# calculation chemical ```b. Preliminary results
Due the covid-19 and the lab work has been delayed. Therefore, no preliminary results are available.
The perovskite device needs to be fabricated before result can be obtained. However, the chemical
and reagent for preparation of the precursor solution are done calculate and also the attachment for
full report chapter 1 until 3 was be prepared for constraints during lab works. The formula to calculate
is:
Molarity:
Density :
Molarity:
𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑥 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑥 100
𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠
(Equation 2)
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒
𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑥 𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑚𝑙 𝑥 𝑝𝑢𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑦/100
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠
M1V1 : M2V2
(Stock solution : Diluted solution)
Calculation of molarity and volume of chemical
I. Germanium (Ge)
: 72.64 g/mol
Molar mass
Density
:
5.3 g/ml
Concentration
:
5mol% &amp; 10mol%
Assume vial
:
10 ml
a)
(5𝑚𝑜𝑙% 𝑥 5.3 𝑔/𝑚𝑙)
𝑔
72.64 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑥 100
: 0.004M
(Equation 1)
10ml of 0.004M of Ge
0.004 M (10ml): 1M (V2)
(Equation 1)
(Equation 4)
(Equation 3)
(Equation 4)
b)
0.004𝑀 (10𝑚𝑙)
:
V2
1𝑀
: 0.04 ml
(10𝑚𝑜𝑙% 𝑥 5.3 𝑔/𝑚𝑙)
𝑔
72.64 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑥 100
: 0.007M
(Equation 1)
10ml of 0.007M of Ge
:
V2
0.007𝑀 (10𝑚𝑙)
1𝑀
: 0.07 ml
(Equation 4)
II. Germanium (II) iodide (Gel2 )
Purity
:
99.8%
Molar mass
:
326.45g/mol
Density
:
5.37g/ml
Assume vial
:
10 ml
𝑔
5.37𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑥 10 𝑚𝑙 𝑥 99.8%
100
326.45 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙
∶ 0.16 M
(Equation 3)
10ml of 0.16M of Gel2
0.16 M (10ml): 1M (V2)
V2
:
0.16𝑀 (10𝑚𝑙)
III.
1𝑀
: 1.6 ml
Formamidinium iodide (FAI)
Purity
:
98%
Molar mass
:
171.97g/mol
Assume vial
:
10 ml
Assume 10 gram for chemical
20 𝑔
10 𝑚𝑙
(Equation 4)
:
1g/ml
(Equation 2)
𝑔
1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑥 10 𝑚𝑙 𝑥 98%
100
171.97 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙
∶ 0.06 M
(Equation 3)
10ml of 0.06M of FAI
0.06 M (10ml): 1M (V2)
V2
:
0.06𝑀 (10𝑚𝑙)
1𝑀
(Equation 5)
: 0.6 ml
IV. Methylammonium iodide (MAI)
Purity
:
98%
Molar mass
:
158.97 g/mol
Assume vial
:
10 ml
Assume 20 gram for chemical
20 𝑔
10 𝑚𝑙
:
1g/ml
(Equation 2)
𝑔
1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑥 10 𝑚𝑙 𝑥 98%
100
158.97 g/mol
∶ 0.06 M
(Equation 3)
10ml of 0.06M of MAI
0.06 M (10ml): 1M (V2)
V2
:
0.06𝑀 (10𝑚𝑙)
1𝑀
(Equation 5)
: 0.6 ml
V. N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)
Purity
:
99.8%
Molar mass
:
73.09 g/mol
Density
:
: 0.94 g/ml
Assume vial
:
10 ml
𝑔
𝑥 10 𝑚𝑙 𝑥 99.8%
100
𝑚𝑜𝑙
0.94
73.09 g/mol
∶
0.13M
(Equation 3)
10ml of 0.13M of Gel2
0.13 M (10ml): 1M (V2)
V2
:
0.13𝑀 (10𝑚𝑙)
1𝑀
: 1.3 ml
(Equation 4)
```