Uploaded by cmarriott


is the
art and technique
of arranging type
We generally think that correcting
grammar, deciding the order of items in
a page’s layout, alignment and choosing
a legible font is sufficient.
But the art of typography involves
several factors that are …
is the ease in which text can be read and
Readability is our chief concern as designer. It is
influenced by layout, the placement of blocks of
content and the presentation of individual items. We
can do many things to ensure readability, many of
which are influenced by reader's behavior.
Fundamentally, people “read” the Web differently
than printed material. Understanding and designing
for this behavior – which is the point of user
experience design – is crucial. Web typography
brings key considerations.
When it comes to legibility, many designers agree on
certain conventions, heuristics and typographic
For instance, uppercase letters are considered more
difficult to scan than lowercase letters, while regular type
is more legible than italics. Good contrast between the
body copy and background increases legibility, as does
an appropriate line length and line height.
is the degree to which glyphs (individual
characters) in text are understandable or
recognizable based on appearance and it
is affected by typeface design, screen
The upper half of letters are relied on more for scanning
than the lower half, while the height of ascenders and
descenders play an important role in the reader’s
recognition of letters.
Many consider serifs more legible for this reason.
is the length of individual lines of text.
The optimal length will depend on the context, but
somewhere between 45 and 75 characters (including
punctuation and spaces) is recommended for
substantial blocks of text set flush left, ragged right. 66
characters is regarded as optimal: this line length allows
for comfortable reading and doesn’t require the eye to
travel too far from the end of one line to the
beginning of the next.
One shouldn’t make lines too short, either, because
having to jump too frequently to the next line tires out the
eye as well.
line height - Leading is the vertical space
of an individual line of text. It is the space between two
consecutive lines of text or, in other words, the distance
between the baselines of two lines of text.
When experimenting with tracking, make sure that
“AV”, “ft” and “co” are clearly readable, and check that
“vv” and “w” are distinguishable: the smallest inaccuracy
can make text completely unreadable.
letter &
word spacing
the space between letters, or the density
of blocks of text, can also be adjusted
relative to the measure.
The negative letter spacing of pairs of characters is also
called kerning; it may be necessary to adjust character
pairs such as “ff”, “fl” and “ffl” that actually should be set
as ligatures. In some situations, kerning may be useful
for improving the appearance of type; for instance, to
move a “T” and small “e” closer together.
is not pigmentation or hue, but rather the
consistency of glyphs on the page.
A block of text should have a uniform tone if you squint
and look at it on the screen. Nothing should jump out. If it
does, then reading the text will be interrupted and the
flow broken. This should only be done deliberately to call
attention to something. Color can also be affected by
a brief overview of
typography-related terms
difference between
serif &
serifs are semi-structural details on the ends of some of
the strokes that make up letters and symbols. A typeface
with serifs is called a serif typeface (or seriffed typeface).
A typeface without serifs is called sans serif or sans-serif.
On computer screens, sans-serif fonts are considered
easier to read than serif fonts.
setting type with
Probably one of the most annoying aspects of modern Web
typography is the limits facing the designer who wants to create a
rich and truly cross browser, uniform typographic design.
Because of the variety of operating systems coming with preinstalled system fonts, it is hardly possible to predict whether a
particular font will be correctly displayed on a user’s machine or
will create typographic noise, making the text harder to read
and the layout harder to navigate.
So-called “Core Web fonts”, the set of 10 fonts that were designed
in the 1990s-2000s to serve as the standard pack of fonts for the
Web. Nowadays, these fonts are installed on over 95% of
machines worldwide by default and are therefore
often the first choice of designers for body copy.
font-face rule
Up until now, if you wanted to use fonts on a website, you were limited
to one of the dozen or so ‘web-safe’ fonts (Verdana, Times, Helvetica—
you know, the ones you see everywhere on the web). Using other fonts
required you to convert the text into images, or to use some hacky
Javascript or Flash solution such as sIFR or Cufón.
In a relatively recent development, browsers which support the @fontface rule can access fonts embedded in websites.
Now If you want to make Web use of your already licensed desktop
fonts, you can embed them from your own server.
font formats
This format was developed in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobe’s
Type 1 fonts used in PostScript. As a scalable outline format, it replaced
the common bitmap fonts that were used for screen display at that
time. Microsoft took up the TrueType format as well and it soon
evolved into the standard format for system fonts due to the fact that it
offered fine-tuned control for a precise display of font in particular
Microsoft and Adobe teamed up in developing this font format. Based
on the TrueType format, OpenType offers additional typographical
features such as ligatures, fractions or context sensitive glyphs and the
like. However, browser support of these features which are common in
sophisticated layout and illustration programs is still unsatisfactory.
There are two different versions of OpenType fonts, depending on the
outline technology used. There are:
OpenType fonts with TrueType Outlines (OpenType TT) and
OpenType fonts with PostScript Outlines (OpenType PS)
Reading Behavior
People search for things and read that they want to know. People read what is most
important to them. Our most important job is to find , understand, connect with the
words, ideas and information they seek.
People read in 3 ways:
1. Casually – scanning over headlines, paragraphs here and there to get the sense of what it
says. ( example : User behavior on online new s portals looking for their articles of interest )
2. Scan with purpose - Jumping from place to place on a page looking for specific information
, they may only read the first item or character of that particular article ( for example : user
behavior searching for contact email on contact us page will be looking only for a word that
starts with letter “c”)
3. Engaged – People read in a engaged manner whet they find the article of their interest
, focusing deeply on that particular article.
Good Typography promotes reading. Font choice in size keep text legible and meaningful.
Good line length and line height can help guide the readers eye. Vertical
spacing, hierarchy, break up text into meaningful and manageable chunk of information
makes the information more readable.
more on typo in next tech-talk