LESSON 6 Philippine Independence “Between stimulus and response, there is a space. In that space is our power to choose our response. In our response lies our growth and our freedom." - Vicktor Emil Frankl (Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist) Freedom is among the rights that Filipinos did not enjoy during the Spanish rule. It was a struggle for the Philippine revolutionary leaders to achieve independence from foreign power. The Filipinos fought countless battles, resulting to bloody revolutions since the 19th century under the Spanish government. The Filipino forces were persistent to achieve independence for the country. In 1896, the Philippine Revolution started, which incriminated Jose Rizal resulting to his execution on allegations of treason and rouse the Katipunan in Cavite to organize in two groups creating conflict. At the break of the Spanish-American war, the Filipino leaders saw the war between Spain and America as an opportunity to free the Philippines from the claws of the Spanish colony; hence, supported the United States with military forces including indispensable intelligence. America summoned Aguinaldo to return to the Philippines from exile and with confidence towards the pleasant US relations, Aguinaldo anticipated independence from Spain with the help of America. Returning to the Philippines and leading the Filipino troops to hold the fort of Luzon with success except for Intramuros, Aguinaldo declared the Philippine Independence from the Spanish colonial government on June 12, 1898 under the First Philippine Republic. The Philippine National flag was held up, and swayed proudly before the joyous cries of the Filipinos by 4:20 in the afternoon at General Aguinaldo's balcony of his mansion in Kawit, Cavite. Albeit, the fact that Spain lost the battle to the Filipino troops, Admiral George Dewey schemed to convince the Spaniards to surrender to America. It was an act of betrayal by America that no sooner shortlived the celebration of Philippine independence when America annexed the Spanish colonies to include the Philippines. The Filipino forces were determined to continue their efforts against imperialist power leading to a bloody fight against the American Army in February 1899 when America refused to grant Philippines the long-sought Independence. The Philippine-American War erupted in February 4, 1899 in the struggle of the Filipinos for freedom conflicting with the interests of America to become a world power by establishing overseas empire to include the Philippines under the US imperial rule. The Filipino forces applied conventional, then guerrilla tactics in fighting against the US army as they become fully aware, under the leadership of General Emilio Aguinaldo, of the strength of the US military heavily equipped with superior firearms. Although, General Aguinaldo was captured in 1901, the insurgencies, particularly by the Muslim Moros in the Southern part of the Philippines continued. Nonetheless, America was preparing Philippines for independence that started with the creation of civil government. The US President Woodrow Wilson promised Philippine Independence and started to entrust authority over Filipino leaders with the establishment of the Philippine Senate by a democratic election. The Philippine Commonwealth, with elected President Manuel L. Quezon, was instituted in 1935 under the TydingsMcDuffie Act that granted Philippines its self-government, although the legislative power was not absolute, which still required approval from the US President. At that time, it was a good start towards the eventual Philippine Independence. When the events were gearing towards Philippine independence as promised by the United States of America, the Japanese invasion and occupation bolstered in a surprise. Bataan was surrendered to the Japanese but President Quezon along with Osmena fled to America. World War Il broke out that created immense damage to Filipinos with roughly about one million casualties. After the war, Manuel Roxas was elected President in April 1946 for the independent Second Republic of the Philippines. In a formal declaration, the American flag was lowered in Luneta, Manila and raised the Filipino National flag in tri-color of red, white, and blue looked up by proud Filipinos. Finally, independence was granted to the Republic of the Philippines dated July 4, 1946. The National anthem of the Philippines was played next to America's. It was indeed a moment of liberating glory, for all Filipinos after pools of blood were shed in many revolutions. July 4, however, holds less inspiration for the Filipinos according to the elected President of the Republic of the Philippines in 1961, Diosdado Macapagal. Macapagal believes that the June 12, 1896 declaration of the Philippine independence by General Emilio Aguinaldo brings to memory the heroes of the revolution and therefore, Philippine independence is best commemorated in honor of the Filipino revolutionary heroes. Hence, President Macapagal changed the date of celebration of the Philippine independence from July 4 to June 12, which the Filipinos celebrate each year up to this time. Continue to The Philippines During Martial Law. The Malolos Congress Emilio Aguinaldo issued a decree on July 18, 1898 asking for the election of delegates to the revolutionary congress, another decree was promulgated five days later, which declared that Aguinaldo would appoint representatives of congress because holding elections is not practical at that time. He appointed 50 delegates in all (but this number fluctuated from time to time). In accordance with these two decrees, Aguinaldo assembled the Revolutionary Congress at the Brasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan on September 15, 1898. The atmosphere was festive and the Pasig Band played the national anthem. After Aguinaldo had read his speech congressional elections were held among the delegates present. The following were among the most important achievements of the Malolos Congress: 1. In September 29, 1898, ratified the declaration of Philippine independence held at Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898 2. Passage of a law that allowed the Philippines to borrow P20 million from banks for government expenses 3. Establishment of the Universidad Literatura de Filipinas and other schools 4. Drafting of the Philippine Constitution 5. Declaring war against the United States on June 12, 1899 Malolos Constitution First Philippine Republic A committee headed by Felipe Calderon and aided by Cayetano Arellano, the constitution was drafted, for the first time by representatives of the Filipino people and it is the first republican constitution in Asia. The constitution was inspired by the constitutions of Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Brazil, Belgium and France. After some minor revisions (mainly due to the objections of Apolinario Mabini), the final draft of the constitution was presented to Aguinaldo. This paved the way to launching the first Philippine Republic. It established a democratic, republication government with three branches - the Executive, Legislative and the Judicial branches. It called for the separation of church and state. The executive powers were to be exercise by the president of the republic with the help of his cabinet. Judicial powers were given to the Supreme Court and other lower courts to be created by law. The Chief justice of the Supreme Court was to be elected by the legislature with the concurrence of the President and his Cabinet. The first Philippine Republic was inaugurated in Malolos, Bulacan on January 21, 1899. After being proclaimed president, Emilio Aguinaldo took his oath of office. The constitution was read article by article and followed by a military parade. Apolinario Mabini was elected as a prime minister. The other cabinet secretaries were: Teodoro Sandico, interior; Baldomero Aguinaldo, war; Gen. Mariano Trias, finance & war; Apolinario Mabini, foreign affairs; Gracio Gonzaga for welfare, Aguedo Velarde, public instruction; Maximo Paterno, public works & communication; and Leon Maria Guerrero for agriculture, trade & commerce. The Philippine National Anthem Aguinaldo commissioned Julian Felipe, a composer from Cavite province was asked to write an instrumental march for the proclamation of independence ceremony. The original title was "Marcha Filipina Magdalo". This was later changed to "Marcha Nacional Filipina". The lyrics was added in August 1899 based on the poem titled "Filipinas" by Jose Palma. The original lyrics was written in Spanish, then to English (when the Flag Law was abolished during the American period) then later, was translated to Tagalog, which underwent another change of title to "Lupang Hinirang", the Philippine National Anthem. Summary In 1896, the Philippine Revolution started, which incriminated Jose Rizal resulting to his execution on allegations of treason and rouse the Katipunan in Cavite to organize in two groups creating conflict. Aguinaldo declared the Philippine Independence from the Spanish colonial government on June 12, 1898 under the First Philippine Republic. The Philippine National flag was held up, and swayed proudly before the joyous cries of the Filipinos by 4:20 in the afternoon at General Aguinaldo's balcony of his mansion in Kawit, Cavite. The Philippine-American War erupted in February 4, 1899 in the struggle of the Filipinos for freedom conflicting with the interests of America. Independence was granted to the Republic of the Philippines dated July 4, 1946. June 12, 1896 declaration of the Philippine independence by General Emilio Aguinaldo. The first Philippine Republic was inaugurated in Malolos, Bulacan on January 21, 1899. Aguinaldo commissioned Julian Felipe, a composer from Cavite province was asked to write an an instrumental march for the proclamation of independence ceremony. The original title was "Marcha Filipina Magdalo". This was later changed to "Marcha Nacional Filipina". The lyrics was added in August 1899 based on the poem titled "Filipinas" by Jose Palma. June 12, 1896 declaration of the Philippine independence by General Emilio Aguinaldo. The first Philippine Republic was inaugurated in Malolos, Bulacan on January 21, 1899. Aguinaldo commissioned Julian Felipe, a composer from Cavite province was asked to write an an instrumental march for the proclamation of independence ceremony. The original title was "Marcha Filipina Magdalo". This was later changed to "Marcha Nacional Filipina". The lyrics was added in August 1899 based on the poem titled "Filipinas" by Jose Palma. LESSON 7 Filipino-American Relations "At the same time, as social beings, we are moved in the relations with our fellow beings by such feelings as sympathy, pride, hate, need for power, pity, and so on" -Albert Einstein The Treaty of Paris, signed on 10 December 1898, transferred ownership of the Philippines from Spain to the United States at the cost of 20 million dollars. Jones Law, or the Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916, stipulated independence of the Philippines as soon as a stable government was established. It declared the purpose of the United States to end its sovereignty over the country. Tydings-Mcduffie Act, or the Philippine Independence Act, defined the establishment of a formal Philippine constitution by a constitutional convention. Through the 1935 Constitution, the Philippines, from 1935 to 1946, adopted a Commonwealth government, which served as a transitional administration that would prepare the country for its independence. On 4 July 1946, the United States granted the Philippines its independence, but on certain conditions. The US colonization of the Philippines was couched in President William McKinley's "benevolent assimilation," which meant that the I-JS domination was all for civilizing the Filipinos. The mission was considered "the white man's burden." The first 600 American teachers, called the Thomasites, would teach young Filipinos the English language and, with it, the American culture. The Balangiga Massacre in 1901 turned a town in Samar into a "howling wilderness." The US liberation of Manila during World War Il left thee city in ruins, as the USAFFE dropped bombs after bombs to expel the Japanese forces. A year later, in 1946, the Philippines was granted its independence. In 1947, an agreement was made to give the United States a 99-year lease for the continued operation of its military bases in the Philippines. The Mutual Defense Treaty was a treaty made in 1951, indicating support for each other in case the United States or the Philippines was attacked by an external party. The US military bases in the Far East were strategic locations for the Cold War that ensued right after World War ll. The Philippines became its strongest ally in fighting the threat of Communism or anything that resembled it. On Philippine soil, the United States sponsored the presidency of Ramon Magsaysay to quell the peasant-formed Huk Rebellion (Karnow, 1989, pp. 34647). Aiding the Philippine government, the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) deployed a psychological warfare in which the Huk rebels were made to believe that an aswang was hunting them (Derain, 2017). Extending its war on terror in the Philippines, the US sent its troops to Basilan and Zamboanga to hunt the Abu Sayyaf group. In 2014, President Benigno Aquino Ill signed the Enhanced Defence Cooperation Agreement (EDCA) with US President Barrack Obama. The US maintained and operated the major bases, such as the Clark Air Base, until 1991, in a historic Senate vote that rejected the treaty to extend the presence of the US military bases in the Philippines (Simbulan, 2018). EDCA aims to promote peace and security in the region by reaffirming the relationship between the US and the Philippines; improve inter-operability of the two country's armed forces; promote the country's long- term modernization; maintain maritime security; and strengthen humanitarian assistance in response to natural disasters. Post-US bases era Other provisions in EDCA: Filipino-American relations mainly focus on economic and commercial ties, for a time. The Joint US Military Assistance Group handed military equipment to the Philippine Marine Corps. In 1996, President Fidel Ramos declared 4 July as the Philippine-American Friendship Day. The EDCA agreement also does not allow any nuclear weapon to be stored in Philippine territory. Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA) is a new agreement between the two countries to resume their bilateral military exercises and enhance defense cooperation. The US conducted ship visits to Philippine ports, and combined military exercises with the Philippine military. VFA remains in place until both parties agree to terminate it. The agreement is effective for the period of ten years, unless otherwise terminated by either party. In 2002, President Gloria MacapagalArroyo expressed support for the US war on terror and hosted the first Balikatan Exercises, a yearly joint exercises of the Philippine and US army. In his 2017 State of the Nation Address, President Rodrigo Duterte demanded for the return of the Balangiga Bells. The US allowed the reparations provided that "the transfer is in the national security interest of the United States of America." After 117 years, the bells were finally returned, on 15 December 2018. Duterte further insisted that the United States apologize for all its atrocities in the Philippines and that the Americans treat the country as its equal and sovereign, perhaps signaling "a substantive change in our perceptions of the special relationship with the United States" (Ileto, 2017, p. 310). On 16 July 2019, at the 8th Bilateral Strategic Dialogue, the two countries signed the Philippines-US Alliance Fellowship. Funded by the United States, the fellowship sends two Filipino scholars to the US every year to study national security and international relations. In a lecture given by the writer Gina Apostol, she explores the Filipino's ambivalent relationship with the United States. The US, for being both an ally and nemesis, is what she would call as our "frenemy" (Apostol 2015). Summary The Treaty of Paris, signed on 10 December 1898, transferred ownership of the Philippines from Spain to the United States at the cost of 20 million dollars. Jones Law, or the Philippine Autonomy Act, of 1916 declared the purpose of the US to end its colonial rule over the country. Tydings-Mcduffie Act defined the establishment of a formal Philippine constitution by a constitutional convention. On 4 July 1946, the Philippines was declared independent. Mutual Defense Treaty was a treaty made in 1951, indicating support to each other in case the US or the Philippines was attacked by an external party. The US-Philippines relations after the War was mainly economical and military in purpose In September 1991, the Senate rejected the proposal to extend LIS military bases in the country. Nonetheless, the Philippine government continues to make ways to strengthen its relationship with the US and express support in bilateral ties between the two countries. June 12, 1896 declaration of the Philippine independence by General Emilio Aguinaldo. The first Philippine Republic was inaugurated in Malolos, Bulacan on January 21, 1899. Aguinaldo commissioned Julian Felipe, a composer from Cavite province was asked to write an an instrumental march for the proclamation of independence ceremony. The original title was "Marcha Filipina Magdalo". This was later changed to "Marcha Nacional Filipina". The lyrics was added in August 1899 based on the poem titled "Filipinas" by Jose Palma. LESSON 8 Origin of the Filipino Race "every man has a map in his heart of his own country and that the heart will never allow you to forget this map. (p. 18)" —Alexander McCall Smith, The No. 1 Ladies' Detective Agency Demographics of the Philippines According to the 2000 Census, the population of the Philippines was 76,504,077. The Aeta, who are genetically akin to Andamanese islanders and are known as the aboriginal inhabitants of the Philippines, constituting a distinct stock, number somewhere between 20,000 and 30,000 people (<0.03 percent). The overwhelming majority of the population (95 percent), known as ethnic Filipinos, are made up of various ethnolinguistic groups descended from later Austronesian-speaking migrants who arrived in successive waves to the archipelago from Taiwan and admixed with other sporadic migrations from the Asian mainland (what is today southern China). The most significant foreign ethnic minority are the Chinese, who have played an important role in commerce since the 9th century when they first arrived in the Philippines for trade. Mestizos, those of mixed race, form a tiny but economically and politically important minority. The most widely spoken language is Filipino, which is based on Tagalog, although thirteen regional languages are spoken as vernaculars throughout the Philippines. English serves as the primary lingua franca and as the language of commerce and the professions. Christianity is the main religion in the archipelago, with Roman Catholicism making up the majority. A small but significant minority profess Islam, particularly in the southern Philippines. The people of the Philippines are known as Filipinos. Throughout the colonial era the term "Filipino" originally referred to only the Spanish and Spanishmestizo minority. The definition, however, was later changed to include the entire population of the Philippines regardless of ethnic origin. Ethnic Groups The majority of the people in the Philippines are of Austronesian descent who migrated from Taiwan during the Iron Age. They are called ethnic Filipinos. The largest Filipino ethnic groups include the Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Bicolano, Kapampangan, Maranao, Maguindanao, and Tausug. About 8% of all Filipinos of Austronesian descent are tribal peoples. The aborigines of the Philippines, called as Aeta, who are descended from Negritos of the Andaman Islands, now constitute only 0.003% of the entire population. Significant foreign minorities include the ethnic Chinese, Americans, and the South Asians (mostly Sindh and Pakistani). Other foreign ethnicities in the country include