The Nature and Goals of Anthropology, Sociology and Political Science At the end of the lesson, you are expected to: 1. identify the nature of Anthropology, Sociology and Political Science; 2. know the goals of Anthropology, Sociology and Political Science. Anthropology relates to sociology, it always describes human, human behavior and human societies around the world. It is a comparative science that examines all societies. The term anthropology means scientific study of man or human beings. Sociology is the study of human social relationships and institutions. Sociology’s subject matter is diverse, ranging from crime to religion, from the family to the state, from the divisions of race and social class to the shared beliefs of a common culture, and from social stability to radical change in whole societies. The purpose of sociology is to understand how human action and consciousness both shape and are shaped by surrounding cultural Political Science is a social science that deals with humans and their interactions. It is a branch of sociology; it essentially deals with the large-scale actions of humans, and group mentality Cultural anthropology studies, human societies and elements of cultural life. An example of cultural anthropology is the Linguistic anthropology which focuses on language in a certain society. The goal of studying anthropology is to understand the origin human evolution and the diverse forms of its existence throughout time. Anthropological perspectives are culture, cultural relativism, fieldwork, human diversity, holism, bio-cultural focus. The four main perspectives of Anthropology are the cross-cultural or comparative emphasis, its evolutionary/historical emphasis, its ecological emphasis, and its holistic emphasis (Dudgeon). An example for this is the analysis and solutions of the different aspects of the society such as the environmental issues of pollution, the issues on health and medicine and other issues related to the human activities. Sociological perspective -introduces the discipline of sociology, including something about its history, questions, theory, and scientific methods, and what distinguishes it from other social science disciplines. Central features include social interaction and relationships, social contexts, social structure, social change, the significance of diversity and human variation, and the critical, questioning character of sociology. It also explores what sociologists do. Anthropological perspectives - are culture, cultural relativism, fieldwork, human diversity, holism, bio-cultural focus. The four main perspectives of Anthropology are the cross-cultural or comparative emphasis, its evolutionary/historical emphasis, its ecological emphasis, and its holistic emphasis (Dudgeon). An example for this is the An example for this is the analysis and solutions of the different aspects of the society such as the environment issues of pollution, the issues on health and medicine and other issues related to the human activities. Sociology includes three major theoretical perspectives: 1. the functionalist perspective; 2. the conflict perspective; and 3. the symbolic interaction perspective. Theoretical perspective -is used to analyse and explain objects of social study, and facilitate organizing sociological knowledge. In functionalist perspective, societies are thought to function like organisms, with various social institutions working together like organs to maintain and reproduce societies. The conflict perspective sees social life as a competition, and focuses on the distribution of resources, power, and inequality. Political science perspective studies the tendencies and actions of people which cannot be easily quantified or examined. Political science is more focused than most social sciences. It sticks to the political arena and to the realm of politics, either dealing with situations with two competing sides or the lateral decisions that affect the group as a whole. An example is the study of democracy as a form of government and why is democracy considered as the best form of government. A symbol is anything that is used to stand for something else. People who share a culture often attach a specific meaning to an object, gesture, sound, or image. For example, a cross is a significant symbol to Christians. It is not simply two pieces of wood attached to each other, nor is it just an old object of torture and execution. To Christians, it represents the basis of their entire religion, and they have great reverence for the symbol. Language is a system of words and symbols used to communicate with other people. This includes full languages as we usually think of them, such as English, Spanish, French, etc. but, it also includes body language, slang, and common phrases that are unique to certain groups of people. Systems of values are culturally defined standards for what is good or desirable. Members of the culture use the shared system of values to decide what is good and what is bad. Cultural artifact or artifact is a term used in the social sciences, particularly anthropology, ethnology, and sociology for anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users. Artifacts are such valuable tools for exploring the past and using them to understand the past. Human values are essential in our life because they help us to grow and develop. It is a person's standards of behaviour, principles and own judgment. Some of the values, human treasures are honesty, love, happiness, and integrity. Social and cultural norms are rules or expectations of behaviour and thoughts based on shared beliefs within a specific cultural or social group. Social change - variations or modifications in the patterns of social organisation of sub groups within society Cultural change - refers to all alterations affecting new traits or trait complexes and changes in a cultures content and structure. At the end of the lesson, you are expected to: Define cultural relativism; and Explain the importance of cultural relativism in attaining cultural understanding. Cultural relativism is the ability to understand a culture on its own terms and not to make judgments using the standards of one's own culture. The goal of this is to promote understanding of cultural practices that are not typically part of one's own culture. Cultural Relativism is important to anthropology and one of the things that makes anthropology unique because it is a tool, a method for attempting to see things from a multiplicity of viewpoints so as to better understand them. Cultural Relativism does not mean that anything a culture does is good or moral. This is one of the ones that confuse people. Cultural relativism teaches us that, marriage patterns are cultural options, not objective truth. Cultural Relativism doesn’t mean that cultures can’t be compared. There is sometimes a strange notion that there are no commonalities between cultures. This is one of the reasons why those trained in cultural anthropology are often great problem solvers for complex issues. Understanding Culture, Society and Politics Quarter 1- Module 3 Becoming A Member Of Society Lesson 4 Analyze the Significance of Cultural, Social, Political and Economic Symbols and Practices AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Primary group: Secondary group : Family Peer Groups Mass Media Religion / Church Schools State / Government Suppose you are asked to express your thoughts in a social media platform and to post in your Facebook account your involvement in any of the agents of socialization that has a major influence in shaping your way of thinking, social and cultural behaviour. What is the most influential agent of socialization, the family, religion, peer group, education, or mass media? How this agent of socialization had contributed and molded you to become a better individual in the society? Describe how this agent of socialization had influenced your thoughts, attitudes, values and behaviour. Give specific example. Socialization is a continuing process of social interaction through which people acquired their identities and skills in society. It is learning from people to other people. It exposes the person to the culture of society and acquire them. An important part of socialization and enculturation processes are the social groups which are called agents of socialization: The results of socialization are great because they established our identity. We are guided how to act in a socially acceptable ways and because of socialization we acquire culture that may improve us individuals. Socialization is also a form of social control. It may be in the form of coercion: like punishment, economy. It may also be in the form of language which was used as cultural symbols. Theory Sociologist Sigmund Psychoanalytic Unconscious mind shaped the behaviour of a person. Freud Theory The formation of the self occurs between the id and the superego. The influence of society happens in superego. Jean Piaget Cognitive Socialization happens in different stages of our mind’s Development Theory development from infancy to adolescence or adulthood. ulrence Moral Development Moral development is a continual process that occurs Kohlberg Theory throughout our Lifespan. George Theory of the Social The self Herbert Self Emerges from social interactions. Mead’s Charles Cooley’s Theory of We learn to take the role of others. The expectation of Cooley Looking-Glass Self others forms the venue for acquiring social roles. Conceptualize Deviance and Social Control: DEVIANCE is an unacceptable behaviour, a violation of society’s norm. social Control is the regulation and enforcement of norms to maintain social order Civil disobedience -violation of a law. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9165, otherwise known as the “Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002 “. The law is a form of social control to a deviant behaviour of those who use the dangerous drugs.