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Construction material technology
Lecture 1. Basic concepts
I would like to present you
the first lecture in a series of
lectures about technologies
of structural materials
our first lecture will be
devoted to the basic
concepts of the course
Lyubov Bondarenko,
assistant of department 903
"Advanced materials and technologies for aerospace purposes"
Lecture content
In the first lecture we will talk
we learn such a topic as
• Introduction.
• Classification of materials. Metallic, nonmetallic, composite materials.
• Atomic-crystalline structure of metals.
• Structural research methods. X-ray diffraction
• Processing of XRD data
lecture course
and in more detail we will
consider such a topic as
in this lecture we will analyze
the basic concepts of the
entire course, which will be
useful to us in the future
1. Introduction
Materials science is the science of the relationship
between the structure of materials and their
composition and physical and chemical properties.
Materials are understood as substances used to
manufacture something or used in the operation
of other substances.
We'll start with such a thing as
materials science.
The properties of technical
materials are formed during the
manufacturing process.
Different structure and
properties of materials can be
formed even with the same
chemical composition, but
different manufacturing
fundamental importance
we talked about such a concept
as materials
Structural materials are materials intended for the manufacture
of machine parts, devices, engineering structures that are
exposed to mechanical stress.
Machine parts differ in a wide variety of shapes, sizes,
operating conditions. They operate under
- static,
- cyclic,
- shock loads,
- at low and high temperatures,
- in contact with various fields.
These use factors determine the requirements for the materials
of construction.
Basic requirements: operational, technological, economic.
we are moving to functional
purpose determining the name
of the materials and name
course. They are intended for
use in various designs and are
called structural
casting, metal forming, welding,
soldering, pressing
see into
In this definition, we mentioned a
such thing as machine parts.
A part is mechanism produced
without the use of assembly
it is the basis of the design, an
indivisible part. bolt, shaft and
let's talk about them in more
Operational requirements.
Structural strength is a set of mechanical properties
that ensure reliable and long-term operation of the
material under operating conditions.
Operational requirements are
The material should have a high
structural strength - this will
help ensure the performance of
specific machines and devices.
The working temperature range of modern materials
is from -269 °C to 1000 °C (in some cases up to 2500
To work at high temperatures, the material requires
heat resistance, and at low temperatures, cold
In some cases, it is
important to require certain
magnetic, electrical,
thermal properties, high
dimensional stability.
Technological requirements.
Manufacturability is assessed by such concepts as
-tendency to deform and warp during heat treatment.
the goal of the Technological
requirements is to make the
part as little work as possible.
In other words, production
should meet a wide variety of
Let's take a look at some of
There are strong, wear-resistant, elastic, lightweight,
corrosion-resistant, heat-resistant structural materials.
Technological requirements.
The principle of parallelism is the simultaneous execution
of partial production processes and separate operations on
similar parts and parts of the product at different
there are other principles that
ensure the manufacturability of
parts production processes.
direct flow, flexibility,
optimality, prevention
The principle of automaticity - assumes the maximum
execution of operations of the production process
automatically, i.e. without direct participation of the worker
or under his supervision and control.
Economic requirements.
The economic requirements come down to the cost and
availability of the material.
especially these requirements are
important when scaling production.
I mean the transition from
laboratory-scale production to fullfledged production of hundreds and
thousands of parts in a factory.
Naturally, production within a
laboratory, when it comes to a small
number of products, and a factory
are different.
For example, laboratory synthesis
often uses inert media such as
argon or nitrogen.
Inert synthesis avoids oxidation.
But such a synthesis is expensive,
especially when producing a large
batch of parts. It turns out that
manufacturers should avoid such
economically disadvantageous
conditions as inert.
2. Classification of materials:
Classification of materials
Metallic materials
Non-metallic materials
Composite materials
In turn, metallic materials are
divided into materials of
ferrous and non-ferrous
On the slide you can see
examples of the listed
material classes.
cast irons,
metals aluminum,
zinc, lead,
nickel, tin
and their
As you can see, materials are
categorized into metallic
materials, non-metallic
materials, and composite
carbon plastics,
So the materials of ferrous
metallurgy include ...
Now let's define each
of the material classes
Classification of materials: metals
Metals (from Latin metallum - mine) are a group
of chemical elements that, under normal
conditions*, have characteristic metallic
properties, such as:
- high heat and electrical conductivity,
- positive temperature coefficient of resistance,
- high plasticity,
- malleability and metallic luster.
*pressure p = 0.1013 MPa = 760 mm Hg. Art. (normal atmosphere)
temperature of 273.15 K (0 ° C)
We'll start with metals. As
you can understand from
the definition ..