Spaniards, other Europeans (mostly British and Dutch), Koreans, Japanese, Indonesians, and Arabs. Various degrees of intermarriage between ethnic groups have resulted in the formation of a new vibrant class of peoples, collectively known as Filipino Mestizos. According to a Stanford University small-n study, only about 3.6% of all Filipinos have European genes, most probably Spanish. Languages A total of one hundred seventy-two native languages and dialects are spoken, all belonging to the Austronesian linguistic family. Since 1939, in an effort to develop national unity, the government has promoted the use of the official national language, Tagalog. Visayan (also pronounced Bisayan) is widely spoken throughout the middle islands known as the Visayans and in many areas of Mindanao. English is the predominant non-native language. Other foreign languages spoken are Chinese (Hokkien) and Cantonese Chinese, among the Chinese and Chinese-mestizo population; Arabic and Malay among some members of the Muslim population; and Spanish preserved and spoken by some families within the Spanish-mestizo minority. Most Filipinos speak at least two languages. Many speak three or more fluently. Most children begin studying Tagalog and English when they start kindergarten, regardless of what their local language is. Religion According to the 2000 Census, 81.04% of all Filipinos are Roman Catholics, while 5.06% are adherents of Islam in the Philippines, and 2.82% are Born Again Christians. The remaining 11.08% include the Iglesia ni Cristo, Aglipayan, Mormon adherents, as well as that of other minority religions, such as Buddhism and Hinduism. Roman Catholics and Protestants were converted during 425 years of Western domination by Spain and the United States. 377 years of Spanish rule was responsible for converting the majority of the people to Roman Catholicism. Roman Catholicism still subsists as a major religion. Often still, Catholic Filipinos mix Catholic beliefs and traditions with beliefs in ghosts and other spirits. Protestant denominations were introduced to the Philippines primarily during the 37 years of American occupation. Islam was brought to the Sulu Archipelago in the 9th century by Makhdum Karim, an Arab trader, and to Mindanao island by Rajah Kabungsuwan, a Malaccan nobleman. From then onwards, Muslim princes carried on expeditions to propagate Islam. While Islam was easily displaced among the peoples of Luzon and the Visayas, it gained a stronghold in Mindanao. Other religions include Mahayana Buddhism, followed by many Filipinos of Chinese descent. It is often mixed with Taoist and Confucianist beliefs, and Hinduism and Sikhism, followed by Filipinos of Indo-Aryan descent. Animism is still prevalent among the highland peoples of Cordillera and Mindanao. Cultural Heritage refers to "the totality of cultural property preserved and developed through time and passed on to posterity" (RA 10066). "Heritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today, and what we pass on to future generations" (World Heritage Commission, UNESCO). The World Heritage List includes six Philippines properties: • Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park • Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras • Historic City of Vigan • Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park • Baroque Churches of the Philippines • Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary Tangible Heritage Environment (natural landscapes and coastal and inland water sources) Flora and fauna. Man-made structures. • • • • Philippine Eagle Chocolate Hills: Carmen, Bohol. Urban Heritage Site: Vigan. Oldest House: 1730 Jesuit House, Cebu. • Santo Tomas de Villanueva Church: Miag-ao, Iloilo. • Wood carvings. • Philippine Literatures: Noli Me Tangere, Ibong Mandaragit, Nick Joaquin. Intangible Heritage Culture (traditions, trades, and skills) customs, values, 1. Cuisine "Philippine foodways clearly reflect Philippine history: the foreign influences being indigenized into a changing culture. An exploration of these patterns will obviously provide a key to the understanding of national identity. The study of food as culture within the context of colonization leads to an understanding of the fate of the local culture under the hegemony of the dominant cultures of the colonizers" (Doreen Fernandez, Tikim) 2. Language "In Tagalog, emotion is dalamhati (literally, "inside the liver") and intense feelings of grief, yearning, and happiness are pighati, lunggati, and luwalhati (Resil Mojares, "Heart and Liver”). Article 1, Policies and Principles, Sec. 2 of the National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009 declares that the State shall foster the preservation, enrichment, and dynamic evolution of a Filipino culture based on the principle and unity in diversity in a climate of free artistic and intellectual expression. According to the Heritage Conservation Society, "conservation" entails "all the processes and measures of maintaining the cultural significance of a cultural property, including, but not limited to, preservation, reconstruction, protection, adaptation, or any combination thereof. Related institutions, entities, and laws • Historic Preservation Division, under the National Historical Commission of the Philippines) • National Commission for Culture and the Arts • Heritage Conservation Society (Nongovernment Organization) • Republic Act no. 10066, or the National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009 Benefits of Cultural Conservation "When cultural heritage is appreciated, enhanced and enriched, socio-cultural, religious, political and economic gains are manifested... The value of cultural heritage is seen in the strengthening of the sense of national, regional and local identity, as its value is complementary to other goods and services in which the external benefits-as part of the education and acculturation of the young" (Dick Netzer). Summary The Treaty of Paris, signed on 10 December 1898, transferred ownership of the Philippines from Spain to the United States at the cost of 20 million dollars. Jones Law, or the Philippine Autonomy Act, of 1916 declared the purpose of the US to end its colonial rule over the country. Tydings-Mcduffie Act defined the establishment of a formal Philippine constitution by a constitutional convention. On 4 July 1946, the Philippines was declared independent. Mutual Defense Treaty was a treaty made in 1951, indicating support to each other in case the US or the Philippines was attacked by an external party. The US-Philippines relations after the War was mainly economical and military in purpose In September 1991, the Senate rejected the proposal to extend US military bases in the country. Nonetheless, the Philippine government continues