DEFINITION OF TERMS CRIMSOC 4 1. Absolutism. The belief in a value or good that always holds its value. 2. Accountability: taking personal responsibility for one’s conduct. 3. Act-centered normative theories. theories that focus primarily on the ethical value of kinds of action; also called conduct-based theories or an ethics of doing 4. Actual duty what we ethically ought to do in a particular situation 5. ACTUS REUS An affirmative or failure to do act. It is an unlawful act. 6. Act utilitarianism a theory that holds that the right act is the one that creates more happiness thatn any other act available to the agent 7. A descriptive ethical relativism maintains simply that different cultures have differing ethical systems, without taking a position on objective better or worse 8. Aesthetic A philosophic term that is applied when something is "pleasing to the senses" 9. A Filipino policeman is a protector and a friend. 10. Agape. Greek word meaning love but distinct from erotic love or familial love. 11. Agency Belief that one has the power to enact change. 12. Agnosticism. The conviction that one simply does not know whether God exists or not 13. Altruism means acting in the best interest of others rather than in one’s own selfinterest. 14. Amoral An ethical position meaning one is not able to make a judgment. 15. Anabolic steroids A drug that resembles male testosterone. 16. A normative ethical relativism claims that each culture's beliefs or value system are right within that culture, and that it is impossible to validly judge another culture's values externally or objectively. 17. Antinomian. An adjective meaning ―anti-law. 18. Apathy: Lack of interest or concern. 19. APO Accredited Professional Organization 20. A Posteriori Reasoning: From effect to cause; making decisions based on the gathering of knowledge gained from experience. 21. Applied ethics The practical application of ethical theory directed toward issues in 22. A Priori Reasoning: Statements we can know to be true prior to any examination of the facts of the world; from cause to effect; making determinations based on what is understood to be universally true. 23. Area Visit. The community or area visit is conducted for several specific purposes and I designed to attain the following objectives 24. Areté. The Greek word for “excellence”; or “virtue”.; 25. Argument discourse that tries to provide reasons for or proof of some view; an attempt to convience through rational discussion. 26. Argument From Analogy a form of reasoning asserting that, given two generally similar things, if one of those things has a particular feature, the other may also contain that feature 27. Argument From Design line of reasoning that argues that the intricate and complex nature of the world could not have existed without a divine designer, God 28. Argument from Relativity Ethical theory that says that the vast differences between different people's ethical judgments are best explained by taking ethical beliefs to be functions of how people are socialized and not of their response to any real objective features of the world. 29. ARISTOTLE developed the most important and influential character-centered or virtue-based ethical theory 30. Aristocratic Morality the morality of the strong and powerful; the chief virtues of this morality are pride, self-assertion, and the like 31. Aspirational A strong desire to achieve something high or great. 32. Assumptions ethical discussion about the moral point of view. 33. Atheism. The belief that God does not exist. 34. Authentic Person De Beauvoir's term for a person who does not try to deny his or her freedom by adopting the decision procedures of others; a person who creates his or her own values, independent of what others may have done 35. Autonomous capable of self-rule 36. Autonomy A philosophic term meaning self-governance, whereby one has the right, power, or condition of self-governance. 37. Axiological theories theories that hold that value terms are the most basic elements of ethics 38. Axiology The branch of philosophy dedicated to the study of value. 39. Badge is defined as emblem of a small distinctive piece of fabric, metal or plastic worn on clothing to show rank or membership 40. Behavioral ethics is the study of why people make the ethical and unethical decisions that they do 41. Becoming refers to the ever-changing world of experience where all inanimate and living things are said to come into existence, exist, then pass away 42. Belief is an opinion or supposition. 43. Belief System. A combination of the following: A fixed coherent set of beliefs, usually religious, which form a pattern of religious opinions and rules; ritual and habitual behaviour; group or community organizations and structures etc. 44. Benchmarking The process of comparing to established "best practices," peer organizations or even past results in order to better understand strengths, challenges and progress made. 45. Beneficence The ethical position whereby one attempts and is actually obligated to do no harm, remove harm, prevent harm, and actually do good. 46. Benevolent. To be helpful, friendly. 47. Benevolence Principle the belief that the happiness and good of others is desirable and that such happiness should be spread as equally and as widely as possible among the beings affected 48. Bias The position whereby an individual shows partiality and prejudice and slanting an opinion in one direction only. 49. Bioethics a very large and diverse area within the field of applied ethics whose objective is to determine which specific or applied actions are right and which actions are wrong 50. Blame. An identification of parties whose behaviors caused damage. 51. Bounded ethicality mean that people are limited in their ability to make ethical choices 52. Carol Gilligan prominent feminist psychologist who advocates a shift to a care-based perspective, or an ethics of caring 53. Categorical imperative ethical dictate that applies to every person unavoidably, regardless of what that person wants or desires 54. Casuistry this requires the cardinal virtue of prudence to make the appropriate application, and the practice of epikeia (below) to understand where exceptions from, or adaptations of, general laws are appropriate. 55. Ceremony- a formal acts established by customs or authority as proper to special occasion. 56. Ceremony Tendered to Retirees - In recognition of their long faithful and honorable service to the PNP, a testimonial activity is tendered in their honor. 57. Character A moral demeanor that refers to one's outward demeanor as judged by society. 58. Character-centered normative theories. theories that focus primarily on the ethical value of having a certain kind of character; also called virtue-based ethics or an ethics of being 59. Chastity It is all about the respect of the dignity of human sexuality through sexual love that is romantic, procreative, exclusive and lasting, or if unmarried, by having no experience of sexual pleasure. 60. Choice One of the necessary stipulations (Value, Principle, Obligation, and Choice) to determine whether a moral issue is being presented. 61. CLOSE FAMILY TIES (Makapamilya) Filipinos basically values family relationship 62. Code of Conduct refer to a listing of required behaviors, the violation of which would result in disciplinary action. 