This will help you attain the
prescribed grade-level knowledge, skills, attitude, and values at your
own pace outside the normal classroom setting.
The module is composed of different types of activities that are
arranged according to graduated levels of difficulty—from simple to
complex. You are expected to answer all activities on separate
sheets of paper and submit the outputs to your respective teachers
on the time and date agreed upon.
Parts of the LM
What I need to
What is new
What I know
What is in
What is it
What is more
What I can do
What else I can
What I
What I
The teacher utilizes appropriate strategies in presenting
the MELC and desired learning outcomes for the day
or week, purpose of the lesson, core content and
relevant samples. This allows teachers to maximize
learners awareness of their own knowledge as regards
content and skills required for the lesson
The teacher presents activities, tasks , contents of
value and interest to the learners. This shall expose the
learners on what he/she knew, what he /she does not
know and what she/he wanted to know and learn.
Most of the activities and tasks must simply and
directly revolve around the concepts to develop and
master the skills or the MELC.
The teacher allows the learners to be engaged in
various tasks and opportunities in building their KSA’s
to meaningfully connect their learnings after doing the
tasks in the D. This part exposes the learner to real life
situations /tasks that shall ignite his/ her interests to
meet the expectation, make their performance
satisfactory or produce a product or performance
which lead him/ her to understand fully the skills and
concepts .
The teacher brings the learners to a process where
they shall demonstrate ideas, interpretation, mindset or
values and create pieces of information that will form
part of their knowledge in reflecting, relating or using it
effectively in any situation
or context. This part
encourages learners in creating conceptual structures
giving them the avenue to integrate new and old
Theme and Techniques
Focusing on formal elements and writing techniques, including
autobiography and blogging, among others, the subject introduces the reading
and writing of creative nonfiction as a literary form. The subject
develops in you the skills in reading and critical and creative thinking that will
help you to be imaginative readers and writers.
Understanding the theme and techniques used in a literary piece is critical
to deciphering an author's message. It serves as a jigsaw puzzle that should be
arranged in order to attain the coherence and logical arrangement of the text.
Theme serves as the golden thread that weaves the storyline and its elements.
Learning the techniques and theme in nonfiction helps you weave your own
nonfiction piece.
In this lesson, you are expected to analyze the theme and techniques used
in a particular text. Techniques and theme will be discussed in this lesson for you
to be well-equipped in analyzing a given text.
Writing about personal experiences, real people, or events focusing on facts
instead of inventive substance, nonfiction can be a wellspring of instructive and
real readings.
Much the same as creative writing and other composing sorts, creative
nonfiction drives you to find and get subjects and points being conveyed by
writers utilizing their methods and styles recorded as hard copy.
Try to activate your prior knowledge about the elements and techniques of
creative nonfiction. Are they just the same with the elements and techniques that
you have learned in your Creative Writing class?
Learning Task 1: Using the the K-W-L chart, write down on the first column (K)
the things you know about “Creative Nonfiction”, while on the second column,
write the things that you want to learn about the said word. Leave the last column
blank as you will do this on the latter part of the lesson. Do this in your
What I Know
What I want to know
What I Learned
Learning Task 2: Write your understanding on the elements below. Tell if you
think that the elements are still part of creative nonfiction. Do this in your
Elements of
Your Definition
Is it still present in
Creative Nonfiction?
Point of View
Learning Task 3: Among the stories, reading selections or films that you have
read or watched, can you give the top three themes that you usually encounter?
Do this in your notebook.
Nonfiction is a wide kind of compositions that incorporates all books that
are not established in an anecdotal account. Creative nonfiction can be classified
in history and biography; it might be instructional; it can offer publication and
humor; and it can mull over philosophical requests. If a book is not delved in a
made-up story, by then it is certified.
The essence of originality are well-used in evident occasions, numerous
true to life stories offer unequivocally obstinate editorial on those genuine
occasions. In a short concept, nonfiction deals with reality.
Moreover, nonfiction or literary narrative nonfiction is a genre of writing
that uses creative ways on utilizing literary styles and techniques with the
springboard of factual and accurate narratives.
Creative nonfiction contrasts with other nonfiction, such as technical
writing or journalism, which is likewise established in exact certainty however is
not essentially written in support of its specialty. As a classification, imaginative
true to life is still moderately youthful, and is just starting to be investigated with
the equivalent basic examination given to fiction and verse.
When you are reading or encountering stories that are based from reality or
sources came from the truth, you can simply tell that it is creative nonfiction.
◦Fact. The core of nonfiction is fact. Factual information shall be included
in the piece and not a made up information.
◦Extensive research. Conducting and gathering information through
research provide accurate and reliable information that you may use in
writing your nonfiction write-up.
◦Reportage/reporting. Documenting the gathered information like
interview and reports helps you keep records and files for future usages.
◦Personal experience and personal opinion. Since the main source of
contents are based from the personal experiences and personal insights of
the writer, it makes an easy way to write a piece.
◦Explanation/Exposition. Explaining the story to the reader is expected to
attain the objectives of the piece.
◦Essay format. The outputs in creative nonfiction are often in essay format.
Examples: Procedural Essay, Personal Essay, Literary essays, descriptive
Creative nonfiction is the literature of fact. Yet, creative nonfiction writer
utilizes many of the literary devices of fiction writing. The following is a list of the
most common literary devices that writers incorporate into their nonfiction
◦Storytelling/narration. The goal, challenges and obstacles, a turning
point, and resolution of the story shall be delivered spontaneously to help
the readers understand the flow of the story.
◦Character/Characterization. In a nonfiction story, characters are also
important. The main character serves as the core or central idea of the
storyline. The story revolves to the experiences of the main character with
the help of the other characters.
◦Setting, atmosphere and scene. The writer creates scenes that are action
-oriented; include dialogue; and contain vivid descriptions.
◦Plot and plot structure. These are the main events that make up the
story. In a personal essay, there might be only one event. In a memoir,
there are often several significant events.
◦Figurative language. The use of figurative languages helps the writer to
provide aesthetics to the piece. It gives vibrant effect to the story.
◦Imagery. The use of different sensory images helps also to add color in
writing a nonfiction piece.
◦Angle/Point of view. Most of the time nonfiction adheres with the use of
First Person Point of View since the experiences are being told.
◦Dialogue. This can help to make the story run within the characters.
◦Theme. It is the central idea or universal truth presented in the work.
The 5’Rs of Creative Nonfiction
Lee Gutkind, who is a writer, professor, and expert on creative nonfiction,
wrote an essay called “The Five R’s of Creative Nonfiction.” In this essay, he
identified five essential elements of creative nonfiction. These include:
1. Creative nonfiction uses a real life elements. The writer creates concepts of a
story using the vital and real information about the subject which can be
associated on close attributes of the real experiences.
2. Creative nonfiction lets the writer to engage on his personal reflection about
the subject. After gathering information, the writer needs to scrutinize and
analyze the gathered information. Assessing and considering his ideologies and
beliefs. Through this, it will help the writer to be more factual based.
3. Creative nonfiction instructs the author to do a complete research. The author
needs to find out relevant and vital information about the subject. The writer
needs to finish investigating and weighing information that will be included in
the story. Finishing auxiliary examination will lead to create a complete and
substantial contents. For an instance, looking into an individual diary, or
meeting a companion or relative, to guarantee that the data is honest and
4. The fourth aspect of creative nonfiction is reading. Reading while conducting
research is not enough. The writer must recall the components through
reading to improve and make some modifications.
5. The final element of creative nonfiction is writing. Writing imaginative true to
life is both a workmanship and specialty. The craft of inventive true to life
necessitates that the essayist utilizes his gifts, senses, innovative capacities,
and creative mind to compose paramount imaginative true to life.
Types of Creative Nonfiction
Creative nonfiction always deals on reality. Reality can be about using the
topics like the use of individual encounter, occasion, or issue in the open eye.
There are different classes or categories to consider in creative nonfiction such as
the individual article, journal, and life account.
Personal Essay. The writer uses information that is based on personal
experience or a single event, which leads in significant personal meaning or a
lesson learned that he encountered. The writer uses the first person “I.”
Memoir. The writer creates a real story within a time or period of life, one that
contributed a significant personal meaning and truth. The writer uses the first
person “I” in the story.
Literary journalism essay. The writer creates an output on an issue or topic
using the understood literary devices, such as the elements of fiction and
figurative languages.
Autobiography. The writer writes his/her own life story, from birth to the
present, using the first person “I.”
Travel Writing. The writer creates article narration about travel using literary
devices and figurative languages.
Food writing. The writer crafts stories about food and cuisine using literary
techniques that mat lead to a review and recommendation.
Profiles. The writer constructs life stories of people using literary devices.
Green (2018) defined theme as a thread that runs throughout a whole
book. When done well, the theme relates to every subject and story and piece of
advice. It ties everything together.
Sometimes, themes are obvious. In Harry Potter, there are treats battling
baddies, and the primary subject is acceptable versus evil. It likewise has subjects
of bigotry and correspondence.
In a literary text, theme is the broader message of the story. In nonfiction
informational texts, the central ideas are the most essential ideas.
Central Ideas. These are the most essential ideas of a text; the key points the
author wants to make! The BIG idea.
Nonfiction works use supporting details to develop central ideas. Details
within the text support and develop the central idea in the following ways:
Prove the concept since you must consider reality;
Explain the central idea of the story;
Define the concept;
Show some examples and illustrations; and
Give additional information.
Determining Central Ideas
Often, the central idea is directly stated near the beginning of the text.
However, readers may also have to infer the central idea by determining what
point (message/idea) all the details come together to support.
The main ideas of individual paragraphs will lead to the central idea of the
whole text.
Constructing Paragraphs in Nonfiction Text
Each paragraph has its own main idea. The main idea of each paragraph is
used to support the central idea of the whole text.