to make ways to strengthen its relationship with the LIS and express support in bilateral ties between the two countries. June 12, 1896 declaration of the Philippine independence by General Emilio Aguinaldo. The first Philippine Republic was inaugurated in Malolos, Bulacan on January 21, 1899. Aguinaldo commissioned Julian Felipe, a composer from Cavite province was asked to write an an instrumental march for the proclamation of independence ceremony. The original title was "Marcha Filipina Magdalo". This was later changed to "Marcha Nacional Filipina". The lyrics was added in August 1899 based on the poem titled "Filipinas" by Jose Palma. Cultural Heritage refers to "the totality of cultural property preserved and developed through time and passed on to prosperity" The Philippines is rich with cultural heritage that needs to be protected and preserved Cultural heritage may be tangible or intangible. It is important that a cultural heritage is appreciated, so that posterity. protected and preserved. enhanced and enriched socio-cultural, religious, political and economic gains are manifested. "Conservation" entails "all the processes and measures of maintaining the cultural significance of a cultural property, including, but not limited to, preservation, reconstruction, protection, adaptation, or any combination thereof." National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009, defined as Cultural Heritage Conservation, declares that the State shall foster the preservation, enrichment, and dynamic evolution of a Filipino culture based on the principle and unity in diversity in a climate of free artistic and intellectual expression. LESSON 9 The First Mass I believe the purpose of all major religious traditions is not to construct big temples on the outside, but to create temples of goodness and compassion inside, in our hearts -Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama, c. 1996 In Pigafetta's account, Magellan's fleet reached what he called the LADRONES ISLANDS, or the "Islands of the Thieves." He recounted: "These people have no arms, but use sticks, which have a fish bone at the end. They are poor, but ingenious, and great thieves, and for the sake of that we call these three islands the Ladrones Islands." On March 18, nine men approached and showed joy and eagerness in seeing them. Magellan realized that the men were reasonable and welcomed them with food, drinks, and gifts. Pigafetta detailed with amazement and fascination the palm tree that bore fruits called cochos and wine. He characterized the people as "very familiar and friendly" who willingly showed them around the different islands and told them the names of these islands. The Ladrones Islands is presently known as the Marianas Islands. Ten days after arriving at the Ladrones Islands, Pigafetta reported, they reached what he called the Isle of Zamal, now Samar, but Magellan decided to land in another uninhabited island for greater security, where they could rest for a few days. On March 25, Pigafetta recounted that they saw two balanghai (balangay), a long boat full of people in Mazzava/Mazaus. The leader, whom he referred to as the king, became close with Magellan as they both exchanged gifts. After a few days, Magellan was introduced to the king's brother, who was also a king of another island where, as Pigafetta reported, the fleet saw mines of gold. Limasawa Island Francisco Albo, one of the pilots in Magellan's expedition, kept a logbook where he wrote that they erected a cross on a mountain that overlooked the islands in the west and the southwest. Jaime de Veyra stated that the first mass was held in Limasawa and not in Butuan. Masao/Butuan 1872: A monument to commemorate the site of the first mass in the Philippines was erected in Butuan. 1953: The people in Butuan asked the Philippine Historical Committee to rehabilitate the monument and construct a place marker on the site. Limawasa, an island municipality in Southern Leyte, is a small yet flourishing town being the site of the First Christian Mass in the country and in Asia. The First Cross and the First Mass Shrine are some of the frequently visited spots that give tourists a rare experience of retracing the historic footsteps of the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 who paved the way for the beginning of Christianity in the country. "Mazaua" is the original name of this municipality. There are two assumptions how the municipality got its name: One assumption is that before the Spanish men arrived to the island, the natives don't really have a name of their place. Upon the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan and his men, one of the natives was asked for the name of their place. The native, unable to understand what it meant, mistakenly interpreted the question to mean as to "how many wives their Rajah has". So he answered immediately "Lima'y Asawa", meaning that their Rajah has five wives. The Spanish too, thinking that was the answer to his question, return to tell his companions that the island is named "Lima'y Asawa ". And from then on, the place came to be called as "Limasawa". Another assumption is that when the Spanish men arrived to the island, they named it "Mazaua" for the beauty of the place. As it is their custom to add the prefix "Le" to mean a particular name, it became the tongue of everyone in the place to call it as "Le Mazaua ". It was the local people themselves who later changed the spelling and joined the two words into 'Limasawa". Today the island is popularly known as "Limasawa" although some elderly citizens prefer to call it "Mazaua". Limasawa was created into an independent municipality on June 11, 1978 by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 1549. But this was not implemented due to some problems. Limasawa officially became a municipality on August 27, 1989 after the conduct of a plebiscite among the populace to ratify its independence. LESSON 10 Islamic Faith in the Philippines (Government Peace Treaties with Muslim Filipinos) There is only one religion, though there are a hundred versions of it. -George Bernard Shaw The ongoing conflicts in Mindanao and Sulu and the current campaign for the selfdetermination of the Bangsamoro people stem from years of unresolved historical injustices, which include the forceful integration of the Moros into the American colonial government and the governmentsanctioned waves of Christian migration to Mindanao at the turn of the twentieth century. Moros comes from the Spanish word Moors, which used to be a pejorative term for Muslims. It has since been reappropriated to denote Filipino Muslims. Bangsamoro is a portmanteau of bangsa ("nation," or bansa) and Moro. Mindanao consists of the large island south of the Philippines, while