63. Code of ethics guidelines written for a professional body to follow. 64. Code Provisions The specific standards of behavior and performance expectations that your organization chooses to highlight and address in your code. 65. Cognitive bias is most error in thinking that affect people’s decision making in virtually every situation 66. Coherentism The belief that an ethical system is justified if it is the most coherent thing to believe of all available options. 67. Cognitivism The belief that ethical judgment involves an attempt to gain knowledge about the world. 68. Cognitive dissonance the cognitive process whereby an individual's values and beliefs are challenged. 69. Collaboration it explains the foster teamwork and solidarity for unity. 70. Commitment: Being always responsible and genuine to the words, deeds and promises. 71. Common Good. Refers to the ―good‖ of society or community itself. 72. Communitarianism the ethical theory that states that ethical judgement is common to those within a human community 73. Community Interaction. It is an indispensable tool in bringing the police to be visible in the community and make its presence physically felt. 74. Community Intervention. It is a generally a combination of efforts of the community organizers 75. Community Organizing. A process by which people are brought together to act in common self- interest with the end goal of building a changed community by empowering its community members with the knowledge and skills. 76. Community Partnerships Collaborative partnerships between and among other law enforcement agencies and the individuals and organizations they serve to develop solutions to problems and increase trust in the police 77. Community policing is a philosophy that promotes organizational strategies, which support the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder, and fear of crime. 78. Community Safety& Security Assistance. It refers to the measure/ actions to be undertaken to ensure the safety and security of residents in a certain locality. 79. COMMUNITY SPIRIT (Bayanihan) the whole community pitching in to help out an individual or family 80. Commutative- virtue that regulates those actions that involve the rights that exist be- tween one another 81. Comparative Ethics A branch of ethics that compares the different ethical beliefs of different groups of people. 82. Competent capable of assessing possible courses of action in a reasonable manner 83. Compliance Conforming or adapting one's actions to another's wishes, to a rule or to necessity. 84. Conclusion The claim that the argument is attempting to establish or prove; supposed to follow from the premises or starting assumptions. 85. Confirmation bias is the tendency of people’s minds to seek out information that supports the views they already hold. 86. Conformity Bias is the tendency people have to behave like those around them rather than using their own personal judgment 87. Conflict of interest arises when our interest conflicts with another’s to whom we owe a duty 88. Conflict of Interest: The predicament arising when a person confronts two actions that cannot be ethically reconciled; competing loyalties and concerns regarding selfdealing, outside compensation; divided loyalties among. 89. Consequentialist Ethics. An outcomes theory that the rightness or wrongness of actions depends on their actual consequences. 90. Contractarianism The belief that an ethical principle is justified if all free and equal rational people would accept it. 91. Conscience. Aquinas called it "the mind making moral judgments." 92. Conventionalism ethical theory that holds that the institution of morality can only develop within societies rather than existing in some eternal and immutable mindindependent realm 93. Corruption The abuse of public power for private benefit. 94. Consequentialism is an ethical theory that judges whether or not something is right by what its consequences are. 95. Consequential ethics theory based in utilitarian philosophy. 96. Consequentialist Reasoning: Reasoning in which the Tightness of an act is linked with the goodness of the state of affairs that it brings about. 97. Contradiction Logic a statement that is false under all circumstances; necessary falsehood. 98. Core Values Commitments held by a profession that are consciously and knowingly embraced by its practitioners because they make a contribution to society. 99. Counter Radicalization is a reverse process of radicalization to discourage extremists from using political violence and terrorism, and from preventing recruitment from the Muslim community. 100. Courage Choosing to do what one believes is right even if the result will not be to everyone's liking or may lead to personal loss. 101. Courage of Conviction to act in accordance with one's beliefs, especially in spite of criticism. 102. Courtesy- a manifestation or expression of consideration and respect for others. 103. Creative Freedom the freedom possessed by someone who creates his or her own life plan and values 104. Credo Fundamental beliefs (or a set of beliefs) or guiding principles. 105. CRIME – an act committed or omitted in violation of law forbidding or commanding it. 106. Criminology refers to the scientific study of crimes, criminals, and victims, it also deals with the prevention, and solution of crimes. 107. Crisis of conscience is a situation in which it is very difficult to decide what’s the right thing to do. 108. Critical Realist Ethics It relies on personal verification that all public moral norms originate in a compound of five norms proper to consciousness itself 109. Cultural or social relativism the belief that ethical value is relative to culture or society 110. Cultural relativism an action is right if one's culture approves it. 111. Customs-established usage or social practices carried on by tradition that have obtained the force of law 112. David Hume an influential ethical sentimentalist 113. Deductive. An argument whose conclusion follows necessarily from its premises. 114. Deductive reasoning Philosophic reasoning described as one in which the argument moves from the general perspective to the specific. 115. Defensive Io. To protect and defend friendly information command and control. 116. Deism. The belief that God created the universe but does not intervene in human affairs. 117. DELIBERATELY – the person did his action intentionally 118. Deontic ethics (non-consequential) Ethical theory based on the ideal that we can perceive rightness apart from any consequences. 119. Deontic Terms Words that are employed in the description of human conduct, such as rightness and wrongness. 120. Deontological Reasoning: A type of reasoning which focuses not on the consequences of an action, but on the theory or study of duty or moral obligation 121. Deontological theories theories that hold that deontic terms are not entirely dependent on value terms 122. Deontologism: A moral philosophy in which acts are based on a self-determined, inner sense of moral "duty. 123. Deontology is an ethical theory that uses rules to distinguish right from wrong. 124. Descriptive Scientific study of moral beliefs and practices. 125. DESCRIPTIVE ETHICS This branch of ethics focuses on application aspect of ethics. 126. Desert what a person deserves 127. Diffusion of responsibility occurs when people who need to make a decision wait for someone else to act instead. 