The main idea of a paragraph must be associated with supporting
information and evidences to strengthen the main idea.
The details of the piece shall go along with the central idea to attain unity
and coherence.
Delivering paragraphs shall consider the strength and weakness of the
ideas being imparted in the story. Reviewing the central idea will lead you to
paragraphs that are substantial and purposive.
Ponder with Ideas
Writing creative nonfiction is tied in with recounting to genuine stories. You
can recount to an anecdote about yourself, making expositions about close to
home encounters. You can likewise expound on others, spots and occasions on
the planet.
In nonfiction, you compose valid and verifiable stories, not fiction. You will
need to introduce reality and realities in a convincing, engaging, and noteworthy
way with the goal that others will be enlivened to peruse your story. To compose
any of these types of imaginative true to life, you have numerous procedures to
look over, e.g. scene, synopsis, individual reflection.
In a blog of Hood (2012), he identified the toolbox of techniques that writers
are expected to use when writing creative nonfiction.
Topic and Question. In prewriting, you need to choose a topic and then
try to link possible questions to be answered. In doing this, it helps you
to focus on the areas that you intend to highlight, For instance, in
choosing a topic on a travelogue, you need to formulate questions like
How to get there? What are the amenities or activities that can be done?
The transportation fares and routes.
Narrative Structure or Shape of a Story. Narrative structure lets you to
discover within the way on delivering the story through narration,
meaning that you discover the details of the story and its structure as
you write. In creative nonfiction, there are five popular narrative
structures or shapes
Narrative structure: Telling the story chronologically, from beginning to
Braided Structure: Telling a story by weaving or combining two,
sometimes three, narratives or stories.
Collage: Using a thematic and segmented approach that combines a
quotation or two, poem, scene, metaphor, simile, allusion,
personification, image, vignette, anecdote, a short, short, true story, with
an epiphany.
Frame: Telling a story by opening with a particular scene or reflecting
and closing with a particular scene or reflection.
Narrative with Flashback: Telling a story using scene, summary,
reflection, and flashbacks.
As well, the you can experiment with the narrative structure, resulting in a
new structure or shape.
Distinctive Voice, Style, and Intimate Point of View. All good writers have a
distinctive voice, which is the persona of the writer expressed on the age.
Good writers also have a unique style. Additionally have a one of a kind
style. An author's style is his/her demeanor of persona on the page. It
incorporates decision of expression, sentence assortment, and tone, perspective,
utilization of illustration, and other abstract gadgets. The tone of the keeping in
touch with itself is in every case well disposed, conversational. Stories are
regularly told utilizing the main individual perspective.
Detail and Description. Creative writing is often a form of discovery. As you
compose, you review the subtleties, the recollections, the pictures, the felt feeling,
the more profound importance. You'll review from memory critical, specific
subtleties and afterward thinks of them down. You'll make distinctive depictions
with solid, explicit, and specific subtleties. You don't need to incorporate
everything about, those that are huge or significant. Frequently you'll utilize
tactile symbolism, language that conjures the feeling of sight, smell, taste, contact,
or hearing. The reason for including subtlety is to reproduce the involvement with
the psyche of the readers.
Scene and Summary. One of the most important techniques of creative nonfiction
is writing in scenes. A scene recreates the experience of the writer for the reader. A
scene evokes. To write a scene, you must show the reader what is happening. A
scene often includes:
Setting - time and place of the story
Action - something that happens
Dialogue - something being said
Vivid description - concrete and specific details
Imagery - language that invokes reader’s sense of sight, smell, taste, touch,
Point of View - first, second, third persons
Figurative language - simile, metaphor, etc.
Beginning, middle and ending - a scene has a beginning, middle and end
Summary involves telling the reader what happened. Telling means to
summarize and to compress, leaving out the details and descriptions. Telling
is explaining.
You should create scenes of important events, such as for a setback and
the turning point.
Scene and summary are used for all types of creative nonfiction.
Techniques of Fiction. You’ll also rely on the techniques of fiction to tell a true
story, including:
Setting-time and place and context, which provides the backdrop to the
true story
 Narrative Arc ( inciting incident, conflict and setback, climax, epiphany,
 Point of View- first person “I”, Second Person “You”, third person “He/
 Character development- Developing character through action, dialogue,
 Vivid Description-descriptions that are concrete and specific
 Use of imagery-literal imagery through description; figurative imagery with
simile or metaphor
 Theme-the meaning of the story
The narrative arc is used to write a personal narrative essay, sometimes a
memoir. The opinion essay, meditative essay, and collage essay don’t require a
narrative. These sorts of essays tend to be structured around a theme.
Poetic Devices-Figurative Language. You’ll often use one or more of the following poetic devices to write creative nonfiction:
Assonance and alliteration
Experienced Writers often use any of the above to write creative nonfiction.
Simile and metaphor are the tools of choice.
Personal Reflection. In most types of creative nonfiction, you’ll share personal
reflection with the reader. These can include:
Personal thoughts and feelings
Personal perspective
stream of consciousness
Personal refection is required to write a memoir. It is also used to write a personal
narrative, opinion, meditative, and lyrical essay. Personal reflection can also be
incorporated into literary journalism.
Word Choice/Diction. Check to see that you use language in a fresh and
original way, making note of connotation, the implied meaning of the word. As
well, selecting words with the best meaning. Meaning refers to diction. Avoid
using clichés and jargon.
Sentence Variety (Length and structure). Use short and long, and a variety of
syntax to create a personal essay, memoir, or literary journalism. Sentence variety
Intentional Fragment. e.g. A pen. Pad of paper. Time, lots of time. Experimentation. A creative mind. These are the requirements of creative writing.
Simple, compound, complex, compound-complex sentences
Parallel structure in sentences, e.g. I require a pen, pad of paper, spare time,
experimentation, and a creative mind, to write creatively, to write poetry, to
write fiction, to write a personal essay, to write anything.
Declarative (statement of fact), Interrogative (ask a question), exclamatory
(emphatic) sentences
Inverted sentence. E.g. The book of poetry he wrote…The film, the script, the
special effects, the story, I enjoyed.
Lose sentence and periodic sentences. When writing a periodic sentence, the
main idea and clause are at the end of the sentence. For a lose sentence, the
main idea and independent clause are at the beginning of the sentence.
Lyrical Language. Sometimes, a writer will use a lyrical style to express emotion
and evoke emotion in the reader. This is often the case when writing a lyrical
essay. The writing style is based on the following:
repetition of words, phrases, clauses;
parallel structure;
rhyme, both rhyme and internal rhyme;
alliteration and assonance; and
sensory imagery.
Learning Task 4: Write which technique is being used on the line. There may be
more than one correct answer as you may write more than one answer. In your
notebook, explain how you know your answer. Slashes represent line breaks.
Example: This falling spray of snow-flakes is / a handful of dead Februaries
What technique is used? Personification and Alliteration
1. The pans clattered and banged the tapping of the wooden spoon tap, tap, tap
What technique is used? __________________________________________________
Alliteration, Rhyme, Onomatopoeia, Idiom, Simile, Metaphor, Hyperbole, or Personification
2. On those rainy summer days, I had nothing fun to do and could only sit inside,
staring out at the rain like a Dickensian orphan.
What technique is used? __________________________________________________
Alliteration, Rhyme, Onomatopoeia, Idiom, Simile, Metaphor, Hyperbole, or Personification
3. We hit the beach early on Saturday, the last day of our trip. As soon as I got out
of the car, I smelled the salty air and heard waves roaring in my ears.
What technique is used? __________________________________________________
Alliteration, Rhyme, Onomatopoeia, Imagery, Simile, Metaphor, Hyperbole
Learning Task 5: Using the template, give your comments and observations on
the 5Rs of creative nonfiction incorporated in the text below. Write your answers in
your notebook.
Festive colors everywhere, people who confidently sing despite of being out
of tune of their rented karaoke, mouth-watering delicacies, busy streets and
entertaining contests. These reflect on how Filipinos celebrate their Fiesta.
Aside from being hospitable, Filipinos are also known because of their
culture and traditions especially when it comes to Fiesta celebration. There are
various reasons why they have their festivals. One of the common reasons for the
extravagant kinds of celebrations is to give tribute to their patron saints or any god
or deity they believe in. Another is the way of gratitude for a bountiful harvest.
There are also provinces which perform rituals in festivals to ask for something like
Festivals are not only for delight nor for gratitude; it is also an avenue to
practice unity within the community. It cans also serve as reunion for the families
who have not seen their relatives for a long time.
The various ways of celebrations have a great role in the lives of the
Filipinos for it sparks creativity, reflects the values and cultures. Preservation of
the traditions like Fiesta shall be manifested in every generation for it is indeed
beautiful scenery to see.
5 Rs of Creative Nonfiction
Comments and Observations
Real Life
Learning Task 6: Go back with the text in the previous learning task. Identify the
imageries used in the text. Use the column below to group the imageries. Do this
in your notebook.
Learning Task 7: Analyze the theme and techniques used in the text below. Use
the template to do the analysis. Do this in your notebook.
Oh my… Omang
The Erudites
It’s already five in the morning. Kring… Kring... Kring..
I was lying on my single bed, feeling its coziness and the coldness of my
room when I realized that I was no longer in Rizal because I decided to take my
last shot before my summer has ended. So, I decided to rise up early so I could
accomplish lots of my activities.
As I unveiled the beige curtain of my cottage’s window, I witnessed a
picturesque view of Caramoan. It was intensively heaven. There were varieties of
green trees, ornamentals on the right side, it seemed like a forest somewhere in
Arizona but it was not.
On the other side, I saw the God-made shore covered with heavenly white
sand with reachable horizon at the end. My eyes were feasted on the wonderful
sceneries, it was magical for me.
