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AIM: To determine frequency response of Op-Amp
using pspice
THEORY: The response of Fig re 10.5 is
typical of a general-purpose single
roll-off op- amp such as the 741. Back in Section G5, it was mentioned that the
741 includes an internal compensation through an on-chip RC network. This
form of fixed compensation is a technique that modifies the open-loop
frequency response characteristic in order to improve performance and
RESULT: Frequency response of an op-amp has been
determined and simulated.
AIM: To realize second order active high pass filter.
THEORY:Second order active High pass filter –
As with the passive filter, a first-order high pass active filter can be converted into a secondorder high pass filter simply by using an additional RC network in the input path. The frequency
response of the second-order high pass filter is identical to that of the first-order type except
that the stop band roll-off will be twice the first-order filters at 40dB/decade (12dB/octave).
Therefore, the design steps required of the second-order active high pass filter are the same.
Circuit Layout
RESULT: Second order active high pass filters have been
realized using pspice.
AIM: To realize second order active low pass filter
THEORY:Second order active low pass filter –
Second order low pass filters are easy to design and are used extensively in many applications.
This second order low pass filter circuit has two RC networks, R1 – C1 and R2 – C2 which give
the filter its frequency response properties. The filter design is based around a non-inverting
op-amp configuration so the filters gain, A will always be greater than 1. Also the op-amp has a
high input impedance which means that it can be easily cascaded with other active filter circuits
to give more complex filter designs.
Circuit Layout
RESULT: Second order active low pass filters have been
realized using pspice.
Experiment 4
Objective :
Implementation of Schmitt trigger using PSPICE
Schmitt triggers are simple circuits that accept an oscillating signal (e.g., a
sawtooth or triangle wave) and output a square wave. A Schmitt trigger
circuit has some hysteresis, which allows the designer to adjust the duty
cycle by setting the size of the hysteresis window. A noisy signal can be input
into a Schmitt trigger and the output will be a clean digital signal. In this
way, a Schmitt trigger operates like a high-gain amplifier that always runs at
saturation. In fact, you can use an op-amp to construct a Schmitt trigger
circuit by saturating the differential input, although this is not desired in
high-speed circuitry.
Output Waveform:
RESULT: Schmidt trigger has been implemented
AIM: To implement precision rectifier in PSPICE.
THEORY: A rectifier is a circuit that converts alternating current (AC) to
Direct current (DC). An alternating current always changes its direction over
time, but the direct current flows continuously in one direction. In a typical
rectifier circuit, we use diodes to rectify AC to DC. But this rectification method
can only be used if the input voltage to the circuit is greater than the forward
voltage of the diode which is typically 0.7V.
Construction of Precision Rectifier
RESULT: Precision rectifier has been implemented
AIM: To simulate operations of monostable and
astable multivibrator using timer 555 ic in PSPICE.
Astable Mode
In this mode, the 555 work as a free running
mode. The output of astable multivibrator will
continuously toggle between low and high, there
by generating a train of pulse, which is why it is
known as pulse generator.
It is a best example for a perfect square wave
generator. They are used as an inverter and also
used in many of the internal part of the radio.
Selecting a Thermistor as a timing resistor allows
the use of the 555 in a temperature sensor.
Monostable Mode
In the monostable mode, as the name suggests, it
stays in its stable state until and unless an external
trigger is applied. In this mode, the 555 functions
as a “one-shot” pulse generator. The best
application of a monostable is to introduce a time
delay in to a system.
Applications comprise many things viz., timers,
missing pulse detection also included bounce free
switches, touch switches as well as frequency
divider, capacitance measurement and pulse-width
modulation (PWM) and many more.
RESULT: Hence monostable and astable
operations of ic 555 are simulated on PSPICE.
AIM: Design digital to Analog converter and Analog to digital converter using PSpice.
a) Digital to Analog converter:
A Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) converts a digital input signal into an analog output signal. The digital signal is
represented with a binary code, which is a combination of bits 0 and 1. This chapter deals with Digital to Analog Converters in detail.
The block diagram of DAC is shown in the following figure −
A Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) consists of a number of binary inputs and a single output. In general, the number of binary
inputs of a DAC will be a power of two.
Spice Simulation :
a) Circuit
b) Result:
2) Analog to Digital Converter:
An ADC samples an Analog waveform at uniform time intervals and assigns a digital value to each sample. The digital
value appears on the converter’s output in a binary coded format. The value is obtained by dividing the sampled analog input
voltage by the reference voltage and then multiplying it by the number of digital codes. The resolution of the converter is set
by the number of binary bits in the output code.
a) Circuit:
b) Result:
Result: A/D and D/A converters and designed and resultant graphs are drawn using PSpice.