128. Diligence is steadfast application, assiduousness and industry—the virtue of hard work. 129. Discrimination - the prejudicial or distinguishing treatment of an individual based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or category. 130. Discretion—The option to choose between two or more courses of behavior 131. DISHONESTY – the concealment or distortion of truth in a manner of a fact relevant to one’s office or connected with the performance of his duties. 132. DISLOYALTY TO THE GOVERNMENT – Consist of abandonment or renunciation of one’s loyalty to the government of the Philippines, or advocating the overthrow of the government. 133. Distributive- it regulates those actions that involve the rights that an individual may claim form society 134. Distributive justice concerns the distribution of goods and burdens 135. Divine Command Theory Ethical theory that says what is right is what God commands. 136. Doctrine of the mean a theory that states that a character trait should stand between a kind of excess and a kind of deficiency 137. Dogmatism The argumentation position based on opinion which is not supported by fact. 138. Double-Effect. A theory used to justify a seemingly immoral act when the wrong involved was not directly intended. 139. Due process the action of giving individuals the right to refute accusations or actions, and to give individuals a just accounting. 140. Duty: An action required by one's position or by moral or legal consideration, often contrasted with personal inclination or pleasure. 141. Duty Ethics. Actions are right or wrong to the extent that they are fulfillment of duty. 142. Eight Sun Rays – Represents the eight (8) provinces whose ideals of courage, gallantry patriotism led to their revolt against Spain. 143. Emotivism The belief that an ethical judgment is simply the expression of an emotion and does not describe the world at all. 144. Empathy Caring about the consequences of one's choices as they affect others. 145. Empirical: Referring to the gathering of information to verify statements. 146. Endurance- it is the ability to last 147. Epikeia. A virtue by which persons who, because they understand the reasons behind certain laws, are able to apply them to circumstances not originally envisioned by the law 148. Epistemology One of the philosophic branches of philosophy. 149. Equanimity: It is a state of psychological stability and composure which is undisturbed by experiences of good or bad, pain or pleasure, or other phenomenon that may cause the normal people to lose the balance of their mind. 150. Error Theory The belief that the entire activity of ethical judgment is built upon the erroneous belief that ethical value exists in the world. 151. Esprit de corps: The common spirit of comradeship existing among the members of a group and inspiring enthusiasm, devotion, and strong regard for the honour of the group. 152. Ethical Absolutism The belief that the study of ethics tries to describe necessary features of reality 153. Ethical Congruence A situation where one's decision is consistent with, aligns with, the applicable set(s) of values. 154. Ethical Decision-Making Decisions that involve ethical considerations. 155. Ethical Differences Situations in which two people agree on a particular value and disagree as to the action to be taken or decision to be made. 156. Ethical Dilemmas Challenging situations that require involve competing sets of values. 157. Ethical Egoism The belief that one always ought to do what is in one's own self-interest. 158. Ethical fading occurs when the ethical aspects of a decision disappear from view. 159. Ethical or Moral Anti- realism The belief that ethical value does not exist so, consequently, ethical judgments do not make true claims. 160. Ethical Relativism The belief that ethical principles depend upon features that can vary at different times and in different places. 161. Ethical Responsibilities Behaviors that one must or must not engage in. 162. Ethical Standards – it is reflected in the code of conduct and ethical standards for police officers, police creed, vision and mission, and international laws. 163. Ethical Theory Subset of normative ethics that focuses on ethical principles that apply throughout all situations. 164. Ethical Universalism The belief that ethical judgments apply to all humans equally, that there are universal ethical truths, and that these truths are the same for everyone. 165. Ethic of custom longstanding custom reflects what is known and observed by most people over time 166. Ethic of civilization we restrain our base impulses and move to a higher level of civilization 167. Ethic of justice there should be rules and equity. Due process. 168. Ethic of norms of conduct how people act. it can be above or below positive law 169. Ethic of power government must be empowered to enforce the laws and bring order 170. Ethic of utility promoting the greater good for the greatest number 171. Ethics The theoretical study of morality. Ethics is also the standard of morality that a profession should follow. 172. Ethics Culture The extent to which employees at all levels are committed to doing what is right and successfully upholding values and standards. 173. Ethics Risk Potential for harm to an organization caused by misconduct that goes undetected and persists due to lack of management awareness and action. 174. Ethics vocabulary Definitions of means for determining what a society's values ought to be. 175. Eudaimonistic. An adjective denoting teleological types of ethics that have happiness as their goal. 176. Eudaemonism A justification of Morality based on what promes the "Good Life 177. Excusing conditions an ethical position in which outside factors out of an individual's control, excuse the individual from moral action. 178. Existentialism ethical theory that denies that God exists; says that the individual is ultimately responsible for his own acts, without any real knowledge of right or wrong 179. Extrinsic value. value that is not inherent due to the nature of the thing or object in question 180. Face- to-face interaction. This involves the conduct of the following, lectures, seminars, symposium, “pulong-pulong” and others. 181. False based on mistaken ideas; inconsistent with facts. 182. False obstruction A reasoning obstacle that does not permit an individual to morally reason through a dilemma. 183. FEAR OF THE LORD (Pagkatakot sa Diyos) this help Filipinos recognizes the Divine being as source and inspiration 184. FAMILY – The most important source of value formation 185. Feminism the ethical theory that holds that human beings should be viewed as members of a community with many interpersonal connections and attachments; also called care-based ethics or an ethics of caring 186. Fideism. The view that religious faith (fides) is distinct, and often opposed, to reason. 187. Fidelity: It is defined as faithfulness to obligations, duties or observance 188. Fiduciary: Involving confidence or trust; a fiduciary obligation is one arising out of trust. 189. Fiduciary Duty is the legal responsibility to act solely in the best interest of another party. 