I immediately started my day by walking taking to the well-known, Omang
Cave which is few meters away from my cabin in Gota, one of Caramoan’s finest
resorts. I never felt the distance because of the place’s ambiance and atmosphere. I
could also hear the monkeys seemed like talking with each other, chatting about
us who were strangers in their place.
As I reached the cave together with the other tourists, I wore my protective
gears especially my helmet before I entered to the prominent cave of Caramoan.
It seemed that the cave is like a dark hole leading to Hades’ kingdom. I
hurriedly turned on my flashlight to see the wonders of the cave. Upon entering
the cave, I saw thousands of bats, screeching and screaming which seemed like
they saw hunters and tried to fly in different directions. It feels like there’s a thin
air passing through the narrow path. I could hardly breathe. But as we continue
trekking the rough and soggy floor of limestones, we embraced the fresh air
touching our exhausted bodies.
As I reached the other side of the cave, Sohotan River surprised us with its
tranquility and sacredness. We decided to take kayaking for us to reach the other
side of the beach.
At exactly nine in the morning, I went back to the resort and started eating
my breakfast and waiting for the telephone to RING once again… Kring… Kring…
Kring… to get ready for my next adventure here in Caramoan.
Elements and
Narrative Structure
Distinctive Voice,
Style, and Intimate
Point of View
Detail and Description
Scene and Summary
Techniques of Fiction
Poetic DevicesFigurative Language
Personal Reflection
Word Choice / Diction
Sentence Variety
(Length and structure)
Lyrical Language
Different Literary Elements
The five (5) Rs in Creative Nonfiction engage you that reality is considered as
the core of creative nonfiction. In attaining reality, you have to associate or use
one’s experience to deliver a content or a story. In creating a creative nonfiction
output, the word creativity shall be also embodied in the text. The use of literary
elements will be a great advantage for you to start writing your creative nonfiction
outputs. Knowing the literary elements serves as your weapon to create a wellwritten text in nonfiction genre.
In this lesson, you are expected to create samples of different literary
elements based on one’s experience like the use of imageries, figures of speech in
sharing your emotions.
Literary elements are information that you have been encountering since
your elementary days. These are elements that help the author to express their
thoughts, ideas, feelings and emotions in the most aesthetic ways and sometimes
also used to conceal and to lighten up the choice of words.
Learning Task 1: Recall the literary elements that you remember. Using the
template below, provide five (5) literary elements together with their definitions and
examples. Do this in your notebook.
Literary Elements
Learning Task 2: Think of possible sources of contents about your personal
experiences that you may use to create outputs using literary elements. Write five
(5) personal experiences in your notebook.
Learning Task 3: With your prior knowledge on literary elements and the possible
sources of contents about your personal experiences, write on the provided table
below the possible literary elements that can be used in telling your personal
experiences in the most creative way. Do this in your notebook.
Possible Literary
Elements to be used
Personal Experiences
Knowing your prior knowledge about literary elements and the possible
sources of contents using your personal experiences will help you create your own
samples of literary elements based on your experiences.
You have known already that literary elements are the things that all
literatures—whether it is a news article, a book, or a poem—absolutely have to
have. Just like a house, the elements might be arranged slightly different. But at
the end of the day, they are usually all present and accounted for. Literary
elements are the fundamental building blocks of writing. They play an important
role in helping us write, read and understand literature .
Hartgers (2020) defined literary elements as writing techniques used to
create artistic special effects, that immerse the reader into a narrative, story, or
text. Literary elements are specific ways that storytellers use words in specific
patterns to tell their stories. They are considered as main tools in a writer’s
toolbox. Popular literary devices include allusion, diction, foreshadowing, imagery,
metaphors, similes and personification.
For your craft not to be dull and exhausting, the utilization of scholarly
components can be contrasted with flavors which give tastes, enhances your
crafts. These are fixings that will give various commitments to make your dish a
total and tasty one.
It is essential to utilize literary devices in your narration to improve your
describing method. As you become a solid author and work to persistently improve
your composing advancement, the utilization of abstract components and different
procedures will make you a productive essayist and narrator
But if you take a look at most successful writers, both modern authors and
classic authors, you will find that remarkable writers use literary elements in
their work.
Here are the main reasons to use literary devices in your writing:
1. Include special effects in writing. Some portion of appearing, and not telling,
through your story includes the utilization of literary devices and different
strategies in your narration.
2. Establish connection with your audience. You can bring the reader into your
story, and urge them to connect with the content. Literary devices can
stimulate the reader’s mind, and giving them a deeper reading experience.
3. Interests hooks the reader. Without literary devices, there is a huge
possibility that the story will be dull and boring. By incorporating literary
techniques in your writing, you add vivid color and interests to your words, and
avoid being a dull.
4. Use abstract information. More common in fiction stories, literary devices can
help the author convey abstract concepts or information to the reader. They
can help communicate the work’s overall meaning or theme, without the writer
having to directly state the purpose.
5. Establish clear and vivid pictures with your words. Literary devices like
imagery can help to create visual pictures or imageries in the reader’s
Writers utilize literary devices to improve their inventive articulation and
add creative energy to their composition, which gives an exceptional reader's
Learn how to turn into an author by contemplating the greats – the more
writing you read, the more you will see exactly how often famous scholars depend
on artistic components to fortify their composition.
Some common reasons why authors use literary devices are to:
1. Illustrate the storyline;
2. Clarify certain points or concepts;
3. Convey abstract information;
4. Draw attention to important pieces of the story or topic;
5. Engage and captivate readers;
6. Encourage readers to interact with the story a little deeper; and
7. Enhance the reader’s experience.
Hartgers (2020) also provided some examples of literary elements that you
may use to make your literary outputs flavorful and vibrant.
Common literary devices
The most common literary devices used in literature, art and everyday
language are similes, metaphors, personification, hyperbole, and symbolism.
Numerous individuals do not have the foggiest idea about genuine names of
abstract gadgets, so they do not understand these components when they
experience them in regular circumstances.
While these abstract components are most regularly utilized, there are
various different gadgets that are alive and utilized by essayists.
Reasons to Use Literary Elements in Writing
The number one rule to writing is to “show, don’t tell”.
You have to illustrate the story to your readers. Using literary elements will
clearly help the readers to establish the scenarios of the stories. Utilizing these
elements will help you to have vivid illustrations. Readers do not want a story to be
told but rather to see the storyline by showing it to them. Readers want to know
what the characters perceptions, emotions, and what the characters see in
the story and how would they react on these.
This is where the use of literary elements come into play. By utilizing
literary element techniques in your literary outputs, you will form an
interesting and unforgettable experience to your readers.
Literary Elements
A literary device that refers
to external people, events,
or things. These are people
who are not part of the story
“Don't act like a Romeo in
front of her.” – “Romeo” is
a reference to
Shakespeare's Romeo, a
passionate lover of Juliet,
in “Romeo and Juliet”.
Alliteration is a device
where an initial consonant
sounds is being repeated in
the words of a phrase or a
I saw thousands of bats,
screeching and screaming
which seemed like they
saw hunters and tried to
fly in different directions.
Anaphora is a repetition of
the same word or phrase at
the beginning of successive
It was the best of times, it
was the worst of times
during the times of challenges like this pandemic
Even if you are learning how to become a non-fiction author, you will
want to use literary devices because they are an effective way to captivate readers
on any topic.
Literary Elements
The specific choice of words
used helps determine the
style in which the person is
speaking or writing. It can be
a formal, informal, colloquial, slang or poetic.
Anes ganap? It’s the bonggacious fiesta ditetshiwa
in the Philippines. Filipino
People are united and the
whole nation is into it.
There are so many anechanech like the colorful
decorations and there are
variety of foods. Anes pa?
Let’s find more-more ganap.
a mild or indirect word or
expression substituted for
one considered to be too
harsh or blunt when referring to something unpleasant or embarrassing.
No one wants to be with
him because his attitude
is unattractive and substandard to women’s
The repetition of a word or
phrase at the end of a
I want the best, and we
need the best, and we
deserve the best.
It is an interjected scene that
takes the narrative back in
time from the current point
in the story.
In a story about a girl who
is afraid of heights, there
is a flashback to a time
when she fell off of the top
of a playground as a
young child.
A clue at what will happen
next, or at some point, in the
It was a cold stormy night
that would introduce her
to eternal darkness,
forever changing the
course of her life.
Extreme exaggeration of a
real event or situation.
I’m so hungry, I can eat a
whole cow.
A literary device that appeals
to the reader’s physical
As I unveiled the beige
curtain of my cottage’s
window, I witnessed a
picturesque view of
Caramoan. It was
intensively heaven.
Literary Elements
When a writer places two
contrasting concepts, people, or events directly sideby-side in a sentence or
In the classic movie The
Godfather, when baptism
scenes were juxtaposed
with murder scenes.
when a recurrent element
(such as an image, sound,
or concept) is found
throughout a story, to help
develop the theme, or central message.
The presence of older female villains in Disney
An implicit comparison between two or more things.
Your brother is an angel
for me.
An explicit comparison between two or more things
using the words "like" or
My love for you is like this
river flow. It won’t stop.
When a writer gives inanimate objects or inhuman
beings (like animals) human
characteristics or attributes.
Leaves dance with the
A word or phrase that conveys the sound of something.
Kring… Kring…Kring…
The telephone rings.
A combination of contrasting, or opposite, words.
The experiences that we
had were really bitter
sweet memories to us.
A sentence or a phrase that
appears contradictory, but
implies some kind truth.
Keep your friends close,
and your enemies closer.
Literary Elements
Repetition of vowel sounds
in every word in a line or a
When we had our
vacation, the teachers
reached the beach
concert of The Meech
Repetition of consonant
sounds within the words in
a line or a sentence.
The female, more than
my thumb, are
shimmering in their
maroon dresses.
Learning Task 4: Read and analyze the statements below. Identify the literary
element used in each item. Write your answers in your notebook.
