Uploaded by Nour Salah

Teatching Language Skills Mr Ibrahim Al Mayasi WCH GROUP 2021

( Introduction )
 Language is constructed of components that convey a meaning: Sounds =
Pronunciation, words used for meaning= Vocabulary, Sentences for understanding
contexts = Grammar.
 Language components are tools of communication used for two main domains:
1. Encoding: Producing = Speaking & Writing. (Output).
2. Decoding: receiving= listening & reading. (input).
 The language skills are two main types:
1. Receptive Skills:
Receiving language through : Listening (Invisible : Heard) & Reading (visible seen)
2. Productive Skills:
Producing language through : Speaking (Invisible : Heard) & Writing (visible seen)
Receptive Skills:
Receiving a language happens when people listen to a language or when they read a
The Listening Skill: language is received through the ears.
The Reading Skill: Language is received through the eyes.
Productive Skills: Producing language happens when people speak or writes.
1. The Speaking Skill: used to communicate with the others orally. It is the language out
put heard when people talk.
2. The Writing Skill: Writing a language out on paper, It is out put which the language
becomes visible.
 The way we speak is not the way we write. there are two discourses : Spoken Discourse
or Written Discourse.
1. Features in the spoken discourse: Spoken language tends to be less precise and less
grammatical. ( ‫(فهم‬
2. Features of Written Discourse:Written language is precise and has to be
grammatically correct. (‫)فهم‬
 The Skill of Reading:
Reading : is a communicative activity that involves the decoding of a message
 Elements of Reading: 1.The writer ,2.The text,3.The reader.
 Reader’s knowledge: A reader who intends to read a text and understand it has to
3 types of knowledge:
Phonic and phonemic awarenesses.
Recognizing meanings.
Previous background of the subject matter and common sense.
 Teaching Reading:
1. Teaching Reading in the early stage : you need to be co- operative and
social venture aloud and receding into speech.
 Teachers and beginner learners need to read aloud to associate the of the
Spelling and Pronunciation.
 Approaches of Teaching Reading in the Early Stages:
1. Look and Say Approach: global reading method for teaching reading
teaches the written form of meaningful words, reading by looking at the
whole of the word and repeating it loudly after the teacher.
 Look and Say Activities:1. whole word activity:
 visual recognition activity
 The teacher says the word and shows a picture/ an object of it
2. The whole sentence Activity:
 The students look at a phrase and /or a whole sentence structur presenting
a noun with a picture or a verb in action.
 The Phonic Approach: is a systematic teaching of reading through a
planned scheme of phonic training.
 It concentrates on teaching learners the sounds.
 focuses on teaching young learners what each letter represents as a sound then
teaches them how they can build the letters up into words.
 Phonic Approach Activity:
 The teacher can start with vowel sounds and then add them to consonant
 The teacher can pronounce the sound and the learners find the picture on
which the sound exists.
2. Teaching Reading for later Stages of Learning:
 Students at later stages of reading are not reading to learn how to pronounce the
written words.
 The later stage of reading, students read for a purpose, and with questions in mind.
 They have mastered basic reading abilities
 A higher language level than a word and single sentence more sophisticated texts and
tasks quickly with a purpose.
 The content: Students need to know enough about the topic: to apply their own
background knowledge and find interest in it .
 The key information: scanning tasks, students identify and ignore those parts of the
text which are not relevant to what they are searching for. This is called selective.
 Selective: reading/attention when students pay less attention to redundancies or
repetition and find answers to the questions in mind.
 The meaning of a word from the text by gussing and Inferencing
The skill of Prediction ,Students guess what comes/ happens next in the following
paragraph,parts of a story.
 Tasks and Activities for Practicing Reading through speaking and writing
Integration of skills:
1. Read the text and divide its parts
2. Gist: get the general meaning of the text from the underlined
parts:(Skimming). Tell the teacherabout it (Oral discussion: Speaking)
3. Re read the text and tabulate(Writing)
4. Find answers (scanning).
5. Guess the meaning of unknown vocabulary
 summary of Stages of Teaching and Learning Reading: (Reading !!)
• To teach reading, teachers should know the language level/stage their students are
at. So they can start teaching:
First: The smallest units of the written language:single letters: spelling) and sounds of
Teachers rely on visual aids and the object it represents.Early stage of learning reading
• Second: The word level or phrase levele.eg. Pen / a pen (realia and pictures)
• Third: The sentence level e.g. It’s a pen.(Stages First, Second and Third are for
Beginning Reading)
• Fourth: The text level: The level at which the students see the language they are
learning woven into one texture. Now they have mastered some basic reading
(The fourth stage is starting Fluent Reading)
 The Skill of Writing:
 Writing: is a communicative activity , carried out in accordance with certain
general principles which underline the use of language in communication.