190. Flag Raising Ceremony - The PNP members honor the flag by raising it and singing the National Anthem before the start of the official day's work. 191. Flag Retreat Ceremony - At the end of the official days' work, the PNP members pause for a moment to salute the lowering of the flag. 192. Formal Principle of Justice theory that states that like cases ought to be treated alike and different cases ought to be treated differently 193. Free choice the philosophic position that individuals have the freedom to choose their moral actions without intimidation, coercion, or manipulation being a factor. 194. Freedom An act done with freedom means that the agent does an act under the control of his will. 195. Fortitude - Firmness of mind. It is the courage to endure without yielding 196. Forthrightness - the quality of being honest and straightforward in attitude and speech 197. Foundationalism The belief that the first principles of morality must be self-evident, obviously true, or impossible to deny. 198. FREELY – the person performed his action voluntarily 199. Fundamental Option. The notion that the specific choices we make manifest a fundamental ―choice‖ about priorities. 200. Genealogy of Morals Nietzsche's theory that established that morality is a human invention, one that may be accepted as is, altered, or reflected in favor of something else 201. GENERAL ETHICS—Study of general principle of morality 202. GIFT – Refers to the thing or right disposed gratuitously, or any act of liberty in favor of another who accepts it 203. Gnosticism. This is a general term for the belief that authentic life is found only by living in the higher realm of knowledge, rather than the lower realm of visible, material reality. 204. Gratuities—Items of value given because of role or position, rather than a personal relationship. 205. Goal – a general statement of purpose that is useful in identifying and mission of the police. 206. Goal Ethics. An act right only if its goal is to produce the best available balance of good over bad. 207. Good Faith Based on the belief in the accuracy of the information or concern being reported. 208. Good will the motive to do the right thing 209. Governance The act, process or power of exercising authority or control in an organizational setting. 210. Graft -- Exploitation of one's role by accepting bribes or protection money 211. Gratitude duties based on past favors and unearned services. 212. GREEK ETHICS It advocated that ethics deals with duties of a person moral citizen of the nation. 213. Gyges Ring Plato's story about a shepherd that makes himself invisible in order to do self-serving acts. 214. Half-Mast - The flag is raised at half-mast in deference to deceased uniformed members of the command. 215. Happiness mental or emotional state of well-being characterized by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy. 216. Happiness principle doing the greatest good for the greatest number of people. 217. Hedonism is the belief that pleasure, or the absence of pain, is the most important principle in determining the morality of a potential course of action. 218. Hedonistic based on pleasure 219. Hedonistic utilitarianism a theory that holds that all pleasures have to be given equal ethical weight 220. Heteronomy the opposite of autonomy. 221. Historicity. This refers to how history itself constitutes fundamental human characteristics in ways that are specific to times and places. 222. Honesty The quality of trustworthiness in which an individual can be depended on to "not lie, cheat, or steal.". 223. Honor A virtue or distinguishable characteristic of an individual that implies the individual is obligated to follow a specific set of written or unwritten moral guidelines. 224. Honor could be the overriding criterion and consideration in the performance of their entrusted task or mission 225. Honor Ceremony - Arrival and departure honor ceremonies are rendered to visiting dignitaries, VIPs, PNP Officers with the grade of Chief Superintendent and above and AFP officers of equivalent grade, unless waived. 226. House Visit. It is an interpersonal interaction that brings the police closer to the communities 227. HUMAN ACT acts that are done knowingly, deliberately and free 228. Humanity-as-an-end-in-itself second formulation of the categorical imperative; tells us to treat humanity always as an end, never simply as a means 229. Hypothetical imperative a command or prescription that tells you to perform a certain action because you want something 230. Illegal Gratification: It is defined as taking gratification other than legal remuneration in respect of an official act. 231. Immoral A moral perspective in which the individual knows the good, right, and proper course of action but instead chooses to do wrong. 232. Impartial neither illegitimately benefiting one party nor illegitimately harming another 233. Imperfect Duties An imperfect duty, such as the duty to support the poor, allows exceptions and various ways in which it may be satisfied. 234. INCOMPETENCY – It is the manifested lack of adequate ability and fitness for the satisfactory performance of police duties. 235. Independence freedom to act without control or influence from others, to be free to make decisions and act without external constraint. 236. Individualism. Theories which center on the centrality of the individual as opposed to a ―common good. 237. Individual Relativism the ethical theory that holds that the ethical value of an action is relative not to the culture as a whole, but to the individual him or herself 238. Inductive reasoning Reasoning from particular facts to a general conclusion. 239. Internal Affairs—Conducts investigations within an agency by either another agency member or an outside agency. 240. Institutionism The belief that ethical properties cannot be reduced to any other type of property, and that ethical properties have a unique kind of existence that cannot be grasped through the five senses and explained by science. 241. INSTITUTIONS exert a strong and significant influence on the minds of people regarding moral development of values. 242. Integrity moral virtue or distinguishable character trait in which an individual is free from corruption. 243. Intellectual Integrity: It is defined as recognition of the need to be true to one’s own thinking and to hold oneself to the same standards one expects others to meet. 244. Intersubjective a product of the shared life of people within actual communities 245. Intimidation An intentional ac done to frighten or inhibit others or to rendered them to do certain behaviors. 246. Intrinsic value A nonmoral value in which relative worth of an event, object, or experience is placed on some internal, personal satisfaction. 247. Intrinsic Worth Worthy and value for itself, in itself. 248. Intuitionism the belief that ethical properties cannot be reduced to any other type of property, and that ethical properties have a unique kind of existence that cannot be grasped through the five senses and explained by science 249. Invalid being without foundation or force in fact, truth, or law. 250. Invincible Ignorance: An unavoidable lack of sufficient knowledge about a situation to make a responsible moral judgment. 251. John Rawls a twentieth-century American philosopher who developed on of the most influential theories of distributive justice. 252. Jurisprudence examines the values or ethics associated with positive law 253. Justice A universal moral value in which the essential nature of fairness and equity should be applied to all peoples. 