1. The dark, dark liver – love it, love it and the beat and beating heart, love that
too. More than eyes or feet. More than lungs that have yet to draw free air.
More than your life-holding womb and your life-giving private parts, hear me
now, love your heart (from The Beloved by Toni Morrison).
2. Along the roads, laurels, viburnum and alder, great ferns and wildflowers
delighted the traveler's eye through much of the year (from Silent Spring by
Rachel Carson).
3. The salty taste of soy sauce complements the slightly sweet and meaty taste of
Dim sums fillings. The size of Dim sum is just right to make you crave for more
which will be good if it’ll be used in a business. (from Dim Sum, A Taste That
Gets Into Your Heart by Cristina Kyla Villagen).
4. 'Cause baby, you're a firework
C'mon, show 'em what you're worth
Make 'em go "Aah, aah, aah"
As you shoot across the sky (from Firework by Katy Perry)
5. A forest fire was making its way along the tinderbox ridges above them, flaring
and shimmering against the overcast like the northern lights. Cold as it was he
stood there a long time. The color of it moved something in him long forgotten.
(from The Road by Cormac McCarthy)
Learning Task 5: Read the text below with understanding and appreciation. After
reading the text, proceed to the next learning task.
The Urban Cyclist
David Hood
It’s a sweltering summer day in the city. You’ve decided to embrace cycling,
make it part of your exercise regimen. So you’re attired in a blue helmet, dark
sunglasses, yellow jersey, black shorts, light-weight cycling shoes, ready to ride for
the first time.
Sitting on the hard seat, gripping the handle bars, pressing the peddles,
balancing the mountain bike, as if a man on a high-wire, you begin three hours of
One hour into the ride, your body’s heated up like a furnace. You begin
perspiring like you’re sitting in a sauna. You take a few sips of bottled water,
peddle onward.
For a couple of miles, you cycle quickly on a flat stretch of street, close to
the curb, past rows of parked cars, past condos sprouting like dandelions, past
house of all shapes and sizes, past the occasional park with a playground, past a
few bus stops, a gas station.
Like someone navigating a minefield, you peer in all directions, looking for
potential hazards— discarded pop cans, sewer grates, jay walking pedestrians, pot
holes, a motorist drifting too close, as if distracted, perhaps texting on a
You cycle past a row of parked cars. Someone who’s not paying attention,
opens their car door, blocking your path. You quickly look back, detect empty
space, steer the handle bars left, veering your bike away from danger.
As you cycle, you observe an endless number of trucks, buses, cars,
occasional motorcycle whizzing past, like they’re in a rush to some place
important. Sometimes you pass another cyclist peddling slowly, like someone on a
leisurely stroll.
A mile up the street, you zigzag between two rows of cars stopped at a red
light. When the light turns green, the cars accelerate as if beginning a race. You
smell the stench of exhaust, cough a few times, then balance the bike, sit on the
seat, begin to peddle for another mile, when you’re greeted by a steep hill.
Rather than dismount, walk your bike to the top, like you’ve given up, you
gear down into low, peddle slowly, climbing the hill without stopping. Yet, you still
feel as if you’re carrying a backpack of fifty pounds.
At the top of the hill, you stop to catch your breath, look back, tell yourself
“I’ve climbed to the tip of a mountain.” Then you re-balance your bike, sit on the
seat, press on the peddles, descend the steep hill, feeling a cool breeze blowing in
your face, as if sitting on a swift-flying sailboat, catching the wind.
Returning to a flat stretch of street, where the traffic’s sparse, you cycle at a
leisurely pace, gaze at the strangers on the sidewalk, past a handicapped man in a
wheel chair, past a elderly woman walking her poodle, past a crowd waiting like
their bored at a bus stop, past the shopkeeper selling fresh fruit and vegetables.
You’re feeling relaxed, beginning to enjoy the exercise, when a motorist cuts
in front of your bike, without signalling, breaks to make a right turn on a green
light—you quickly squeeze the hand breaks.
You’re upper body’s propelled forward, out of the seat, over the top of the
handle bars, like someone shot out of a cannon. Yet, somehow you maintain your
grip, prevent yourself from falling onto the pavement. Another motorist behind,
honks his horn, then passes, yelling “Get off the busy street!”
You cycle for several more miles, your body perspiring, your energy
depleting, like a gas tank on empty. You drink the remaining bottle of water, cycle
back to your neighborhood, where it’s a friendly, quiet, peaceful place, where
there’s no moving automobiles, no trucks, no buses, no noise.
In front of your apartment, you dismount from the mountain bike, your legs
feeling stiff, your mouth parched, your face, jersey, shorts soaked with
perspiration. You’re feeling somewhat stressed, yet euphoric, high on endorphins,
like you’ve just run a marathon.
Learning Task 6: Directions: Using the template below, identify the literary
elements used in the text. Do this in your notebook.
Paragraph Number
Paragraph 1
Paragraph 2
Paragraph 3
Paragraph 4
Paragraph 5
Paragraph 6
Paragraph 7
Paragraph 8
Paragraph 9
Paragraph 10
Paragraph 11
Paragraph 12
Paragraph 13
Paragraph 14
Paragraph 15
Literary Elements
Learning Task 7: For many people, the summer of 2020 has been like no other in
recent memory. Public health restrictions caused by Coronavirus Disease 2019
(COVID-19) pandemic have led to cancelled festivals, concerts and other events.
Many vacations and large celebrations were limited or put on hold. Choose five (5)
literary elements. For each element, create three (3) statements using the selected
literary elements about the things that you have experienced or done for the past
five (5) months. Do this in your notebook.
Analyzing Factual/Nonfictional
Elements in the Texts
Analysis, particularly in literature, sets you to be well-equipped not just
with the subject but even in the application of what they have learned to real-life
situations. Literary analysis encourages you to branch beyond their own
experiences and beliefs, and in doing so it allows you to build empathy.
Understanding nonfictional elements helps you to work on with different tasks
dealing with literature.
In this lesson, you are expected to analyze factual/nonfictional elements
like plot, characters, characterization, point of view, angle, setting and
atmosphere, symbols and symbolisms, irony, figures of speech, dialogue, scene
and other elements and devices in texts.
At its foundation, literary analysis encourages critical thinking. While in a
writing class, you might be asked to dissect a particular piece from writing or
search for explicit components/associations inside a bit of writing as doing such
builds up a system for basic considerations outside writing.
Critical thinking is significant that it urges you to interface thoughts,
inspect for irregularities in thinking, take care of issues, and consider your own
convictions. Especially in the present culture, these characteristics are
indispensable outside of secondary school whether an understudy goes to school
or not–whether an understudy turns into an English major or not. Scholarly
literary analysis requests that you reinforce your basic reasoning skills.
Learning Task 1: Recall your previous subjects or activities where you were asked
to do an analysis. In your notebook, write the actions that you did in doing your
analysis task.
Learning Task 2: Using a concept map, map out your ideas about the areas to
deal with in doing a nonfictional literary analysis. Do this in your notebook.
Learning Task 3: Using the associated words from your previous learning task,
create two (2) sentences that will present your ideas about the topic.
In your notebook, write your questions that will be answered after taking the
Your sentences
Your Questions
The absence of nonfiction writing for young readers may have genuine
ramifications since verifiable education matters. Nonfiction materials set the pot
inside which readers can pick up information and abilities that empower them to
arrive at quality choices in all fields of life; keep away from artlessness conceived
of numbness; and take part in an educated and dynamic populace. Nonfiction is
the money with which open arrangements and enactment are sanctioned; cultural
requirements are talked about; social feel are characterized; life exercises are
passed on; logical discoveries and verifiable stories are communicated; and
matters of war and harmony are chosen.
Because you read something does not make it valid on the grounds that
something is verifiable does not mean it is exact. It is imperative to ponder what
you read.
Purdue University enumerated a number of writing prompts that can help
you analyze nonfiction texts in remote classrooms. Although these writing
prompts were written with a few common nonfiction genres in mind, they can be
easily adapted to work for other nonfiction genres (or even, with a little more work,
fiction genres).
General Analysis Prompts for Nonfiction Writing
1. What is the purpose of the text?
2. What kind of text is this? Is this appropriate for the writer’s purpose?
1. What structure does the text broadly follow?
2. How is the text laid out/organized?
3. Is the overall structural organization appropriate to the text type?
4. In your opinion, are there any sections that might improve the missing text?
1. Does the "flow" or progression of ideas in this text seem smooth and logical?
2. Can you identify any clear instances of transitional or connective elements in
the text?
3. Is there an appropriate variety of these transitional/connective elements?
1. What other interesting or unusual language features do you see in the text?
2. In your opinion, does the text demonstrate a varied vocabulary, or is it too dry
and repetitive?
What is your overall impression of the text? Why?
Narrative Nonfiction Writing
1. What is the story about? What is the main topic of the text?
2. Who is the main character? Who are the other important characters in the
3. Where does this story take place? How does the place influence the storyline or
sequence of events?
4. Are there any conflicts/problems in the story?
5. How does the conflict progress? Do things get worse or better?
6. How does the conflict get resolved?
7. What are the most emotionally-charged parts of the story?
8. How would you have reacted differently if you were the main character?
9. Do you remember any similar series of events you experienced?
10. What was the most memorable part of your own experience?
Informational Reports
1. What is the main topic of this report?
2. Is the overall purpose of the report clear? What would the author like us to do
with this information?
3. How does the author start and end this report?
4. How efficiently did this report convey information to the reader?
5. What makes this report interesting/uninteresting?
6. What might the author have done differently to convey information more
7. What were you surprised to learn about the topic?
8. What other topics would this type of informational report be good for
9. What makes this type of writing different from narrative writing?
Argumentative Writing
 What is the author's main argument?
 What would the author like us to do, if anything?
 How effective was the argument, from your point of view?