 Writer’s knowledge:1.Hand writing, 2.Spelling, 3.Punctuation,
4.grammar, 5.Vocabulary, 6.Coherence. 7. Knowledge of the adudience.
8. The communicative purpose. 9. The content of conveying a message to
the reader.
 Special consideration of teaching Writing: 1.The organising of sentences
into paragraph. 2.How paragraphs are joined together.
 The Principles of Teaching Writing: ( Just 4 reading !!)
1. Teacher should avoid unconnected sentences.
2. Use text that are appropriate to the students needs.
3. Make sure that students are exposed to the text-types you want them
to write.
4. Select a purpose and an audience for the writing.
5. Teachers should always know what is possible for any group of
6. Start with tight control ,Move to guided control, then free.
7. Make sure that they can say what they write.
8. Integrate practice of the sub-skills into the practice of text writing.
9. Encourage the practice of revision and edition.
10. Encourage the practice of self correction.
 Stage for Teaching writing:
1. Writing in the early Stage: Focus on Handwriting and spelling
 In this stage learners need to build up the facility of practising shapes
while moving from left to right across the page.
 Writing at the early stage is nedd for reinforcement of the material learnt
orally, and also it can be used for variety of activities.
 Spelling:
 Spelling is more complex problem than handwriting.
 This problem arises from the irregularities and unpredictability of
English spelling.
 Techniques of teaching Spelling:
1. Spelling is a visual skill learners can get into the habit of looking with
inent and observing details. To take photo of a word and hold the
image in their mind.
2. The visual memory can be trained by encouraging learners to be
3. Motor skills can support spelling. English letter strings for later stage
of learning.
 Developing the skill of writing:
McEldowney in her approach to language teaching associated the three
communicative purposes with some kind of grammatical tools.
devided the materials and the levels of the language into 3:
1. Elementray stage: students practice writing a description involving
the concepts of classification and colour. "only one concept"
2. Intermediate stage: students are guided to write short paragraphs
"two concept"
3. More advanced stage: learners practice writing longer paragraphs
"3 ideas compressed in a single sentence"
 The listening skill:
Listening: is vital in the language classroom because it provides input
for the learner.
Teaching is commonly broken down into 3 essential approaches:
The grammar translation approach:
The Grammar/ Translation Approach Listening as an activity figures
little or no attention is paid to Listening and the focus being on written
Dictation is the nearest equivalent to listening to connected texty offered by
the approach.
The audio-Lingual approach:
The Audio-Lingual approach offers a much more prominent place to
listening practice.
According to Ur (1996:105) " ... the objective a listening comprehension
practice in the classroom is that students should learn to functi successfully
in real-life listening situations."
Communicative methodology:
practice in the language classroom should be communicative.
In real life we do not listen to single sentences; we listen to discourse.
learners need to listen to monologues and dialogues.
The types of listening input text:
1. Scripted:know hesitation or know other features of unspoken of language
2. semi-scripted: othentic some features.
3. unscripted: is spontaneous and difficult to control the language.
 (Harmer 1998:97). Teaching listaing is vey important in Language teaching
 Why we need to listen to diffrent types of texts?
To give students wide range of spoken materilas.
 Two kinds of listening situations:
1. Non-interactive: listening situations or monologue listening to radio TV,
films, lectures or Someone
2. Interactive: include face-to-face conversation, have chance to ask for
Acording to Richards and Renadya effective listening course
characterized by the following:
 The materials should be based on a wide range of authentic texts
Including monologues and dialogues.
 Schema-building tasks should precede the listening
 tasks should include opportunities for learners to play an active role
in their own learning.
Stages of Teaching listening:
1. pre-listening: Its objective will set up predictions which will facilitate the
listening tasks.
2. while listening: help to focus the students' attention on the listening text and
guide the development of their understanding of it.
3. post listening: help students integrate what they have learnt from the text
into their existing knowledge.
 The Speaking skill:
Speaking: is the productive skill in the oral mode and it involves more
than just pronouncing words.
 There are 3 kinds of speaking situations:
1. Interactive
2. Partially interactive
3. Non-interactive
 Speaking was thought as the oral production of written language.
 Speaking is not the oral production of writen language.
 Speaking is not reading.
 Speaking activities:
1. Topic based activities on transactional talk
2. Task based activities: information gap , describing pictures, solving
3. Interactional talk
4. Long turns: telling stories or jokes .. etc.
- Good Luck !!
Twitter:Mr. Ibrahim Al-Mayasi
For Exercises in Teaching Skills: W.C.H GROUP