254. Kantianism an ethical theory that begins from the idea that the ethical value of an action depends not upon the action's consequences, but upon the motive of the person who performed the action 255. Kingdom of end formulation third formulation of the categorical imperative; tells us that every person ought to act on ethical laws or rules that would constitute the legislation of a kingdom of purely rational agents 256. KNOWINGLY – The person fully understands what he is doing and has the ability to appreciate the consequences of his actions. 257. KNOWLEDGE (Karunungan) this characterized by Filipinos love to learning new things 258. Lapu-Lapu – Symbolizes the bravery of the Philippine National Police 259. Laurel Green Laurel with 14 leaves, symbolizes the 14 Regional Commands 260. Legal- virtue that regulates those actions which society may justly require to the individual for the common good 261. Legal Standards – are derived primarily from substantive and procedural criminal laws. 262. Lex Talionis: The law of retaliation, which says that no vengeance shall exceed the original hurt: an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth. 263. Libertarian: A theory which gives priority to the principles of individual liberty and freedom of though 264. Logic: A system of evaluating statements or arguments. 265. Loss aversion is the notion that people hate losses more than they enjoy gains. 266. LOVE FOR OTHERS /FELLOWMEN (Pakikipagkapwa /Pakikisama) Filipinos naturally mindful of the welfare of others. 267. LOVE PF COUNTRY OR PATRIOTISM (Pagmamahal sa Bayan) Filipinos are culturally and naturally proud of their own. 268. Magnanimity - liberal and generous 269. MALFEASANCE – It is the performance of some act which ought not to be done. 270. Manichaeanism. The view that the universe is controlled by two forces, one for good and one for evil. 271. Materialism The doctrine that everything in the world, including thought, can be explained only in terms of matter. 272. Material Principle of Justice concrete principles of justice or specific accounts of what desert and likeness amount to 273. Maxim a statement of an action and its intention 274. Mean: Moderate actions or attitudes appropriately chosen between two extremes; identified with virtue. 275. MEDIVIAL ETHICS It says that Ethics is not part of politics (as said in the Greek Philosophy). 276. Metis Rea: "Guilty mind" or intent to injure; the assignment of lesser penalties for lesser degrees of guilt. 277. Meta-ethics the specific philosophic study of ethics in which the formal academic inquiry is toward the analytical. 278. Metaphysics: A branch of philosophy concerned with questions about reality and the nature of existence. 279. MISCONDUCT – This is generally premeditated, obstinate or intentional purpose. 280. MISFEASANCE or Irregularities in the Performance of a Duty – It is the improper performance of some act which might lawfully be done or the performance of a lawful act in an unlawfully or culpably negligent manner. 281. MODERN ETHICS It deals with determining rightness of the acts. 282. Monistic term used to describe a theory that has one single foundation 283. MOONLIGHTING – An act of a member of the PNP pursuing or following any calling or occupation or the act of engaging in any business, which includes but not limited to all activities, jobs, work, and similar functions, performed, engaged in or undertaken by him 284. Moral The moral perspective in which one knows the good, proper, and right. 285. Moral absolutism asserts that there are certain universal moral principles by which all peoples’ actions may be judged. 286. Moral Agency: The ability to make ethical choices and take responsibility for those choices. 287. Morale – self-esteem, self-confidence, drive a person attitude and emotional feeling regarding their ways of life and the people whom they interact. 288. Moral Agent is a person who has the ability to discern right from wrong and to be held accountable for his or her own actions. 289. MORAL ASCENDANCY It is the influence that one-person exercise over a group of persons by reason of exemplary nature of his character. 290. Moral Character – an evaluation of a person moral and metal qualities 291. Moral Community is a group of people drawn together by a common interest in living according to a particular moral philosophy, or particular ethical practices. 292. Moral cognition is the study of the brain’s role in moral judgment and decisionmaking. 293. Moral Conservativism a view that holds that ethical value is bound to a great extent to the ways of established communities 294. Moral development the evolving growth process by which one learns to take others into consideration in making moral decisions. 295. Moral equilibrium is the idea that most people keep a running mental scoreboard where they compare their self-image as a good person with what they actually do 296. Moral guidelines the key to recognizing an ethical issue is to be able to conceptualize the moral problem correctly in the first place and this is what our Moral Reasoning Strategy attempts to help you do; it is a template which organizes considerations to generate a decision. 297. Moral Imagination is creatively imagining the full range of option while making moral decision. 298. Morality The motives, intentions, and actions of an individual as they are directed toward others and how these are judged by the greater society. 299. Moral judgment the ability to form an opinion on moral issues. 300. Moral Law: A rule or group of rules of right living conceived as universal and unchanging. 301. Moral legalism an ethical theory that focuses chiefly on general rules 302. Moral muteness is remaining silent when observing immoral behavior. 303. Moral myopia is the difficulty people sometimes have in clearly seeing ethical issues and ethical challenges. 304. Moral Nihilism The belief that there is no such thing as ethical value at all. 305. Moral objectivism: The position that certain acts are objectively right or wrong, independent of human opinion. 306. Moral Obligation belief that the act is one prescribed by their set of values. 307. Moral philosophy studies what is right and wrong and related philosophical issues 308. Moral pluralism is the nation that various conflicting values may all equally valid and worthy of respect. 309. Moral psychology encompasses both the philosophical and psychological study of the development of the moral sense and related to matters. 310. Moral reasoning the ability to systematically think through a moral problem taking into consideration one's own values and beliefs while weighing them against what others and society values and believes. 311. Moral Relativism: It may be any of several philosophical positions concerned with the differences in moral judgements across different people and culture. 312. Moral rights are based in acceptance of a particular moral theory. 313. Moral Skepticism An ethical belief that doubs that ethical values exist. 314. Moral turpitude: Criminal law describes it as conduct contrary to community standards of justice, honesty or good morals. 315. Moral Universalism: it is the meta-ethical position that some system of ethics, or a universal ethic, applies universally. 