 Do you have any prior beliefs or opinions that might affect how persuasive you
perceived the argument to be? What about other readers who are likely to read
this piece?
 What would be some other good topics for this type of argumentative writing?
 What were the primary sources to support the author’s argument?
7. What makes this type of writing different from an informational report or a
By discussing key features of a local text and making simple inferences
about author's intentions and their own perceptions, using this framework, you
can arrive at a deeper understanding of the text.
Example topic
A travelogue of a
tourist who went
to Caramoan
Description of
Should personal travel be
banned during a
To provide
personal insights
and emotions
experiencing the
event or the
To provide
information about
the topic
To encourage the readers;
to present a position on
an significant and current
topic and support it
Establishing the
core points like
the WH elements
as introduction
of the narration.
Arrangement of
series of events
Introduction of
if available
about the topic
and its
Examples of
Thesis statement
of topic's
Introductory statement
history development or
background information,
news peg, stand about
the topic, personal
statement of opinion
Details or
supporting details
(1 idea 1
Supporting statements
about your stand, may
include evidences to
strengthen the stand
Wrapping up on
the concluding
Conclusion and
transitional like
first, second,
next, lastly and
words that
indicate time
Transitional for
additional and
objecting the
previous idea
Introducing each
argument may use
procedural transitional
Introducing the
conclusion using
concluding transitional
Use Past tense of
the verb to
discuss what
Dialogues may
be used.
Ideas shall be
presented in
present tense. The
use of formal
diction is
Diction shall be
considered especially with
the target audience.
Present tense shall be
used in presenting the
Learning Task 4: Read the narrative text below. Analyze the text by answering the
provided prompt questions about narrative genre. Do this in your notebook.
The Forgotten Ones
Mary Jade Dondonay
Have you ever felt how hard is it to be taken for granted? But what if the
society has totally forgotten you, would it be harder than it already is?
It was a humid afternoon Manila when after almost two weeks of working in
Balintawak Market, I’ve decided to unwind and give myself a break. The warmth of
sun’s ray as it kisses my skin felt like hell. It seems like I have stated all types of
curses in my head for not bringing an umbrella as I walk on the banquets and
sidewalks of Novaliches, Bayan in Quezon City. The some coming from the vehicle
add up to my irritation as I sneezed every now and then. I regretted going out for a
second and realized that it was not the break that I wanted. It feels like it was the
biggest problem in the world that time.
As I continue walking on the clothing area, I saw three children maybe ages
five to six wearing their rugged-like clothes holding paper cups asking for coins to
every people that’ll pass by the area. The tiredness and hunger were etched on
their faces that they almost want to beg for they haven’t eaten since last night.
Their bodies were that thin like a piece of a bamboo, their big bellies were waving
and it is evident that they lack of nutrients.
Then it hits me. At that time, I have realized how stupid I am earlier that
time for ranting such things when in fact those children have all the rights to
speak up for experiencing the hardest in such a young age. Those children who are
years younger than me making ways to earn money but there I was, complaining
for heat. It broke my heart seeing those children because I’ve been there. Memory
when I was younger flash back. I have experienced stomach ache for not having to
eat because my father lost his job. What hurts me the most was seeing my parents’
problematic faces thinking where to get food to eat. I learned how to value
education and started appreciating the hard works and sacrifices of my parents as
such a young age. They’ve done lot for us that the word “thanks” will never be
enough to express my gratitude for them. I am lucky that our parents are taking
good care for us that although they were not able to finish their studies, they took
full responsibility of giving our basic needs. Their parents may be irresponsible
enough to stood up and take responsibility for bringing them to the world that’s
why they are the one who suffers. And I think that’s the saddest.
After giving them coins, I continued walking. Upon entering the area where
accessories are located, I saw an old man sitting in the dirty banquet where an
umbrella is the only one that protects him from hellish sun ray. He looks dirty in
his black rugged-like tee shirt and ripped shorts with his white hairs waving hello.
The dirt caused by the dust around was present on his wrinkled body, an
understatement that he has not taken his bath yet. I was standing on his back,
observing. He lends his hands as if asking for money on every people that pass by
and will utter the word “pangkain lang po”. Out of pity and curiosity, I went in
front of him end asked him where were his children; he answered “may
kanya-kanya nang asawa”. I frown in dismay and nodded.
Upon hearing his answer, I’ve realized how ungrateful his children were. At
that moment, I promised myself to take care of my parents ‘til the day they bid
their farewell in this world. I can’t afford to see my parents in his situation. And I
think, that’s the least that I can do to pay them back.
Life had been really hard to those people who are less fortunate. It seems
like they’ve been forgotten not only by their loved ones but the society. Now, I
realized why my parents are working hard for us to send to school and have a
better life because they’ve been there and don’t want us to be in that situation.
Those less fortunate people deserve to experience the best in life for they’ve been
through enough. But, no one will help them but themselves. They should be the
one to act first and the rest will follow.
For people like us, if we thought that we have the heaviest problems, think
twice or thrice. There were people out there who suffered a lot but are still fighting,
and so us too. Take every problem an opportunity to be stronger and be an
inspiration to other people.
1. What is the story about? What is the main topic of the text?
2. Who is the main character? Who are the other important characters in the
3. Where does this story take place? How does the place influence the storyline
or sequence of events?
4. Are there any conflicts/problems in the story?
5. How does the conflict progress? Do things get worse or better?
6. How does the conflict get resolved?
7. What are the most emotionally-charged parts of the story?
8. How would you have reacted differently if you were the main character?
9. Do you remember any similar series of events you experienced?
10. What was the most memorable part of your own experience?
Learning Task 5: Read the informative text below. Analyze the text by answering
the provided prompt questions about informative genre. Do this in your notebook.
New coronavirus mutation found in the Philippines
Gaea Katreena Cabico
A mutation of the novel coronavirus believed to be more infectious than the
original variant has been detected in the Philippines, genomic researchers said.
The new mutation of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, has
been reported to have become the dominant coronavirus strain circulating around
the world. Researchers called the new strain G614.
When the outbreak began in the country last March, the original D614 genotype
showed up in the positive samples collected by the Philippine Genome Center
(PGC). But in a new study, genomic researchers detected both the D614 and the
“We now report the detection of the D614 variant among nine randomly
selected COVID-19 positive samples collected in Quezon City in July. In the month
of June, both the D614 as well as the G614 have been detected in a small sample
of positive cases,” PGC said in an August 13 bulletin.
“Although this information confirms the presence of G614 in the
Philippines, we note that all the samples tested were from Quezon City and may
not represent the mutational landscape for the whole country,” it added.
Last month, researchers from the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New
Mexico and Duke University in North Carolina published a study that a specific
change in SARS-CoV-2 virus genome is more infectious in cell culture. The team
analyzed the data of 999 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the United
Kingdom and observed that those infected with G614 had more viral particles in
They, however, did not find evidence of G614 impact on disease severity. In
other words, it was not significantly associated with hospitalization status.
“There is still no definitive evidence showing that carriers of the G614
variant are actually more transmissible than those with D614, and the mutation
does not appear to substantially affect clinical outcomes as well,” PGC said.
The genome center stressed the importance of continuously monitoring
G614 to help formulate containment, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
“Itong sinasabi nila na D614G mutation may higher possibility na mas
transmissible siya, mas higher ang level niya na makaka-transmit sya sa iba or
infectious. Pero wala pa rin tayong solid evidence to say na ‘yan talaga ay
mangyayari,” Health Undersecretary Maria Rosario Vergeire said in a media forum
(They say D614G mutation has higher possibility that it is transmissible, it
has higher level that it can transmit to others or infectious. But we still don’t have
solid evidence to say that will happen.)
She also said that the PGC has been authorized by the DOH to continue the
study to gather more information about the virus.
The novel coronavirus has so far infected 161,253 people in the country
despite imposing one of the longest and strictest lockdowns. Of the figure, 112,586
have recovered and 2,665 have died.
1. What is the main topic of this report?
2. Is the overall purpose of the report clear? What would the author like us to do
with this information?
3. How does the author start and end this report?
4. How efficiently did this report convey information to the reader?
5. What makes this report interesting/uninteresting?
6. What might the author have done differently to convey information more
7. What were you surprised to learn about the topic?
8. What other topics would this type of informational report be good for
9. What makes this type of writing different from narrative writing?
Learning Task 6: Read the argumentative text below. Analyze the text by
answering the provided prompt questions about argumentative genre. Do this in
your notebook.
Can’t schools resume where they’re ready – as usual?
Jarius Bondoc
Can't public schools reopen wherever they're ready? It's usual anyway.
Classes don't all start on the day the Dept. of Education sets. In these 7,641
islands there's always disruption somewhere. Typhoon, fire, flood, landslide,
earthquake, volcano eruption, tsunami, rebellion retards entire provinces or towns.
Schoolhouses are turned into evacuation centers for days or weeks. Sometimes
teachers simply are unavailable. Still DepEd district supervisors, school principals,
and teachers swiftly adopt contingencies. They stick to sequential syllabuses per
subject for the fixed number of schooldays. Through weekend makeup classes and
rush alternative workbooks, affected schoolchildren are able to catch up.
That old normal is valid more than ever in this pandemic. Ready areas can
be made to proceed with "blended learning". Unready ones can be helped to catch
up with them as before.
COVID-19 has set back schooling nationwide by two months. Last Friday,
President Rody Duterte had to further delay to Oct. 5 the already late Aug. 24 back
-to-school. There was generally a sigh of relief in Metro Manila, Bulacan, Rizal,
Cavite, and Laguna. The capital region, one Central Luzon province, and most of
Southern Tagalog mainland just weren't ready.
With coronavirus infections surging there, preparations couldn't be
completed. Dozens of "modular learning materials" needed to be printed per Grade
1 to 12, for distribution to millions of students. Yet there weren't enough
duplicators for it, plus reams of copy paper, ink, staplers, folders, and packaging
envelopes. DepEd funds were rushed to the field; still supplies weren't always in
stock. Some city halls readily lent photocopiers to schools; others weren't as quick.
