Uploaded by Carl Sheen


Division Of City Schools
City Of Mandaluyong
Arellano University Plaridel Campus
53 Kalentong Street, Mandaluyong City
It is justifiable that the emergence of plastics in our lives brought an innovative lifestyle
from the convenience we get on it. However, the massive adaptation of using plastics leads
us to different environmental problems that remain unsolvable today.
The adaptation of different generations on using plastics evolves through decades;
globally we use in excess of 260 million tones of plastic per annum, accounting for
approximately 8 percent of world oil production (Thompson, 2009). Plastics are incredibly
versatile materials; they are inexpensive, lightweight, strong, durable, corrosion-resistant,
with high thermal and electrical insulation properties (Swan, 2009).
The improvement of our environment varies on the choices of authorities regarding the
usage of traditional plastics. Research studies proposed options that might be effective in
reducing the waste problem of our society. Complete abandon of using plastics and shifting
our traditional plastics into biodegradable plastics.
Recycling of plastics is insufficient on reducing our environmental problems, In the
past few years, the Philippines’ recycling rate is low at 9% and the average plastic waste
generation in the Philippines has been estimated at 15.43 kg/cap/year (WWF, 2020).
Effective shifting of traditional plastics into eco-friendly plastics might be the solution
in reducing our environmental waste. Eco-friendly plastics have the same function as our
traditional plastics except for chemical composition. Bio-plastics are made out of
cornstarch which does not emit dangerous gases such as carbon dioxide when they start to
break down.
Major Question:
How effective are eco-friendly plastics as the major replacement for shopping bags to
improve the overall waste problem of the residents of Barangay Poblacion in
Mandaluyong City?
Minor Questions:
1. What are the major obstacles in making environmentally-friendly plastics?
2. What are the primary respondent’s role in creating an effective change in the presence of
using environmentally-friendly plastics?
Non-Eco-friendly shopping bags can be the major reason for the uncontrolled
growth of environmental waste, locally and globally. A study by (Tanguay, 2019) says
approximately 100 billion plastic bags are used in the United States each year, yet only
about 1% of them are recycled.
Plastics usually take a year or so to decompose, yet they're still not fully degraded.
If plastics break down, they are called Microplastics or small pieces of plastics that can
contaminate the food sources of humans and animals.
This study will be undertaken to find out why Eco-Friendly plastics are better than
shopping bags and how Eco-friendly plastics can help reduce environmental waste
problems. The main Beneficiary of this study is the local leaders that don't know what will
they do to reduce waste problems. This study will give them an idea of how to solve their
waste problems.
The prior focus of this study is to propose a major replacement of the traditional
shopping bags into Eco-friendly Bags around Barangay Poblacion Mandaluyong City.
The study is conducted in the area of Barangay Poblacion including the private places
under it.
The following reasons why this study is conducted are based on our field
specialty and morals as a student involved in this environmental problem.
This research aims to inform the residents of Brgy. Poblacion on what are the
possible alternatives to improve their environmental waste. Factors such as plastics
greatly contribute a major problem to their environment.
Traditional Plastics
Eco-friendly plastics
Citizens in Brgy. Poblacion, Mandaluyong City
Descriptive Research
How effective are eco-friendly plastics as the
respondent’s shopping bags?
Gathering of Data
 To improve the environmental waste problem of
Brgy. Poblacion in Mandaluyong City by using
eco-friendly plastics as their major replacement
of shopping bags.
This study is concerned about the environmental waste problem of Brgy.
Poblacion in Mandaluyong City, thus, the researchers conducted this research. The
researchers’ goal is to know how effective environmentally-friendly plastics are over
traditional plastic bags as the major replacement of the respondents’ shopping bags.
In order for the researcher to attain the desired goal, they must satisfy and fulfill
the inputs and process. The first step is to know what variable causes the problem or
phenomena and that is plastic bags. Second step, doing descriptive research about the
variables, inquiring about the effects, and gathering data from our respondents. Those are
the researchers’ processes to make their output or results more successful.