the Sulu archipelago is a cluster of 500 islands between Sulu and Celebes Sea (Fernando Amilbangsa, 2005, p. 11). Tri-peoples Of Mindanao • The settlers • The Moros (or the Bangsamoros) • The lumad Tarsilas are written accounts of a family's lineage that traces their religious origins. Islam arrived in the Philippines in the middle of the fourteenth century, through Sharif Kabungsuwan (Majul, 1999, p. 23; Balo et al., 2017, p. 2). According to a myth: "One day there fell upon the land a drought so serious that even the sea receded and there was a great stillness. Months later with a roar, the sea came rushing back in one giant wave. And riding its crest was Sharif Kabungsuwan, the first Arab to reach these islands" (Cruz-Lucero, 2007, p. 17) In the 1930s, US authorities encouraged Christian Filipinos in Luzon and the Visayas to migrate to the southern region of Mindanao, which was mostly populated by Moros. This led to the Moros eventually becoming a minority in many parts of southern Philippines. In 1968, the Jabidah Massacre happened which eventually led to the establishment of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MNLF) led by Nur Misuari in 1969. The MNLF began the armed campaign for a separate Islamic state in the country, or a Bangsa Moro Republic (Moro National Republic). "We, the five million oppressed Bangsa Moro people, wishing to free ourselves from the terror, oppression and tyranny of Filipino colonialism which has caused us untold sufferings and miseries by criminally usurping our land, by threatening Islam through wholesale destruction and desecration of its places of worship and its Holy Book..., aspiring to have the sole prerogative of defending and chartering our own national destiny in accordance with our own free will in order to ensure our future and that of our children.” 1976: Brokered by the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC), the Philippine government and the MNLF signed the Tripoli Agreement, which declared a ceasefire between the two parties. The agreement also provided that Mindanao would still be a part of the Philippines, but 13 of its provinces would be under the autonomous government of the Bangsamoro People. The Marcos regime defied the agreement, thus the armed movement resumed. 1977: The Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), led by Hashim Salamat, was formed. MILF was a breakaway group from the MNLF after some of its members expressed disagreement to MNLF's decisions. Moro Islamic Liberation Front did not believe in negotiating with the government. 1986: After the EDSA Revolution, Corazon Aquino launched peace talks with the MNLF, but the MILF declined to take part in it. 1988: The MILF replaced the MNLF in pursuing a Moro secession. 1989: The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, or ARMM, was created under Republic Act 6734. The ARMM Organic Act was pursuant to the 1987 Constitution. 1996: MNLF signed a peace settlement with the Ramos administration, which won for the ARMM, under Governor Nur Misuari, limited self-rule over the most impoverished Muslim regions in the south. 1997: MILF signed a ceasefire agreement and began peace talks with the Ramos government. Major fighting outbreaks disrupted the peace talks. 1999: President Joseph “Erap" Estrada, who was formerly an action star, suspended all peace talks and declared an all-out war against the MILF. It was on that same year when the United States and the Philippines had their first joint military drills under the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA). 2001: In March 2001, two months into Gloria Macapagal Arroyo's presidency, the Philippine government and the MILF signed the Agreement of the General Framework for Resumption of peace between the armed separatist group and the government. 2003: President Arroyo declared war against the MILF, after the Davao International Airport and the Sasa Wharf, also in Davao City, were bombed, allegedly, by the militant group. 2004: Peace talks with MILF resumes, and discussions on ancestral domain pact for the expansion of ARMM took place. 2008: The Philippine government and the MILF signed the Memorandum Agreement-Ancestral Domain (MOA-AD). 2010: The Philippine government and the MILF signed a declaration to continue further peace negotiations under the new administration once Arroyo steps down. 2012: After a series of meetings, the Aquino government and the MILF signed the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro. 2013: Rounds of peace talks happened while the Bangsamoro Basic Law (BBL) was being crafted by the Bangsamoro Transition Commission. 2013: Nur Misuari launched an attack in Zamboanga City, also called the Zamboanga Siege, because of his disapproval of the ongoing peace talks between the government and the MILF. 2015: Deliberations on the proposed BBL started at the 16th Congress. 2016: The 16th Congress ended without having passed the BBL, which would have to be deliberated again under a new president. 2017: Under President Rodrigo Duterte's administration, new members were added to the Bangsamoro Transition Commission and the final version of the Bangsamoro Basic Law was crafted. 2018: Duterte declared the passing of the Bangsamoro Basic Law as urgent. After much deliberations and after the BBL was passed on both Houses, Duterte signed the Bangsamoroo Organic Law (BOL). 2019: After the plebiscite voting, the National Plebiscite Board of Canvassers announced that the BOL is "deemed ratified," and the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM) replaced the ARMM. "The socio-cultural and religious differences among the ordinary Muslims and Christians alone cannot plunge Muslim Mindanao into fratricidal violence and rebellion. Obviously, the leaders Muslim and Christian-use these differences to justify and promote their political economic interests and to impressa pro-people leadership; by design or accident, they create the misunderstanding" (Diaz, 2003, p. 48). Summary The conflict in Mindanao stems from years of unresolved historical injustices. In the 1930s, US authorities encouraged Christian Filipinos to migrate from Luzon and the Visayas to Mindanao. This led to Muslims eventually becoming a minority in many parts of southern Philippines. In 1968, the "Jabidah Massacre" happened, which led to the establishment of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MNLF), led by Nur Misuari in 1969. The MNLF began the armed campaign for a separate Islamic state in the country. Brokered by the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC), the Government of the PH and MNLF signed the Tripoli Agreement. MILF or the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, led by Hashim Salamat, was later formed. The MILF was a breakaway group from MNLF after some of its members expressed disagreement to MNLF's decisions. The MILF did not believe in negotiating with the Philippine government. LESSON 11 Cavite Munity "Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean.” -William Shakespeare In Philippine history, two major events happened in 1872: 1. The 1872 Cavite Mutiny; and 2. The martyrdom of the three priests: Father Mariano Gomes, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (GOMBURZA). Spanish Perspective 1. Jose Montero y Vidal, a prolific Spanish historian, documented the event and highlighted it as an attempt of the indios to overthrow the Spanish government in the Philippines. 