At the bottom of the slide, you
can see….
Classification of materials: metals
Let's talk about examples of
metals. Where can you find
metals? if we look at…
There are metals in the blue
cells of the table.
For instance, its iron, aluminum,
copper and others.
OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Jun 20, 2016
Classification of materials: metals
filling procedure
Let's take a look at the electronic
formula of metals.
You can see the structure of the
aluminum atom on the slide.
According to Mendeleev's periodic
table, it has only three electron
is determined by
On the one hand, it is in the third
group, that is, it has only three
electrons in the outer energy
Great, we figured it out. Go ahead.
The first level in any atom (except
hydrogen, try to guess why) is filled
with only two electrons.
short electronic entry
As we remember, there are eight
electrons at the full electronic level.
And three more on the outer level.
As a result, there are thirteen
electrons in the aluminum atom.
Classification of materials: metals
Ferrous metals - iron and alloys based on it
(steel, ferroalloys, cast irons).
Cast irons are alloys of iron with carbon, with a carbon content of
more than 2.14% (in some cast irons up to 6%). Cast irons are
classified into white, gray, and malleable.
Steels are alloys of iron with carbon with a carbon content of less than
 low carbon (less than 0.25%),
 carbonaceous (0.25-0.6%),
 high-carbon (more than 0.6%).
Let's move on to ferrous metallurgy.
Ferrous metals - iron and alloys
based on it (steel, ferroalloys, cast
These metals are mainly used in
the production of iron and steel.
Ferrous metals account for more
than 90% of the total volume of
metals used in the economy, of
which the bulk is various steels.
The main element giving various
properties to iron alloys is carbon.
Classification of materials: metals
Ferrous metals
In addition to carbon, cast irons and steels contain other components
that are divided into
 alloying: to obtain cast irons and steels with the required properties
- corrosion resistance,
- elasticity,
- ductility,
- heat resistance;
alloying components include silicon, aluminum, manganese,
molybdenum, copper, nickel, chromium, vanadium, tungsten and
 harmful impurities: sulfur, phosphorus, arsenic, oxygen, nitrogen
Classification of materials: metals
for example, let's analyze the
composition of cast iron
Iron (Fe)
The mine component of cast
Carbon (C)
Silica (Si)
Manganese (Mn)
Phosphorus (P)
harmful impurities
Sulfur (S)
Chromium (Cr)
Nickel (Ni)
Molybdenum (Mo)
alloying components
consists of
Classification of materials: metals
now we turn to such a topic as
Non-ferrous metallurgy is a branch of metallurgy that
includes the extraction, processing of non-ferrous metal
ores and the smelting of non-ferrous metals and their
According to their physical properties and purpose, nonferrous metals can be conditionally divided into
 heavy (lead, zinc, tin, nickel) and
 light (aluminum, titanium, magnesium).
On the basis of this division, a distinction is made
between the metallurgy of light metals and the metallurgy
of heavy metals.
3. Classification of materials:
non-metals and composites
so, in the third part of our lecture
we will touch on such topics as
Classification of materials: nonmetals
Moving on to non-metals. As
you can see from the
Nonmetals are chemical
elements with typically
nonmetallic properties that
occupy the upper right corner
of the Periodic Table.
On the slide, you can see the
already familiar periodic table,
where non-metals are marked in
Unlike metals, there are much less
non-metals, there are 22 elements
in total.
The metalloids are in purple
these are several
compounds: bork, silicon,
arsenic, tellurium,
germanium, antimony 22
OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Jun 20, 2016
Let's recall what electronic levels are
and how to understand how many
electrons are on the outer level.
Classification of materials: nonmetals
Oxygen atoms
This is important because the number
of electrons in the external energy
level will determine the oxidizing
capacity of the element.
That is, its ability to accept missing
So let's break it down with oxygen.
Let's go back to Mendelian's periodic
Oxygen is located in the second row,
that is, it has two energy levels. At the
same time, he is also in the sixth
group, that is, on the external level, he
has six electrons. as you remember,
the level at which there are eight
electrons is considered complete.
That is, oxygen lacks two electrons,
which it will take away from other
elements, forming compounds.
Classification of materials: composites
(properties A)
(properties B)
(properties ….)
(properties C)
(properties A) ≠ (properties B) ≠ (properties C)
Composite material or composite a multicomponent material made
of two or more components with
significantly different physical
and/or chemical properties. Theirs
combination, lead to the
emergence of a new material with
characteristics that differ from the
characteristics of individual
connection of material a with
material b
these materials have phase
boundaries, that is, they do not
mix with each other until they
completely dissolve or form a
completely new material
Classification of materials: composites
In the composition of the
composite, it is customary to
separate the matrix / matrices
and reinforsement.
phase boundary
If we vary the composition of the
matrix and reinforcement, their
ratio, the orientation of the filler,
we can obtain a wide range of
materials with the required set of
let's take a closer look at the
different types of composite
Classification of materials: composites
Type of composites materials
each of these fillers imparts
different properties to the matrix.