316. Moral value the worth each individual places on specific nonmoral values, such as winning, which affect and impinge others. 317. Moral virtues traits that are morally valued 318. Motive: The basis, reasoned or irrational, for the way a person acts. 319. Motivation The psychological condition which moves an individual to action. 320. Multi-media. The various media available to the police must be utilized to disseminate information both to the public and the police themselves. 321. Naturalism The metaethical view that all ethical values are identical to natural properties. 322. Naturalistic Fallacy A line of thinking that says it is erroneous or fallacious to claim that an ethical property is identical to a natural property. 323. Natural Law Ethics. The natural order of things is good. People must not violate that order. 324. Nepotism The political response in which favoritism is shown to relatives or cronies in delegating authority. 325. Nietzsche nineteenth-century philosopher who believed that God did not exist and that there were no objective ethical values built into the fabric of the universe 326. Nihilism. The belief that there is no value or truth. 327. Noble Cause Corruption—Involves officers employing unethical means to catch criminals because "it's the right thing to do". 328. Non-Cognitivism The belief that ethical judgment dows not involve an attempt to gain knowledge about the world. 329. Non-consequentialism ethical theory that holds that the rightness or wrongness of actions does not depend entirely on the consequences they produce 330. NONEFEASANCE OR NEGLECT OF DUTY – It is omission of some act, which ought to be performed. It is the omission or refusal without sufficient excuse, to perform an act or duty 331. non-moral value the perspective taken toward an issue in which good and bad are determined based on non-moral issues. 332. Nonmoral virtues traits that are valued for nonmoral reasons 333. Normative ethics the theoretical study or position of morality in which a rightness and wrongness is analyzed and reviewed with a decision specifically 334. Nurturing is a Filipino value manifested by properly caring of children and even the aged parents. 335. Obedience to Authority is the tendency people have to try to comply with superiors wishes, even when to do so conflicts with their own moral judgment. 336. Objectivism The belief that there is a standard external to the person making ethical judgments against which those judgments can be held. 337. Objectivity The philosophic position in which one is without bias or prejudice. 338. Obligation One of the four stipulations of an event which must be met to equate to a moral dilemma. 339. Obstruction Any philosophical condition in which a hindrance is blocking progress or development on a moral issue. 340. Offensive Io. To destroy, degrade, disrupt, deny, deceive, exploit, and influence adversary decision- makers who can affect the success of the friendly operation. 341. Open Question Argument Contention that any effort to define the good must fail since it always remains possible to ask significantly whether or not the proposed definition is actually good. 342. OPPRESSION – Imports an act of cruelty, severity, unlawful execution, or excessive use of authority. 343. Original position a hypothetical situation in which we have no knowledge of facts about the world such as race, sex, education etc. 344. Ought-implies-can Principle that tells us that if we ought to do something, then it must be possilbe for us to do it. 345. Outcomes Ethics. Actions are judged to be morally good in light of expected outcomes. 346. Overconfidence Bias is the tendency people have to be more confident in their own abilities, including making moral judgements, that objective facts would other. 347. Padulas” refers to the taking of money, gifts or favors from others by a public servant to expedite the performance of official functions. 348. Paradox An apparent illogical statement that at first appears to be contradictory may be true or false. 349. Paternalism The practice of governing or monitoring adult individuals in a manner that suggests a father/child relationship. 350. Patience- calmness and composure in enduring something; 351. Patrol activities. These activities are conducted so that police and its auxiliaries can be seen and felt by the community. 352. PEER GROUPS The second important source of value formation from peer groups, friends and colleagues with whom you interact in day-to-day life. 353. Pelagianism. A theory which so stressed the essential goodness of that it assumed that perfection is available to humans without God’s help. 354. Perseverance- the ability to go on despite of the obstacles and opposition 355. PERSONAL DIGNITY This is indicative of a policeman’s appreciation of the honor of his position. 356. Philippine Monkey Eating Eagle the National Bird- symbol of swiftness and ferocity, power, courage and immortality. 357. Philosophy The study of principles that underlie human conduct and order in the universe; the study of reality.. 358. Pluralistic term used to describe a theory that has multiple foundations 359. PNP Shield – Symbol of protection of all citizens. 360. Police Brutality” denotes the unreasonable and unnecessary use of force, commonly done in effecting arrests of criminal offenders, 361. Police Community Relations is a slowly evolving policing system that is being adopted by police organization worldwide. 362. POLICE CUSTOMS AND SOCIAL DECORUM – A set of norms and standards practiced by members during social and other functions. 363. POLICE ETHICS Refers to the practical science of human morality and duty as applied to law enforcement. 364. Police Uniform identify somebody’s occupation, affiliation or status an expression of internalizing and or externalizing the expected police professial conduct. 365. Policy – is a general statement that gives guidance to police officers about the proper course of action 366. Political Standards – come from the expectations of the community concerning what is and is not appropriate police behavior 367. Police Subculture—An unofficial fraternity of police officers that promote an "us versus them" mentality because they form a homogenous social group, have uniquely stressful work environment, and participate in a basically closed social system. 368. Positive law a rule from a superior to an inferior that the inferior habitually obeys, with sanction imposed if the rule is broken 369. Pragmatism The practice of testing validity of all concepts by their practical results. 370. Preference utilitarianism a theory that holds that the right action is that which maximizes the satisfaction of the desires or preferences of all the individuals involved 371. Prejudice A preconceived, usually unfavorable, idea or opinion which is biased and intolerant. 372. Premises and Assumptions claims that are to be accepted before an argument begins. 373. Prescriptive Ethical Theories Ethical theories that prescribe a certain kind of conduct. 