2. Gov. Gen. Rafael Izquierdo's official report magnified the event and made use of it to implicate the native clergy, which was then active in the call for secularization. The two accounts complement and corroborate each other, although the general's report is more spiteful. Initially, they both score out the fact that removing the privileges enjoyed by the workers of the Cavite arsenal, such as non-payment of tributes and exemption from forced labor, were the main reasons for what they call the "revolution." Other causes enumerated: 1. The Spanish Revolution, which overthrew the secular throne; 2. Dirty propagandas disseminated by the unrestrained press, and democratic, liberal, and republican books and pamphlets that had reached the Philippines; 3. The presence of the native clergy, which, according to them, was formed out of animosity toward the Spanish friars. Dr. Trinidad Hermenigildo Pardo de Tavera, a Filipino scholar and researcher, wrote the Filipino version of the bloody incident in Cavite. From his point of view, the incident was a mere mutiny by the native Filipino soldiers and laborers of the Cavite arsenal who turned out to be dissatisfied with the removal of their privileges. Tavera believes that the Spanish friars and Izquierdo exaggerated the Cavite Mutiny into a full-blown conspiracy that involved not only the native army but also the residents of Cavite and Manila, including, more importantly, the native clergy, to overthrow the Spanish government in the Philippines. It is noteworthy that during the time, the Central Government in Madrid announced its intention to divest the friars of all the powers of intervention in matters of civil government and the direction and management of educational institutions. THE TWO FACES OF THE 1872 CAVITE MUTINY The 12th of June of every year since 1898 is a very important event for all the Filipinos. In this particular day, the entire Filipino nation as well as Filipino communities all over the world gathers to celebrate the Philippines' Independence Day. 1898 came to be a very significant year for all of us— it is as equally important as 1896—the year when the Philippine Revolution broke out owing to the Filipinos' desire to be free from the abuses of the Spanish colonial regime. But we should be reminded that another year is as historic as the two—1872. Two major events happened in 1872, first was the 1872 Cavite Mutiny and the other was the martyrdom of the three martyr priests in the persons of Fathers Mariano Gomes, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora (GOMBURZA). However, not all of us knew that there were different accounts in reference to the said event. All Filipinos must know the different sides of the story—since this event led to another tragic yet meaningful part of our history— the execution of GOMBURZA which in effect a major factor in the awakening of nationalism among the Filipinos. 1872 Cavite Perspective Mutiny: Spanish Jose Montero y Vidal, a prolific Spanish historian documented the event and highlighted it as an attempt of the Indios to overthrow the Spanish government in the Philippines. Meanwhile, Gov. Gen. Rafael Izquierdo's official report magnified the event and made use of it to implicate the native clergy, which was then active in the call for secularization. The two accounts complimented and corroborated with one other, only that the general's report was more spiteful. Initially, both Montero and Izquierdo scored out that the abolition of privileges enjoyed by the workers of Cavite arsenal such as non-payment of tributes and exemption from force labor were the main reasons of the "revolution" as how they called it, however, other causes were enumerated by them including the Spanish Revolution which overthrew the secular throne, dirty propagandas proliferated by unrestrained press, democratic, liberal and republican books and pamphlets reaching the Philippines, and most importantly, the presence of the native clergy who out of animosity against the Spanish friars, "conspired and supported" the rebels and enemies of Spain. In particular, Izquierdo blamed the unruly Spanish Press for "stockpiling" malicious propagandas grasped by the Filipinos. He reported to the King of Spain that the "rebels" wanted to overthrow the Spanish government to install a new "hari" in the likes of Fathers Burgos and Zamora. The general even added that the native clergy enticed other participants by giving them charismatic assurance that their fight will not fail because God is with them coupled with handsome promises of rewards such as employment, wealth, and ranks in the army. Izquierdo, in his report lambasted the Indios as gullible and possessed an innate propensity for stealing. The two Spaniards deemed that the event of 1872 was planned earlier and was thought of it as a big conspiracy among educated leaders, mestizos, abogadillos or native lawyers, residents of Manila and Cavite and the native clergy. They insinuated that the conspirators of Manila and Cavite planned to liquidate highranking Spanish officers to be followed by the massacre of the friars. The alleged preconcerted signal among the conspirators of Manila and Cavite was the firing of rockets from the walls of Intramuros. According to the accounts of the two, on 20 January 1872, the district of Sampaloc celebrated the feast of the Virgin of Loreto, unfortunately participants to the feast celebrated the occasion with the usual fireworks displays. Allegedly, those in Cavite mistook the fireworks as the sign for the attack, and just like what was agreed upon, the 200-men contingent headed by Sergeant Lamadrid launched an attack targeting Spanish officers at sight and seized the arsenal. When the news reached the iron-fisted Gov. Izquierdo, he readily ordered the reinforcement of the Spanish forces in Cavite to quell the revolt. The "revolution" was easily crushed when the expected reinforcement from Manila did not come ashore. Major instigators including Sergeant Lamadrid were killed in the skirmish, while the GOMBURZA were tried by a court-martial and were sentenced to die by strangulation. Patriots