Resourceful faculty borrowed materials from neighborhood businesses; teachers
may not solicit from parents or use personal money for official purposes. To make
matters worse, the retightened lockdown in those regions forced schoolmasters to
retain only skeletal workforces. The President had to make a call.
Things aren't as bad in erstwhile hotspots. Contagion has subsided so
community quarantines have been loosened in Batangas; Cebu, Mandaue, and
Lapu-Lapu cities; Minglanilla and Consolacion in Cebu province; and Zamboanga
City. The rest of the country has even less restrictions. Some island provinces like
Batanes, Siquijor, and Dinagat have no infectees at all. Why not let them reopen
schools ahead? After all, they're ready. There should be no face-to-face classes, of
course, and local officials must maintain anti-COVID precautions.
That too is now Duterte's call, DepEd Sec. Leonor Briones told Sapol radio
show Saturday. Previously the DepEd was legislated to open the new schoolyear no
later than August. A new enactment amid COVID-19 transferred to the President
the authority to hold school or not during emergencies. Perhaps localized
assessments can be made for Duterte's appreciation. Already decided is that
ongoing private schools are to stay; the rest may open as planned on Aug. 24, so
long as not face-to-face classes.
Resuming schooling is as existential as reviving the economy. The longer the
school break, the more the loss of skills students learned the previous year. Risk is
grave of youths losing interest in school altogether, leading to aimlessness, juvenile
delinquency, and poverty. In poor locales school is the venue for feeding
malnourished tots. School is also an emotional security blanket; Briones recounted
on-air children aged 9 and 10 writing her that they miss their teachers,
classmates, and the joys of learning.
Social equity is also a factor. Some private schools never stopped classes
during the lockdowns, but just shifted to online mentoring. They've had the
modules for decades, said Atty. Joseph Estrada, managing director of the
Coordinating Council of Private Educational Associations. Fortunate are learners
whose educated parents kept them enrolled. Due to prolonged "walang pasok",
those in public schools will be left behind. The effects are life-long, in productivity
and incomes. Norway calculated "conservatively" at 1,809 kroner (P8,823) the cost
to a learner per day of nursery to high school shutdown. Half of that is the lost
income of parents who must babysit instead of work. The other half is how much
less today's schooler will earn in the future because of stunted education. Incomes
are much higher in Scandinavia. But Filipino policymakers can derive ideas from
that. The longer schools stay closed, the more the poor lose. (Likely due to lost
livelihoods parents transferred more than 400,000 offspring from private to public
schools, Briones cited June enrollment stats.)
It will be a tough call for Duterte. Of 23.2 million enrollees nationwide, 21.6
million are in public schools. One in three is in Metro Manila and Southern
Tagalog mainland. That more than seven million children would be affected by
school unpreparedness is boggling. Still he might see results by September, and so
advance school opening.
Meantime, the printing of homeschooling lessons must be finished.
Requesting anonymity, one Metro Manila teacher has set up smartphone chat
groups of her pupils to reintroduce them to schooling. She has another chat group
of parents. (It works on Facebook Messenger even if the learner's gadget has no
cash load; not bad, for starters.) Another teacher in Southern Tagalog is training to
teach subjects other than her specialization, since the modular materials so
requires. Both suggested improvements in the television component, since very
difficult to access even on government-run stations.
What is the author's main argument?
What would the author like us to do?
How effective was the argument, from your point of view?
Do you have any prior beliefs or opinions that might affect how persuasive you
perceived the argument to be? What about other readers who are likely to read
this piece?
 What would be some other good topics for this type of argumentative writing?
 What were the primary sources to support the author’s argument?
7. What makes this type of writing different from an informational report or a
Learning Task 7: Look for one nonfictional text from any available sources. Read
the text with understanding. Analyze the nonfictional text considering its genre.
Refer to the prompt questions as your guide in analyzing the text particularly
considering the literary elements available in the genre. Do this in your notebook.
I. Title of the Text
II. Author
III. Genre of the Text
IV. Summary (2-3 sentences)
V. Literary Elements (Theme, Style and Point of View, Details and Descriptions,
Scene and Summary, Techniques of Fiction such as Characters, Plot, Poetic
Devices/Figurative Languages, Personal Reflection, Diction, Sentence Variety and
Lyrical Language)
Draft of a Short Piece
Using Literary Conventions
Every piece of writing goes through a process or stages. These steps do not
always follow one another in succession. Instead, they are recursive. Meaning a
step can occur again at any point in the process. For instance, while revising a
historically-based short story, a writer may discover he/she needs to do additional
research about the time period the story is set, which takes the writer back to the
prewriting stage.
In this lesson, you are expected to write a draft of a short piece using the
studied literary conventions.
You have learned in Creative Writing and other writing subjects about the
stages of writing whereas pre-writing aims to conceptualize and outline things and
concepts to be included in your output. Pre-writing can be associated to a draft of
a written output.
Drafting is the preliminary stage of a written work in which the author
begins to develop a more cohesive product. A draft document is the product
the writer creates in the initial stages of the writing process. In the drafting stage,
the author develops a more cohesive text and organizes thoughts.
Learning Task 1: Using a concept map, write the words that can be associated to
“Writing a Draft”. Do this in your notebook.
Learning Task 2: Using the associated words, create your own definition of
drafting in writing. Write it in your notebook.
Learning Task 3: Write down the areas or considerations in writing a draft. Do
this in your notebook.
This is the stage where the writer thinks of the possible concept or ideas.
Conceptualizing helps to determine the flow of the write-up.
Some writers keep a composing diary, a record of records and notes,
possibly drawings or photos. Authors by and large are solid eyewitnesses who
record what they see, hear, taste, contact, and smell since it might turn out to be a
piece of a story, a sonnet, a true to life article, a play, and so on. Scholars may
convey a little journal with them for the duration of the day and set it on the end
table close to their bed around evening time. At that point, it is promptly accessible
when a thought a motivation catches their eye.
Writers make several decisions in the prewriting stage as well. They will
answer questions like the topic, readers/audience, the mode of delivering the
context, the genre, the point of view on how to tell the content and some factual
In the previous lesson, you have opted to understand the writing prompts
based on the type of nonfiction whether it is informative, narrative or
argumentative. Each of theses has a format to be followed. A better outline shall be
created first to determine what to be included in your output.
In writing your draft, you may consider the following:
1. Identify your topic.
In choosing your topic, you need to consider the possibilities of gathering
the contents. Remember that nonfiction deals with factual information and should
be based on reality. Topic shall also be interesting with your target audience. Just
tell something about your story in just one to three sentences. You can also make
a list of possible theme, tone and motif of your piece depending on its applicability.
2. Outline your story/output.
Considering the writing format per type of nonfiction, start creating your
outline. The outline will help you organize you thoughts. You do not need to write
the entire paragraphs. Just write on your outline the topic or concerns for each
paragraph. Consider from the introduction part to the body to the concluding part
of your piece.
Aside from the parts of the piece, you also need to consider other elements
that are applicable to your genre such as the characters and characterization,
setting and atmosphere, conflicts, point of view and other possible elements.
3. Use the learned styles, elements and techniques.
Now that you have learned the various styles, genre, formats, elements and
techniques in writing a nonfiction story, start writing on a freehand move. Just
write everything that comes out to your mind. Since you have the outline, this will
guide you to adhere to the aim of your writings. The use of these elements and
techniques provide vivid impact to the readers once you are done writing it.
Keep on writing until you jived your writing to your outline. If there is a plot,
see to it that you have attained to write the complete five parts of the plot. If you
are struggling to your ending, do not worry, you can work on with that later.
When you are writing, you can have it on handwritten way or direct it to
your device like computer. There are writers who are comfortable to start their
draft with their pen and paper. There are also writers who intend to directly write
their ideas on their devices. It is all up to the comfort of the writers.
4. Impart Dialogues and other conventions if necessary.
Using the dialogues depending on the genre or type of nonfiction that you
chose to use makes the piece more interesting and appealing to the readers. The
diction plays also important thing in your writing. Remember your target audience.
The scene and sequence are also important for you to attain the chronology
of the piece that you are writing.
5. Think of possible titles of your piece.
Make at least three possible titles of your piece. Consider the content and
see to it that the title is interesting and catchy to the target audience.
6. Read your draft.
Read your draft aloud. This will help you to review and comprehend the
things and information that you have written. You may also let other people to
read your draft for them to suggest for possible adjustments for improvement.
Now that you have read some of the tips in writing a draft, it seems that you
are now ready to work on your own draft.
Learning Task 4: Work on with your draft by accomplishing the table below. Do
this in your notebook.
What to do
Target Audience
Tone and Motif
Point of View
What to Write
Learning Task 5: Using the template below, start conceptualizing your characters
and other essential elements for your draft. Copy the template and accomplish it in
your notebook.
Name of the Main Character
Name of Other Characters
Setting and Atmosphere
Sociological Attributes
Psychological Attributes
Physical Attributes
Possible Titles
Paragraph and Content Arrangement
First Paragraph:
Second Paragraph:
Third Paragraph:
Learning Task 6: Identify your target audience. What are the concepts that you
considered in choosing your target audience? Write your answers in your
Learning Task 7: Start writing your draft. Consider all the facets in writing a
nonfiction output. Write your draft in your notebook.
Evaluating One’s Draft
Letting other people review your written piece helps you see the areas of
your piece which need to be improved. Considering their perceptions or view
regarding the piece enables it to attain clearer, more appropriate and more effective
flow for the possible audience. Critiquing a literary output goes within and beyond
the details, its applicability, content and substance knowing that every literary
piece must be “dulce et utile” or must be beautiful and with moral or lesson.