374. Prescriptivism A belief that emphasizes that ethical judgments prescribe courses of actions an do not describe states of affairs in the world 375. Prima facie on the face of things or at first sight; something that we all initially believe is an ethical duty 376. Principles of bioethics principles used in bioethics refined from ideas of ethical theory such as consequentialism, deontology, and justification 377. Principle of justice a principle that states that all people in a society must be treated equally 378. Principle of Utility ethical principle that holds that actions are right to the extent that they produce happiness; also called the Greatest Happiness Principle 379. Principle A written affirmation on one's values 380. Probabilism. A view that moral laws should be followed unless a more ―provable or ―well-tested reason showed otherwise, particularly the views of respected experts. 381. Probity: It is the adherence to the highest principles and ideals. 382. Problem Solving The process of engaging in the proactive and systematic examination and of identified problems to develop and rigorously evaluate effective responses. 383. Procedure – identifies a method of series of steps to be taken when performing a task or attempting to solve a problem. 384. Profession refers to the art and science in the practice of criminology discipline 385. PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT – It refers to the set of behavioral standard governing particular profession or professionals. 386. Professional Ethics - set of moral code to which every profession must subscribe. 387. Proportionalism. Moral laws may be disregarded if there is a proportionate reason for doing so. 388. Prosocial Behavior occurs when people voluntarily help others 389. Proxy Consent: Voluntary consent given on behalf of another who is unable to give it himself/herself. 390. Prudence- ability to govern and discipline oneself is means of reason and sound judgment 391. Psychological Egoism The belief that all human motivation is self-interested. 392. RA 11131 The Philippine Criminology Profession Act of 2018. 393. Racial Profiling—Stopping an individual based solely on racial characteristics 394. Rational Faith The belief that an element of faith must be involved in accepting morality because we cannot prove anything 395. Rationalizations are the excuses people gives themselves for failing to live up to their own ethical standards. 396. Rationalism ethical theory that holds that true ethical understanding is a purely rational matter in which emotion and sentiment play no central role 397. Rationality: It is a concept which believes in the use of reason which is detached with passions, emotions and beliefs. 398. Reason as the Foundation of Morality. morality is determined by sentiment. It defines virtue to be whatever mental action or quality gives to a spectator the pleasing sentiment of approbation 399. Rectitude: righteousness or consequences in procedure or being honorable and honest. 400. Red tapism: Red tape is excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decisionmaking. 401. Reflective equilibrium a method of ethical justification whose goal is to bring into harmony both our general ethical principles and our considered ethical judgments about particular issues. 402. Relative worth the individual importance placed on some intrinsic or extrinsic object, experience, or person. 403. Relativism: Characterized by the notion that no point of view is more correct than any other; in matters of policy and ethics, the belief that there is only subjective opinion, and no objective truth. 404. Relativist Ethics. Relativism denies the possibility of universal moral norms. 405. Reparation Prima facie dutie. duties that stem from past harms we cause others. 406. Respect The moral value in which one holds someone or something in high regard. 407. Respect for autonomy bioethical principle of respect for the patient's right to control his or her own life 408. Respect for Ends Respect for people as ends in themselves and not as means only. 409. Respect for persons Treat and recognize other's human dignity with respect. 410. Responsibility A statement of character that one is trustworthy to carry out deeds. 411. Retributive justice concerns penalties for violations 412. Reversibility The moral perspective of placing the onus of on oneself. 413. Revise beliefs Rational agent receives new information that her change her beliefs. 414. Rights Legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement. 415. ROLE MODELS These people may be one of your teachers, a sportsman, a film star or political leader. 416. Role morality describe how people sometimes apply differently ethical standards depending on what role they seem themselves playing. 417. Rule/Regulation – is a specific statement that identifies required or prohibited behavior by officers. 418. Rules Individual day-to-day moral guidelines which can be written or unwritten by the individual. 419. Rule utilitarianism a theory that holds that the right action is that which accords with a rule that maximizes happiness 420. Salute- the usual greeting rendered by uniformed members upon meeting and recognizing person entitled to salute 421. Self-Centered Agents own character concerned solely or chiefly with one's own interests, welfare, etc.; engrossed in self; selfish; egotistical. 422. Self-evident truth. A truth which requires no external proof or justification. 423. Self-serving bias is the tendency people have to seek out information and use it in ways that advance their self-interest 424. Self-improvement the duties to improve our knowledge and virtue. 425. Self- Interest individualism. focus on the needs or desires (interests) of oneself 426. Selfish devoted to or caring only for oneself; concerned primarily with one's own interests , benefits, welfare, etc., regardless of others. 427. Sentient: Sentience is the ability to feel, perceive, or to experience subjectivity. 428. Sentient Being Awareness and conscious being. does not imply reasoning. 429. Sentimentalism The belief that our acceptance of morality must be based on our sentimental dispositions and nor on any rational proof. 430. Serious person De Beauvoir's term for a conformist 431. Service is the vibrant and cogent deeds and actions in response to the needs and wants of the people in distress 432. Sexual Ethics. Ethical issues related to sex including pre-marital sex, extra marital sex, homosexuality, contraception, masturbation, contraception etc. 433. Sins of Omission. The idea that we can do wrong through inaction. 434. Situational ethics the position that every ethical or moral decision is made on the spot and no consistency is shown between individual decision. 435. Skepticism The doctrine that the truth of all knowledge must always be in question or doubt. 436. Simone De Beauvoir twentieth-century French existentialist 437. Slave Morality the morality of the weak and powerless; the chief virtues of this morality are humility, obedience, and the like 438. Slippery Sloap Argument. In ethics this is used to describe the dangers of theories which allow for moral laws to be broken in certain circumstances. 439. Social Contract Theory ethical theory that states that the rule that govern society originate in an agreement between free and equal individuals 440. Social Decorum-a set of norms or standard practiced by members during social and other functions 441. Socratic method: The method of questioning that Socrates used to approach truth, which is assumed to be implicitly known to all rational beings. 442. SPECIAL ETHICS—Study of the application of the general principle of morality; included in this division is the category of professional ethics. 