For example, such a filler can
impart strength to the composite
or, on the contrary, plasticity
Classification of materials: composites
we can highlight
in turn
this classification was taken from
Ibrahim ID et al (2015). Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites.
DOI: 10.1177 / 0731684415591302
Classification of materials: composites
Mineral fillers are natural or
synthesized solid surface
particles that do not contain
metal or carbon black.
Such fillers have a variety of
shapes - from almost
spherical particles to lamellar
and needle-like.
Mineral fillers for PVC
historically include calcium
carbonate (ground and
precipitated), aluminum
trihydrate, barite, talc, mica,
kaolin, feldspar, nepheline
syenite, and wollastonite.
4. Atomic-crystalline
structure of metals
Atomic-crystalline structure of metals
can be divided into
In a solid state, a substance has a
special crystalline structure called
a crystal lattice.
This is an auxiliary geometric
image introduced to analyze the
structure of a crystal.
In the nodes of the imaginary
lattice are metal ions, between the
nodes - electrons.
I would underline, that…
OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Jun 20, 2016
Atomic-crystalline structure of metals
14 types of Bravais lattices:
 Primitive (atoms only at nodes),
 Base-centered (additional atoms at the centers of two opposite
 Body-centered (additional node in the center of the cell),
 Face-centered (additional knot in the center of all faces),
 Rhombohedral - two additional nodes dividing the volumetric
diagonal of a hexagonal cell into three equal parts.
Depending on the values
of the size and mutual
orientation of the ribs,
14 types of Bravais
lattices are distinguished:
number 1 can be attributed to
Atomic-crystalline structure of metals
The interplanar distance in
the crystal (d (hkl) is the
distance between the planes
of one family of parallel
A unique characteristic of the
lattice of each substance.
The interplanar distance d (hkl)
The distance between atoms in the crystal lattice of solids is
~ 0.1 nm - 1.5 nm.
The orientation of the family of planes in the crystal is given by the
Miller indices - h k l (x y z).
the orientation of the crystal faces
in space is described by Miller
Atomic-crystalline structure of metals
Miller indices - h k l (x y z).
Miller indices (h k l) - plane coordinates.
X-axis - [1 0 0]
Y-axis - [0 1 0]
Z axis - [0 0 1]
Miller's indices are a
kind of address where
you can find a crystal
lattice site.
How do you know which
Miller index corresponds
to a certain angle?
For example, let's look at
the picture.
In order to determine the
Miller indices, you need
to mentally move the
origin of coordinates to
one of the nodes of the
crystal lattice.
Atomic-crystalline structure of metals
Miller indices - h k l (x y z).
Miller indices (h k l) - plane coordinates.
X-axis - [1 0 0]
Y-axis - [0 1 0]
Z axis - [0 0 1]
In the figure, as you can see,
the origin is placed at one of
the nodes and has coordinate
0. Next, you mentally draw
the axes, which will be the
crystal faces. Then the node
lying on the x-axis will have
coordinates 1 0 0. Indeed,
because it belongs only to the
x-axis, and does not belong to
the other two axes - y and z.
The node with coordinates
101 belongs directly to the x
axis and the upward z axis.
But it does not belong to the
y-axis and has coordinate 0 in
its direction. What
coordinates do you think will
have a node belonging to
three axes at once?
Atomic-crystalline structure of metals
Miller indices - h k l (x y z).
Miller indices (h k l) - plane coordinates.
X-axis - [1 0 0]
Y-axis - [0 1 0]
Z axis - [0 0 1]
in fact, not only the nodes, but
also the crystal planes have their
own coordinates. How to define
them. It is very simple: the plane
will have the coordinates that the
line perpendicular to it has. And
we have just learned to
determine the coordinates of the
line - these are the coordinates
of the node that lies on this axis.
Let's figure it out and look at the
figure. The upper plane of the
cube is intersected only by the z
axis. What are the coordinates of
this axis or the node of the
crystal that lies on it? 001. The
plane has the same coordinates.
Ok, now let's deal with the right
side of the cube. It is
perpendicular to the y-axis. As
you may have guessed, the
coordinates of this plane are
then 010.
Atomic-crystalline structure of metals
Miller indices - h k l (x y z).