In this lesson, you are expected to evaluate one’s draft considering the
clarity of idea, appropriateness of choice of literary element, appropriate use of the
element and effective combination of the idea and the chosen literary element.
You have written in the previous lesson the draft of your nonfiction write-up
which needs to be reviewed not just by you but also by the other people who have
different or various perceptions on the elements used and their substance.
In evaluating a particular piece, there are aspects that need to be
considered. Every evaluator has is/her own views, standards and ways of
evaluation. With that, no literary piece or any written output can be considered as
a perfect piece.
Learning Task 1: Using a concept map, identify words or ideas that can be
associated in evaluating a literary piece. Do this in your notebook.
What should be
evaluated in a
literary piece?
Learning Task 2: Give your initial concepts on the areas on evaluating a literary
piece. Write your concepts in your notebook.
1. Clarity of the idea presented: __________________________________________________
2. Appropriate Choice of Literary Elements: ______________________________________
3. Appropriate Use of the Element: _______________________________________________
4. Effective Combination of Ideas and the Chosen Element: _______________________
Learning Task 3: Recall the time when you were writing your draft. Among the
areas mentioned in the previous learning task, which is difficult to consider? Give
your explanation. Write your answers in your notebook.
When you are reading any reading material, you tend to digest each of the
information that you are reading, feeling the emotions injected in the piece or the
concept and perceptions being discussed by the author.
Moreover, when you are reading a piece, you can be disturbed if there are
some key points which are distracting leading the piece not to be appreciated or
worst not to be read by the readers.
In evaluating a piece, one thing for sure is the outer surface of the piece will
be checked first like the mechanics of the piece. Mechanics refers to the rules of
the written language, such as capitalization, punctuation and spelling. For
non-native speakers or users of the language, it will be a challenge to master it
especially the grammatical rules in every language are merely different. However,
with the restriction of the grammatical rules, the writers will be guided properly in
incorporating mechanics in their piece.
Here are some of the considered areas or aspects that should be evaluated
for the improvement of the piece. Try to understand each of the facet for you to be
equipped with the learning tasks later.
1. Clarity of the Idea Presented
When you start evaluating the piece, clarity of the ideas shall be considered
first. It is hard for readers if ideas are not clearly presented. There should be no
vague ideas to prevent dissatisfaction among readers. Focusing on content,
organization of ideas shall be things to be weighed in determining the ideas.
Consistency of these is merely important to avoid confusion. Readers want
messages that clearly and quickly convey important content. Ensuring that all of
these are accurate, relevant and complete for the audience.
Clear ideas are characterized as one which is caught to the point that it will
be perceived by any place it is met with; thus, no one will be confused with it.
1.1. Were the information accurate and based on facts?
1.2. Were the ideas presented arranged in chronological order considering
the type of nonfiction used?
1.3 Were the ideas used make the readers understand the flow of the piece?
1.4 Were the ideas presented consistent in providing the purpose of the
2. Appropriate Choice of Literary Elements
In evaluating a piece considering the appropriateness of the literary
elements used in the piece is a must. You cannot provide evaluation on the literary
elements appropriateness if you don’t have the background information about the
elements. It is easy to say and appreciate a literary piece as a good piece but
saying if the literary elements are appropriate is a different thing. Mastery is
needed. You have learned in the previous lessons and subjects on literature about
different literary elements. This will serve as your foundation to do the evaluation
in this aspect.
Characters, setting, plot, tone, theme,
figurative languages are some of the literary
considering these, you need to consider also
the author used. Remember, there are literary
particular genre or type of nonfiction.
point of view, imagery, conflict and
elements that you have learned. In
the genre or type of nonfiction that
elements that are not applicable to a
2.1 How and why did the author choose the literary elements?
2.2 What was the genre used by the author?
2.3 Were the chosen elements appropriate to the genre used by the author?
3. Appropriate Use of Element
Considering the literary elements and device independently like structure
(plot), imagery, perspective, setting, subject, etc. In general, it is frequently
insightful to consolidate these components in an explanatory exposition. You may
likewise expound on character as long as you are joining it with an examination of
at least one of the above components. In this manner, you can decide to
concentrate on one of these components, or you can compose an exposition which
thinks about at least two of these components.
3.1 How was the structure of the elements used in the text?
3.2 How did the literary elements affect the emotions of the readers?
3.3 How did the author use imageries and symbolisms?
3.4 Why does the narrator choose certain language, report details that he/
she does, reveal the characters in the manner that he/she does, offer or
not offer interpretive comments, and/or tell the story in a certain order?
3.5 Why is the work set during a certain era, season or time of day?
The use of the element in the piece will surely affect the meaning, and flow
of the story.
4. Effective Combination of Ideas and the Chosen Element
Since you have known the ideas presented and how did the author choose
and use literary elements, the last facet that can be evaluated is the impact of
these to the readers and audience. Will there be an effect once you have clear
presentation of idea? Will there be an effect if you have selected appropriate
literary elements? These are some of the questions to be pondered to evaluate
one’s draft.
This is much like the effect literary devices have over the ideas presented in
the text. Since creative nonfiction is somewhat relevant to creative writing itself,
the devices used in others are used to express and elevate certain types of
emotions and meanings that poet wishes to convey. This is done so that the
readers feel and respond in a certain way.
4.1 Did the reader understand the flow of the piece because of the literary
elements used?
4.2 Were the literary elements enable the appreciation of the readers to
understand the story or the piece?
4.3 Were the combination of ideas and literary elements help the readers to go
along and be hooked with the flow of the piece?
These are just some of the aspects that you can consider in evaluating one’s
draft of a literary nonfiction piece. The most ideal approach to assess is to leave it
with open-minded perspectives. This will naturally assist you with evaluating the
piece. You may consider the questions stated but the appreciation of the literary
piece is really subjective to the eye of the readers.
Learning Task 4: Read the piece below. Identify the imageries and the figurative
language used in the piece. Write your answers in your notebook.
Cheap but golden
Cristina Kyla C. Villagen
This place was one of the most talk-about topics especially when it comes to
fashion. Most of the people who went there are prominent vloggers like Angel Dei,
The Gold Squad and Tony Gonzaga; you can visit their YouTube channel to know
some information and reviews. According to them, affordable clothes which look
expensive at first glance are offered there. Traveling time is approximately one and
a half hour and if you will be commuting you will need to ride a jeepney going to
SM Taytay which will pass through Baras, Morong, Cardona and Angono. Taytay
Tiangge is noy always open, you can see their tarpaulins located in some areas
which can easily be seen. But as far as I know, they are open every Tuesdays and
When I get there, I immediately looked for the stalls of “Bagpi” and “Igpai”
for the low costing products according to the YouTube vlogs that I’ve watched. The
stalls are really colorful and nice to look at and just like the typical tiangge, it is
noisy, crowded and humid.
All of their products, be it shoes, tops, or bottoms, will surely catch your
attention. Various designs are available in many sizes and colors. For women’s
clothes starts at 10.00 which are mostly “ukay-ukay” but are still good ones. For
men’s tip, price starts at 25.00. for kid’s clothes, price starts at 5.00, I don’t believe
it at first but the saleslady sad that it is true. There are also overruns from the
famous brands and clothing lines, with prices you’ve never imagined.
The people there are nice but you still have to be cautious and attentive
since it is really crowded. In case you need to take a break from shopping, there
are lots of food stalls and even fast food chains to fill your empty stomach. There
are also comfort rooms inside the buildings. It is advisable to wear mask for you to
breathe properly. Always take care of your belongings and it is best to go with
someone who knows the place.
Learning Task 5: Using the literary piece on the previous learning task, write your
comments on the aspects/areas below. Use the table to write your answers. Write
your answers in your notebook.
Target Audience
Tone and Motif
Point of View
Learning Task 6: Read and appreciate the piece below. After reading it, identify its
strong and weak points. Use the column after the piece. Write your in your
Leaving the Comfort Zone Behind
Trisha Kris P. Aquino
Writing is like talking to somebody, so let me tell you a story.
For me, deciding whether to go out or not is like a death and life situated.
But five days before Christmas, I went out with a friend without thinking twice or
thrice. Did I regret it? I didn’t. Because even though I wasn’t in my comfort zone, it
felt like I was still at home.
My friend invited me to go out as planned, and it was supposed to be
happening five days after. But since I though I have to, I agreed to her right away.
Two o’clock was the set time, but we left twenty minutes after three in the
afternoon. She informed me just thirty minutes before two and I had so much to
do. I was ready to go, locked the door, and walked. I opened my umbrella and put
my backpack in front of me. From Tanay Park, we planned to go to the town’s dike
often called as “Dike ng Tanay”. After how many days, ngayon na lang ako ulit
nakalabas,” I said to her as we walked. We were happy though it was sunny and
hot. We talked a lot about anything that mostly made us laugh. We even shared
insights about our studies.
The sun was still there maintaining the warmness and humid of the air, but
we managed to arrive without any complaint. When we were just meters away, I
asked her to take a photo of me while walking towards the dike. “Continue, stop,
continue,” she reminded. Once we got there, we sat on the bench, facing the
picturesque and calm view of the lake. We took photos from the dike to the
magnificent lighthouse of Tanay, the abundant water lilies on the shore, colorful
boats, blue and clear sky and the busy road where people were enjoying the sunset
view of Tanay Dike. After spending an hour doing a lot of things, we decided to
leave and to go to another place. We were now going to the nearby dike. It took us
twice the time and distance. There, we had some complaints of tiredness. Our feet
were already aching and we were really tired walking. Despite quitting, we ignored
it and just talked and laughed. As we go nearer the place, we have seen the sun
was about to set, and we did not notice the air was becoming cooler as the time
passed by. It was getting dark and the streetlights were starting to open.
It was a comfortable feeling especially when the people started walking out.