443. Spirit of a rule refers to the intent of a sportsmanship rule or what was what was intended by the rule. 444. Spirit of Service Serving the people and nation in a selfless manner which will provide an inner satisfaction of paying back to the society what one owes. 445. Social Contract Theory is the idea that society exists because of an implicitly agreed-to set of standards that provide moral and political rules of behavior. 446. SOLIDARITY (Pakikibaka) Filipinos show unity in fighting poverty, injustice and inequality. 447. Sound Logically necessary. free from error, fallacy, or misapprehension 448. Steadfastness - loyalty in the face of trouble and difficulty 449. Stoic Ethics. This is based on the belief that all nature is a rationally ordered system. 450. Stoicism: A philosophical system of the Stoics, who held that our duty is to conform to natural law and accept our destinies, and that wise human beings should remain unserved by joy or grief 451. Strong deontological theories theories that hold that the rightness or wrongness of an action is wholly independent of the goodness or badness of thigs or states of affairs 452. Strong non-consequentialist theories theories that hold that the rightness ow wrongness of an action is totally independent of the consequences of the act 453. Subjectivism The belief that ethical judgments are relative to the individual person or suject, making the judgment. 454. Subject of Moral Worth is a person or entity that deserves people’s moral consideration. 455. Suffering is an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. 456. Summum Bonum is generally thought of as being an end in itself, and at the same time as containing all other goods. 457. Supererogatory. A supererogatory act is morally good and goes beyond what is required by duty. 458. Sustainability is living to meet the needs of the present generation without depleting the resources that future generation will need to meet their needs. 459. Syllogism. A form of deductive reasoning using the key terms “all” and “some”. 460. Sympathy harmony of or agreement in feeling, as between persons or on the part of one person with respect to another. 461. Tangible &Abstract describes how people may make moral error by focusing to much on immediate factors that are close in time and geography and to little on more obstruct 462. Temperance- ability to moderate or avoid something. It is a virtue that regulates the carnal ap- petite for sensual pleasure 463. teleological ethics (Consequential) - Matters of right and wrong are decided on the issue of the greater amount of good. 464. Teleological related to a particular goal or end 465. The area visit is a form of a patrol to be conducted jointly by a two-person team from concerned police stations with a team from RPSB or PPSC or by maneuver units. 466. Thomas Hobbes developed a theory of justice called the social contract, which is the view that morality is founded solely on uniform social agreements that serve the best interests of those who make the agreement 467. Three Stars – Stands for Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao which constitute the Republic’s Territorial Integrity over which the PNP must enforce the law and maintain peace and order with professionalism, zeal and dedication in keeping with the highest ideals and traditions of service to God, Country and People. 468. Traditions- bodies of belief, stories, and customs usages banded prom the generation to generation with the effect of unwritten law. 469. Truthfulness It is one of the basic police values that emphasize never to tell what is untrue because it destroys the foundation of social life which is based on mutual trust. 470. Unfalsifiable or definitionally irrefutable Terms used to describe a theory that is true by stipulative definition; substantively empty or meaningless 471. Universal system of ethics applied to every sentient being. 472. Universal law formulation first formulation of the categorical imperative; requires a person to formulate a maxim and then conceive or imagine that this maxim is something by which everyone must always live 473. Universalizability. A moral law which can be obeyed every time everywhere. 474. Universality An ethical perspective in which decisions are decided based on whether the decision can be applied across all societies and cultures in every instance. 475. Utilitarian Ethics. An outcomes theory that maintains that an action is right if it produces the greatest good for the greatest number. 476. Utilitarianism The greatest amount of measurable good for the greatest number of people. 477. Utility individual moral standard. Morally responsible for actions concerned with the greatest good for the greatest number. 478. Validity measurement of sound reasoning whereby consistent, impartial, and reflective logic is the standard. 479. Value Individual relative worth placed on some intrinsic or extrinsic object, experience, or persons. 480. VALUES – These are the priorities that individual gives to the elements in his life and career based on his ethics, morality and integrity 481. Value terms terms used to evaluate things or states of affairs 482. Value system. A fixed set of ethical and moral beliefs and practices usually associated with a world view of truth, life and death. 483. Veil of Ignorance is the device for helping people more fairly envision a fair society by pretending that they are ignorant of their personal circumstances. 484. Vice. To habitually do what is wrong. 485. VIOLATION OF LAW – Presupposes conviction in court of any crime or offense penalized under RPC or any special law or ordinances. 486. Violence Physical Force exerted for the purpose of injuring another. 487. Virtue The quality of living by one's stated moral values. 488. Virtue Ethics is a normative philosophical approach that urges people to live a moral life by cultivating virtuous habits. 489. Virtue theory Agent-based theory based on the golden mean of arete. 490. Voice of conscience corresponds to an inner voice that judges your behavior 491. Voluntariness This means that the voluntary act is synonymous with human act. 492. Vulnerable Persons refers to the inability to withstand the effects of a hostile environment. 493. W. D. Ross twentieth-century English philosopher who developed a prominent nonconsequentialist ethical theory 494. Walfare Rights is an activity aimed at ensuring that people are aware of and receiving their maximum entitlement to state welfare benefits. 495. Weak consequentialist theories theories that hold that the rightness or wrongness of actions may sometimes by partly determined by the consequences 496. Weak deontological theories theories that hold that the rightness or wrongness of an action is partly independent of the goodness or badness of things or states of affairs but also partly dependent 497. Whistle-Blowing: Bringing into public view an employer's neglectful or abusive practices that threaten the public interest. 498. Will rational being with a Good Will, being moral and being rational (logical) – and being fully human are the same thing Intention to be good in itself. 499. Willful Intentional; deliberate. Having or showing a stubborn and determined intention to do as one wants, regardless of the consequences or effects. 500. World View. A collective term from all systems of belief be they religious, or secular.