Miller indices (h k l) - plane coordinates.
X-axis - [1 0 0]
Y-axis - [0 1 0]
Z axis - [0 0 1]
let's complicate the task.
Why do you think the shaded
plane of the cube has
coordinates 010? V
ery simple: the axis
perpendicular to it leaves the
origin and belongs to two axes
x and y at once.
In fact, it perpendicular to the
plane х0y
Atomic-crystalline structure of metals
Miller indices - h k l (x y z).
Miller indices (h k l) - plane coordinates.
X-axis - [1 0 0]
Y-axis - [0 1 0]
Z axis - [0 0 1]
and one more task. You can
see a plane that has
coordinates 111. This plane is
a perpendicular line that
comes out of the origin of the
coordinate system and does
not lie on any plane.
That is, it belongs to three
axes at once –x y z.
Therefore, the plane
perpendicular to it has
coordinates 111
Atomic-crystalline structure of metals
Miller indices - h k l (x y z).
you can practice and
independently understand
why this or that plane has
certain coordinates.
Atomic-crystalline structure of metals
I think you have a good question.
Why do we analyze in such detail
what coordinates have the nodes
of an invented crystal lattice?
As I said, each substance has its
own unique crystal lattice - with a
unique interplanar distance and
arrangement of atoms, that is, a
unique set of Miller indices.
On the slide you can see the
graphical structure of iron oxide
magnetite, built using the Vesta
graphics program.
Knowing the Miller indices, we can
determine the position of each
atom in the lattice and thus
distinguish magnetite from other
Vesta, #COD 9006920
In other words, we can identify the
5. Structural research
Structural research methods
Various methods are used to
study structural materials.
Macroanalysis: Study the structure of materials
visually or with optical instruments. The most
accessible is the study of kinks
Microscopic analysis: performed using optical
microscopes (useful magnification up to 950x) and
electron microscopes
X-ray analysis: The crystal lattice parameters are
determined using X-ray structural analysis.
As you already understood, the
parameters of the crystal lattice,
which we studied before, are used
to identify a substance by X-ray
phase analysis.
Let's take a closer look at this
X-ray diffraction analysis
The electromagnetic spectrum
from the name of the method it is
clear that it uses X-ray radiation.
The electromagnetic spectrum is
the aggregate of all frequency
ranges of electromagnetic
ten to the minus eleven power
•0.1 nm - 0.01 nm - hard X-ray radiation.
Sources: some nuclear reactions, cathode ray tubes.
• 10 nm - 0.1 nm - soft X-ray.
Sources: cathode-ray tubes, thermal radiation from plasma.
X-ray diffraction has acted as the cornerstone of twentieth-century
Its development has catalyzed the developments of all of the rest of
solid-state science and much of our understanding of chemical
Some 10000–20000 powder diffractometers are in use worldwide, and
of the order of 160000 powder patterns are available in the Powder
Diffraction File (PDF) electronic database.
I would like to read you a
quote about the method
that we will now be
studying from..
One of the important
XRD: Сapability of the method
Qualitative analysis
• identification of crystalline phases;
• determine the state of a solid (crystalline, amorphous,
amorphous with crystalline inclusions);
• determine the parameters of the unit cell of an unknown
• make structural analysis of simple structures
• determine the coordinates of atoms in a unit cell;
Quantitative analysis
determination of the number of phases in the mixture;
determination of average crystal sizes
determination of their size distribution function
study of internal stresses
studying textures, i.e. nature of predominant orientation of crystallites.
XRD: Аdvantages of the method
• the drug is not destroyed during analysis;
• analysis requires a small amount of
• relative simplicity of required settlement
• the ability to distinguish between
modifications and isomers of the same
chemical compound
XRD: The essence of the method
Let us direct parallel X-rays at an
angle φ on the crystal plane hkl,
spaced from each other at a
distance d.
X-rays penetrate deep into the
crystal and their reflection occurs
not only from the surface, but also
from the underlying planes.
Reflection does not occur at every
angle φ.
The reflected reflex can occur
only when the resulting amplitude
is different from zero and sufficient
in magnitude to be recorded.
XRD: Wolfe-Bragg’s condition (law)
in other words, only those rays
will be registered that
correspond to the Bragg
equation, which is shown on
the slide.
This law describes the
dependence of the wavelength
of the incident radiation on the
interplanar distance and the
angle of inclination of the
source at which the X-ray
waves cross the sample.
XRD: Wolfe-Bragg’s condition (law)
The crystal is on a rotating
Under some of its provisions, the
Wolfe-Bragg conditions are
Instead of one rotating crystal, you
can take a crystalline powder,
consisting of a huge variety of
differently oriented crystals.