This research will attempt to improve the environmental waste problem and to
promote eco-friendly plastic bags among the suggested people, particularly those who are
the citizens of Barangay Poblacion, Mandaluyong City
Plastic Bags has always been known to be one of the major causes
of environmental problems around the world. Consequently, the use of
bags, particularly plastic bags is unavoidable for its cause, so humans
could only resort to utilizing alternatives. The Theory of Reasoned
Action of Fishbein and Azjen (1975), proposed the attitudes are defined
as a positive or negative feeling in relation to the achievement. This
theory correlates to our study regarding eco-friendly plastic bags as a
major replacement of shopping bags. Having the knowledge that there
are many alternatives to normal plastic bags, utilizing the better options
will be an easy choice that will be better for the environment.
Decompose – to separate into constituent parts or elements or into
simpler compounds behavior.
Eco-friendly – not environmentally harmful
Alternative – different from the usual or conventional.
Waste – discarded or useless materials
Microplastic – a very small fragment or piece of plastic.
The Green Plastic by (E.S Stevens, 2020) told us answers to all of our questions
regarding plastics and the efforts being made in the known continents, particularly
America, Europe, and Asia to build a new generation of environmentally friendly
polymers. The book literature already evaluated environmentally-friendly plastics are
being used more often as a fairly unique substance that can be used instead of other
materials. It also discusses their environmental effect as well as disposal and recycling
With the help of basic polymer principles and terminology and especially basic
chemistry, the author contrasts how petroleum-based and biological polymers are created,
along with how they decompose in diverse ways. This book could be of major assistance
in making our research about the replacement of non-biodegradable plastics that people
have been completely disregarding after using them which could be an impact on future
generations (E.S. Stevens, 2020)
It utilized a general effect of the continuity of using plastic bags on different
aspects, followed up by the statement of introducing levy plastics that primarily target
consumers on retail points. The study then conducts qualitative data from the stated
subjects; six geospatially and selective shopping malls to determine the possible numbers
of the said subject who are likely to join the proposal of WTP and WTA (Madigele, 2017)
This is followed up by (Madigele, 2017) statement of results in which the
involvement of dumping and burning of plastics are common in the places of Maun which
was compared to Gaborone. This research analyzed the possible major places that are a
concern and agree with shifting their plastics into eco-friendly alternatives that might bring
a major effect to the consumers. Due to the lack of possible solutions on how to persuade
the consumers of plastics in different areas, this study brought significance to future
researchers that might conduct qualitative or quantitative data
(Jalil, 2013) indicates that many countries have banned hazardous plastic bags because
of public concern over the serious negative impact of it environmentally and agriculturally.
This article aims to find out alternatives to hazardous plastic bags.
The scholarly abstract of Kumar (2014) that food packaging has long been
connected with revolutionary innovations. Mineral oil-derived polymers such as
polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene have dominated this industry for the past few years.
Nobody bothered about the decreasing supply of these materials as they come from nonrenewable sources or their safe disposal because they provided so much convenience and
attraction to the food sector.
As time passes by, due to concerns over the new environmental problems, the
development and promotion of "bio-plastic" are generating renewed interest in packaging
research. Bioplastics is a term used to describe packaging materials made from renewable
resources such as starch and bio-derived monomers that are considered acceptable for use
in food packaging (Kumar, 2014)
They have more diversified stereochemistry and side chain architecture than
traditional plastics derived from petroleum, allowing research scientists to modify the
features of the final packaging material to a larger extent, Kumar (2014). The suitability of
bioplastic for food packaging can be a piece of vital evidence in our research about ecofriendly plastic shopping bags since the majority of plastic shopping bags are used in
The study of this article shows the behavior of the consumers for the past few years
engaging the use of plastic bags. It is stated, that the usage of plastic bags brought the habits
of the consumers with its convenience, however, the characteristics of plastic when it’s
burned brought the dangerous gasses that emits CO2. The article also shows a statistical
chart that shows different categories of consumer products that are conducted by Jica
(2014), enough to propose an action to the government of reducing and possibly shifting
the use of plastic bags.
The behavior of the consumers will vary to the actions of the government, the article
mentioned 2 possible solutions that the government might act; 1st is the complete
abandonment of using plastics and 2nd is the shifting of ecological plastic bags. The
following effects that might emerge are the damage to economic businesses, different
responses on the chart show how competitive businesses are affected with their product.
Overall, this literature contributes factual information’s about the behavior of consumers’
preferences towards using plastics (Jica, 2014)