like Joaquin Pardo de Tavera, Antonio Ma. Regidor, Jose and Pio Basa and other abogadillos were suspended by the Audencia (High Court) from the practice of law, arrested and were sentenced with life imprisonment at the Marianas Island. Furthermore, Gov. Izquierdo dissolved the native regiments of artillery and ordered the creation of artillery force to be composed exclusively of the Peninsulares. On 17 February 1872 in an attempt of the Spanish government and Frailocracia to instill fear among the Filipinos so that they may never commit such daring act again, the GOMBURZA were executed. This event was tragic but served as one of the moving forces that shaped Filipino nationalism. A Response to Injustice: The Filipino Version of the Incident Dr. Trinidad Hermenigildo Pardo de Tavera, a Filipino scholar and researcher, wrote the Filipino version of the bloody incident in Cavite. In his point of view, the incident was a mere mutiny by the native Filipino soldiers and laborers of the Cavite arsenal who turned out to be dissatisfied with the abolition of their privileges. Indirectly, Tavera blamed Gov. Izquierdo's cold-blooded policies such as the abolition of privileges of the workers and native army members of the arsenal and the prohibition of the founding of school of arts and trades for the Filipinos, which the general believed as a cover-up for the organization of a political club. On 20 January 1872, about 200 men comprised of soldiers, laborers of the arsenal, and residents of Cavite headed by Sergeant Lamadrid rose in arms and assassinated the commanding officer and Spanish officers in sight. The insurgents were expecting support from the bulk of the army unfortunately, that didn't happen. The news about the mutiny reached authorities in Manila and Gen. Izquierdo immediately ordered the reinforcement of Spanish troops in Cavite. After two days, the mutiny was officially declared subdued. Tavera believed that the Spanish friars and Izquierdo used the Cavite Mutiny as a powerful lever by magnifying it as a fullblown conspiracy involving not only the native army but also included residents of Cavite and Manila, and more importantly the native clergy to overthrow the Spanish government in the Philippines. It is noteworthy that during the time, the Central Government in Madrid announced its intention to deprive the friars of all the powers of intervention in matters of civil government and the direction and management of educational institutions. This turnout of events was believed by Tavera, prompted the friars to do something drastic in their dire sedire to maintain power in the Philippines. Meanwhile, in the intention of installing reforms, the Central Government of Spain welcomed an educational decree authored by Segismundo Moret promoted the fusion of sectarian schools run by the friars into a school called Philippine Institute. The decree proposed to improve the standard of education in the Philippines by requiring teaching positions in such schools to be filled by competitive examinations. This improvement was warmly received by most Filipinos in spite of the native clergy's zest for secularization. The friars, fearing that their influence in the Philippines would be a thing of the past, took advantage of the incident and presented it to the Spanish Government as a vast conspiracy organized throughout the archipelago with the object of destroying Spanish sovereignty. Tavera sadly confirmed that the Madrid government came to believe that the scheme was true without any attempt to investigate the real facts or extent of the alleged “revolution" reported by Izquierdo and the friars. Convicted educated men who participated in the mutiny were sentenced life imprisonment while members of the native clergy headed by the GOMBURZA were tried and executed by garrote. This episode leads to the awakening of nationalism and eventually to the outbreak of Philippine Revolution of 1896. The French writer Edmund Plauchut's account complimented Tavera's account by confirming that the event happened due to discontentment of the arsenal workers and soldiers in Cavite fort. The Frenchman, however, dwelt more on the execution of the three martyr priests which he actually witnessed. Summary Cavite Mutiny has two interpretations: the Spanish perspective includes the Filipino's attempt to overthrow the colonial government, while Filipino scholars like Pardo de Tavera claim that the Spanish friars merely exaggerated their reports on the events in a bid to hold on to their control of the colony. Quiz 1. In his 2019 State of the Nation Address, President Rodrigo Outerte demanded for the return of the Balangiga Bells. False. 2. After 117 years, the bells were finally returned in the Philippines, on 15 December 2018. True. 3. EDCA aims to promote peace and Security in the region by reaffirming the relationship between the US and the Philippines. True. 4. Filipino-American relations mainly focus on technology and tourism, for a time. True. 5. In 1996, President Aquino declared 4 July as the Philippine-American Friendship Day. False. 6. VFA stands for Visiting Friendship Agreement. False. 7. VFA is a new agreement between the two countries to resume their bilateral military exercises and enhance defense cooperation. True. 8. The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) deployed a psychological warfare in which the Huk rebels were made to believe that an aswang was hunting them. True. 9. VFA is a new agreement between the two countries to resume their bilateral military exercises and enhance defense cooperation. True. 10. The Mutual Defense Treaty was a treaty made in 1951. True. 11. Republic Act no. 10066, or the National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009 is a law intended for historic preservation. True. 12. National Commission for Culture and the Arts is an institution related to historic preservation. True. 13. According to the Heritage Conservation Society, "auctions" entails "all the processes and measures of maintaining the cultural significance of a cultural property. False. 14. Emotion is an example of intangible heritage. True. 15. Natural landscapes and coastal and inland water sources are examples of intangible heritage. False. 16. Ladrone islands, is also known as "Islands of the Thieves." True. 17. Pigafetta detailed with amazement and fascination the palm tree that bore fruits called cochos and wine. True. 18. The Landrones Islands is presently different Marianas Islands. False. 19. Limawasa, an island municipality in Southern Leyte, is a small yet flourishing town being the site of the First Christian Mass in the country and in Asia. True. 20. Limasawa was created into an independent municipality on June 11, 1978 by virtue Of Presidential Decree No. 1549. True.