Suddenly, I thought of the things that sadden me. The things I wish I could and
couldn’t have. Then I remembered how long I have run before. I became motivated,
thinking of the idea that I would never get rid of this feeling wherever I go.
Someday, I guess, I’d be loving to hangout with friends while travelling the
world together. Life won’t run in your comfort zone throughout the years, and I
think I should be the one remembering this line.
Strong Points
Weak Points
Learning Task 7: Using the text in the previous task, evaluate it using the three
aspects specified in the table below. In your notebook, write your comments about
Clarity of Ideas
of Literary Elements
Effectiveness of the Combination
of Ideas and Elements
Revising a Draft
Many students commit mistakes in revising the draft of their paper. Not
only are their papers often filled with typographical errors and other problems, but
they lack the benefits of a fundamental stage in the writing process: revision.
Mechanics, clarity, chronology, appropriateness and effectiveness are some
of the aspects that we consider whenever we are revising our works. Revising helps
us improve our work to attain the objectives as to why we are writing a certain
literary piece.
In this lesson, you are expected to revise your draft produced in the
previous lesson considering the clarity of idea, appropriateness of choice of literary
element, appropriateness use of the element and effective combination of the idea
and the chosen literary element to come up with a short piece using any of the
literary conventions of genre.
At the point when we reconsider our composition, we accept the open door
to step back and re-imagine it. We consider the objectives of the paper if we have
achieved these objectives. We guarantee that our thoughts are obviously
communicated and all around upheld. Also, we verify that mistakes of punctuation
and style do not take away from our work or make it appear that the paper was
arranged properly.
Learning Task 1: Recall your previous understanding about the writing process.
Draw or illustrate the writing process that you know. Do this in your notebook.
Learning Task 2: Arrange the steps in revising a draft based on the provided steps
below. Write numbers 1-4 to determine the process. Write your answers in your
_____ 1. Check the transitions used in a text.
_____ 2. Skim the paragraphs and identify the main ideas.
_____ 3. Determine if the paragraphs help the main ideas.
_____ 5. Scan the mechanics of the text.
Learning Task 3: Read the questions below with understanding. Answer the
question and write your answers in your notebook.
1. Have you tried following the writing process? How was it?
2. Among the phases of the writing process, which is difficult for you?
3. How did you deal with it?
Before releasing a piece to the audience, it is important to review the piece
in accordance to the aspects which were considered during the evaluation.
Revising or editing can be ways to improve one’s write-up.
Revising literally means “to see again” not just once but multiple times.
Revision has two types of processes where the larger problems such as content
and organization and the smaller problems such as sentence structure, word
choice, and formatting shall both be considered in revising your output. Revising
will help you to notice the other elements of your write-up from the mechanics,
structure, coherence of the paragraphs and its core.
Some portion of updating may incorporate requesting that others read
drafts and make modification proposals. Eventually, it's consistently up to the
author whether those update suggestions will be actualized into the last draft.
Revising your first draft is really a challenging task. You are stood up to
with your mistakes; you will discover helpless exchanges and shallow characters,
you will find plot openings, lost backstories, etc. Regularly, this encounter will
make you need to stop, to toss the many pages and give up. In any case, as
writers, we should not stop writing.
However, to attain the improvement, you have to accept the evaluation in a
positive outlook for the betterment of the piece and for your improvement as well.
Most of the beginning writers failed to create a draft effectively not
exclusively are their papers frequently loaded up with typographical errors and
different issues, yet they come up short on the advantages of a basic stage in the
writing process and that is the revision.
At the point when we revise our write-up, we accept the open door to step
back and re-imagine it. We consider the objectives of the paper and whether we
have achieved these objectives. We guarantee that our thoughts are obviously
communicated and very much upheld. What's more, we verify that blunders of
syntax and style don't take away from our work or make it look like the paper was
arranged quickly.
Publishing involves submitting final manuscripts to editors of print and
online journals and magazines, newspapers, or publishing companies.
Although it’s great to see one’s name in print, not all writers write for
publication. Some write their stories, poems, letters, diaries, etc. for the next
generations – their children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren. They write to
record their personal history.
In revising your draft, some of the aspects shall be considered like
mechanics, content, style, substance and the structure of the piece. You have
learned in the previous lesson about some of the aspects that need to be evaluated
for the improvement of the text.
In revising for style as a writer, vague writing and mechanical flaws detract
from your insights. As you revise your work considering your writing style, try to
take a look on the following questions:
Have you used passive voice abusively in your text?
Were you gender neutral in using a language?
Did you use precise and concise language and diction?
Did you edit out language or syntax that is repetitive?
Have you corrected grammatical flaws and provided accurate information like
names and dates?
Moreover, in revising for structure, as you read, you need to make sure that
your write-up has a strong structure. As you revise your work considering the
structure, try to take a look on the following questions:
Did you use a clear and logical pattern to prove your concept?
Did you provide a clear introduction stating the purpose of the piece?
Are the paragraphs unified and developed?
Were you able to establish topic sentences effectively?
Were you able to utilize paragraphs that helped the progress of the topic
 Do you have transitions between paragraphs and between sections?
7. Does your piece have a well-reasoned and interesting conclusion?
As you read your work, revise also the substance of your piece. As you
look into it considering the substance, take a look on the following questions:
Did you clearly state the thesis statement of the piece?
Did you present your own analysis?
Did your piece provide reflective insights of the text?
Did you include specific evidence to support your ideas? Is this evidence
analyzed and explained?
 If applicable, were you able to establish the characters and other literary
 If applicable, did the plot sequence run well? Was it easy to understand?
Now that you have been guided with some of the questions, these will help
you in revising your own draft at the end of this lesson.
In proofreading or checking the mechanics, the draft should focus on
formatting and accuracy of the grammatical functions. In doing this, hard-copy
instead of just reading from your computer screen will be more effective. In doing
proofreading, you need to read it aloud and check it intensively.
Let us try to remember the actions and decisions below in doing a revision
of a piece. This would help us to attain the improvement of our text. Just
remember the word DRAFT and you will be guided properly in revising your piece.
DELETE unnecessary and repeated words, parts or sequences. Are there words or
parts that are needless or unnecessary which can be deleted and will not affect the
content or flow of the piece? If there are, delete them.
REARRANGE the paragraphs, sentences, clauses or words. Are there words or
sentences that need to be rearranged to attain the chronological arrangement of
the piece? If there are, rearrange them.
ADD some connectors, transitional devices or even information. If there are still
information that need to be included, add them. The use of connectors and
transitional devices will help to attain the smooth flow of the piece.
FORM each of the parts that are needed in the piece. Recalling the nonfiction type,
there are certain parts that should be present. Even the elements needed in a type
of nonfiction shall be formed and formulated.
TALK it aloud. Reading the text aloud surely reveals the errors of the write-up.
Various versions and modification can be made if we keep on reading it before
publishing. Does it sound right? Sound smooth? Better to read it aloud.
Learning Task 4: Identify the words or parts of the paragraph that needs to be
revised according to its mechanics. Do this in your notebook.
Malacañang are optimistic it can change the minds of senators on the 2nd package
of the Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion (TRAIN 2) law after a Senate
leader said noone in the chamber is willing to sponsor the measure.
On the contrary, TRAIN 2 will reduce corporate taxes. So, its not true that TRAIN 2
will impose new taxes” Roque said at a press briefing yesterday in Zamboanga
Sibugay. “I think its a matter of telling senators the what TRAIN 2 is and I think we
can overcome their initial hesitansy.
He add that the Palace expect the Presidentiallegislative Liason Office to work
with senators to discuss the matter.
TRAIN 2 aimsto reduce corporate income tax to twenty five percent from 30
percent. The department finance said the measure would benefit more than ninety
five percent of busineses in the country that are paying the highest corporate
income tax rate in the region.
Learning Task 5: Go back with your created draft. See the comments of your
teacher’s evaluation. Among the evaluation comments, which from these should be
considered? Accomplish the table in your notebook.
For Consideration or Not?
Literary Elements
Learning Task 6: Revise your draft considering any of the literary conventions of
genre in nonfiction. The comments of your subject teacher may help you in
improving your output.
Bondoc, J. (August 17, 2020). “Can’t schools resume where they’re ready – as usual?”.
Philippine Star. Retrieved August 17, 2020 from https://www.philstar.com/
Cabico, G. (August 17, 2020) “New coronavirus mutation found in the Philippines”. Philippine Star. Retrieved August 17, 2020 from https://www.philstar.com/
Green, L. (2018). Why your non-fiction book needs a theme. Retrieved August 16, 2020
from https://greengoosewriting.com/blog/why-your-non-fiction-book-needs-atheme
Hartgers, A. (2020). Literary Elements List: 20 Powerful Literary Devices to Engage Readers. Retrieved August 17, 2020 from https://selfpublishing.com/literary-elementslist/
Hood, D. (2012) Writing Creative Nonfiction: A Toolbox of Techniques. Retrieved August
17, 2020 from https://davehood59.wordpress.com/2012/08/22/writing-creativenonfiction-a-toolbox-of-techniques/
“Limberg, A. (2015). 5 Nonfiction Writing Techniques That Will Keep Readers Turning Pages. Retrieved August 17, 2020 from https://thewritelife.com/nonfiction-writingtechniques/
Wall, D. (2010). More Ways to Use Fiction Techniques in Nonfiction. Retrieved August 17,
2020 from https://www.dorothywall.com/writing-nonfiction-tech.html
Writing Creative Nonfiction”. (2019). Retrieved August 16, 2020 from https://
“Writing Prompts for Analyzing Nonfiction”. Retrieved August 17, 2020 from https://
Para sa mga katanungan o puna, sumulat o tumawag sa:
Department of Education Region 4A CALABARZON
Office Address: Gate 2 Karangalan Village, Cainta Rizal
Landline: 02-8682-5773 local 420/421
Email Address: lrmd.calabarzon@deped.gov.ph