OBJECTIVE • The objective of maneuvering at minimum controllable airspeed is to develop the pilot’s sense of feel and ability to use the controls correctly, and to improve proficiency in performing maneuvers in which very low airspeeds are required. ELEMENTS • • • • • Slowing the airplane smoothly and promptly from cruising to approach speeds without changes in altitude or heading, while increasing the angle of attack and setting the required power and trim. Configuration changes, such as adding flaps (and extending the landing gear), while maintaining heading and altitude. Turning while maintaining altitude. Straight-ahead climbs and climbing medium-banked (approximately 20 degrees (5-10 degrees per PCA?) turns, and straight-ahead power-off gliding descents and descending turns, which represent the takeoff and landing phases of flight. Slow flight should be conducted no lower than 1,500 feet AGL (3,000 for multiengine airplanes) or higher if recommended by the manufacturer. SCHEDULE • • • • Preflight Discussion – No more than 10 minutes. Instructor Demonstrations – 15 minutes. Student Practice – 50 minutes to an hour. Postflight Critique – 10 minutes or as necessary. EQUIPMENT • iPad, whiteboard (dry erase markers), instrument covers, pen/pencil, etc. INSTRUCTOR’S ACTIONS • • • Pre-flight - Discuss lesson objective. Inflight - Demonstrate elements. Demonstrate slow flight entry procedure, power settings/configuration, trim procedure and recovery from slow flight procedure. Demonstrate previously covered maneuvers as needed. Postflight - Critique student performance and assign study material. STUDENT’S ACTIONS • • • Pre-flight - Discuss lesson objective and resolve questions. Inflight - Review previous maneuvers and perform each new maneuver as directed. Postflight - Ask pertinent questions. COMPLETION STANDARDS • • • Student can establish and maintain an airspeed at which any further increase in angle of attack, increase in load factor, or reduction in power, would result in a stall warning (e.g., airplane buffet, stall horn, etc.). Accomplish coordinated straight-and-level flight, turns, climbs, and descents with the airplane configured as specified by instructor without a stall warning (e.g., airplane buffet, stall horn, etc.). Maintain the specified altitude, ±100 feet; specified heading, ±10°; airspeed, +10/-0 knots; and specified angle of bank, ±10°. COMMON ERRORS • • • • • • • • • • • Failure to adequately clear the area. Inadequate back elevator pressure as power is reduced, resulting in altitude loss. Excessive back-elevator pressure as power is reduced, resulting in a climb followed by rapid reduction in airspeed. Insufficient right rudder to compensate for left yaw. Fixation on the flight instruments. Failure to anticipate changes in AOA as flaps are extended or retracted. Inadequate power management. Inability to adequately divide attention between airplane control and orientation. Failure to properly trim the airplane. Failure to respond to a stall warning. Inappropriate removal of hand from throttles.