Due to the disordered orientation
of the crystals, it is obvious that
among them there are always
those for which the diffraction
conditions are satisfied.
1. The cathode emits electrons when
XRD: X-ray source
2. Due to the large potential
difference between the cathode
and anode, the flow of electrons is
accelerated and gains more
energy. The resulting accelerated
electron beam hits the positively
charged anode.
X-ray tube
3. Upon reaching the anode, the
electrons experience a sharp
deceleration, instantly losing most
of the acquired energy. This
produces X-ray bremsstrahlung.
4. During deceleration, only about
1% of the kinetic energy of an
electron goes to X-rays, 99% of
the energy is converted into heat.
in the figure you see a source with a
copper anode. The anode material is
very important, since the position of
the peaks in the diffractogram will
depend on the anode material.
The diffractometer records the
intensity and scattering angle of
XRD: The diffractometer
Let us examine in detail the
operation of the diffractometer. as
you can see, the rotating platform
with the source emits X-rays.
They pass through several
monochromators to select a
specific wavelength.
In a diffractometer, a beam of X-rays
strikes a crystalline material, producing
an X-ray diffraction
pattern that can be
analyzed to determine
the crystal structure.
Then they pass through the
source, which also rotates and hit
the detector. And then the
information goes to the computer.
OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Jun 20, 2016
6. Processing of X-ray
XRD: Experimental data processing
And we get a set of coordinates from the original spectrum
(X-axis - scattering angle, Y-axis - intensity)
Let's see exactly how the data
received by the detector is
the original data is converted
into a graph called a
Based on the diffractogram,
we can obtain information
about the interplanar
spacing, Miller indices - and,
most importantly, the phase
composition of the
That is, we can understand
what kind of substance it is.
Intensity, (a.u.)
XRD: Information extracted from
(instrumental noise,
amorphous phase)
peak position - lattice parameter
crystal size
Diractogram can be analyzed
according to several key
First, the presence of a small
number of high narrow peaks
demonstrates the crystallinity of
the substance.
If in the area up to 20 degrees
there is a wide peak (the so-called
halo), then it can be attributed
either to the amorphous part,
which is in the substance, or to
the measurement features.
XRD: Information extracted from
the position of the peaks is
described by Miller indices.
Intensity, (a.u.)
Each substance has its own
unique set of Miller indexes
with a unique position.
(instrumental noise,
amorphous phase)
peak position - lattice
crystal size
It is this set: the position of
the peaks and their intensity
make it possible to identify
the substance.
Finally, the position at half
height allows the particle
size to be calculated.
XRD: ICDD Database
Information on the ratio of
intensity for each substance is
presented in the "X-ray card
index", published before 1970
by the American Society for
Testing and Materials (ASTM)
(American Society for Testing
and Materials).
Diffraction Data.
XRD: Determination of the phase
composition by ICDD
X-ray radiation crosses the
crystal planes with certain
Miller indices.
As you can see, these
indices can be labeled over
the peaks of the
Intensity, (a.u.)
XRD: Determination of the phase
composition by ICDD
on this slide you can see a
graphical representation of how
material is identified.
The program compares the
obtained diffractogram with those
in its database.
The closest variants allow
identifying the phase.
However, what if the obtained
diffractogram does not completely
coincide with those in the
then we can say that we are
dealing with some intermediate
phase variant.
XRD: Determination of the phase
composition by ICDD
Let's take a look at this using the
example of the scientific work of
the research group to which I
We synthesize and modify
magnetite nanoparticles.
However, under certain
conditions, magnetite
nanoparticles can oxidize to
another iron oxide - maghemite.
Nucleus structural
% Fe3O4
Particle size ±
standard deviation,
X-ray phase analysis allows you
to determine the percentage of
magnetite and maghemite in the
resulting mixture.
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technology of construction materials. - M .: Metallurgy, 2000, 2001.
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metals and alloys. - M .: MISIS, 1999.
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NSTU, 2004.
MINERALS, Kutsevol M.L., Dnepropetrovsk
7. Qualitative X-ray phase analysis. ICDD Database., Moscow, 2012. Course for FNM
8. Pavel Chizhov, X-ray radiation. Interaction of X-ray radiation with matter. General view
of the diffractogram. Profile analysis. Laboratory of Inorganic Crystal Chemistry,
Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Moscow State University.
Moscow 2010. Course for group 415 of the Chemical Faculty of Moscow State
University. Lecture 3
9. Methods of crystal structure research. Powder diffraction. Lecture course
Thank you for help in creating the lectures of
the professor of the department 912B MAI
Gulzhian Dzhardimalieva.