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REAL Science Exam Draft

REAL Science Exam
1. A resource is anything that:
a. Comes from plants or animals
b. We make or manufacture
c. We need or use
d. Comes out of the ground
2. Currently. The three primary energy resources that supply most of
the world’s energy are:
a. Coal, Oil and Nuclear
b. Coal, Oil and Natural gas
c. Solar, Wind and Hydro
d. Wood, Coal and Solar
3. Which of the following advantages is shared by fossil fuels and
nuclear power?
a. Provide reliable energy
b. Don’t produce Carbon Dioxide
c. Don’t produce radioactive waste
d. Renewable
4. Atlantic bluefin tuna are highly prized as food, especially sushi.
Their numbers have dropped dramatically due to fishing. This is a
case of
a. sustainable use of a renewable resource
b. unsustainable use of a renewable resource
c. sustainable use of a non-renewable resource
d. unsustainable use of a non-renewable resource
5. Soils are not renewable because they:
a. can be eroded.
b. are replaced too slowly.
c. are formed from weathering of rocks.
d. can be weathered.
The drawings below show six ways of providing energy.
6. From the drawings, give the names of two fossil fuels.
2. ____coal/gas_____________________
1 mark
What is the source of energy for a solar panel?
______the sun__________________________
1 mark
8. Why can the solar panel not work at night?
______because the sun’s rays do not reach the solar
panel at night__________________________
1 mark
9. What makes the blades of the turbine in drawing B go round?
1 mark
Renewable energy resources will not run out.
From the drawings, give one energy source that will not
run out.
1 mark
Fossil fuels are often described as non-renewable energy
Explain why they are called ‘non-renewable’.
Because they can not be replaced within a human lifetime
1 mark
1. What are the three (3) main types of rocks?
a. Magma, lava and sediment
b. Soft, hard and chalky
c. Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic
d. Granite, sandstone and schist
2. In the rock cycle, rocks become sediment through the process(es)
a. Melting
b. High pressure
c. Weathering and erosion
d. Compaction and cementation
Mudstone is a type of sedimentary rock that can change into the
metamorphic rock slate. What conditions would change mudstone
into slate?
a. Heat and pressure
b. Compaction and cementation
c. Weathering and erosion
d. Melting and cooling
4. Which of the following steps cannot occur in the rock cycle?
a. sedimentary rock → metamorphic rock
b. metamorphic rock → magma
c. magma → sedimentary rock
d. igneous rock → sediment
5. Which of the following statements relating to magma is correct?
a. When magma cools, it forms metamorphic rock
b. Magma is a type of metamorphic rock
c. Magma forms when rocks melt
d. When magma is deep below the surface, it is referred to as
6. Intrusive igneous rocks form:
a. On the Earth’s surface from cooling lava.
b. On the Earth’s surface from compacted and cemented
c. Below the Earth’s surface from cooling magma
d. Below the Earth’s surface when a rock melts and re-solidifies.
7. Coal is a sedimentary rock that forms when:
a. plants fall into lava and become burned to a black charcoal
b. bacteria in soil partially decompose and leave behind a black
c. tiny ancient single celled organisms became buried under soil
that turned into rock.
d. plants are buried and compressed between rock layers
1. The diagram represents a section through the Earth showing the layers
which are labelled A, B, C and D.
Give the name of:
layer A
layer B
Give one difference between layer C and layer D.
___________layer c is liquid, layer D is solid_________________
Explain why igneous rocks do not contain fossils.
___igneous rock is formed from cooling magma/lava. A fossil could
not be formed by a dead organism in magma/lava as it would be too
What is the name given to the one super continent?
13. Plates moving sideways past each other form a
A constructive boundary.
B subduction zone.
C convergent boundary.
D transform boundary.
10) Plates moving apart form a
A constructive boundary.
B divergent boundary.
C convergent boundary.
D transform boundary.
What causes plates to move?
A convection currents
B volcanoes
C seismic activity
D friction
At a convergent boundary, the plates
A move apart.
B move towards each other.
C move past each other.
D remain still.
Two continental plates moving towards one another form
A fold mountains.
B a trench.
C an ocean ridge.
D an island arc.
Subduction occurs when
A a continental plate drops below a continental plate.
B an oceanic plate drops below a continental plate.
C an oceanic plate slides past an oceanic plate.
D a continental plate drops below an oceanic plate.
The inner core is made of
A iron and nickel.
B magnesium and iron.
C magnesium and nickel.
D just nickel.
(2 marks)
What are two differences between oceanic crust and continental
______thickness (oceanic is not as thick) and density (oceanic is more
(5 marks)
Label the image of sea floor spreading using the boxes to write your
Drag and drop activity: Answers beginning at top left and moving
Ocean ridge
Sea floor spreading
Plate boundary
21. Mrs Thomas lives in Perth, Western Australia. Why are there no
volcanoes in Perth?
Because Perth is not near the edge of a tectonic plate
Heat & Magnetism
86) The three methods of heat transfer are:
Conduction, contraction and ventilation
Conduction, radiation and convention
Convection, conduction and radiation
none of the above
12) Your hand feels cold as an ice-block melts on it. Identify the correct
explanation for this process.
Heat has transferred from the ice-block into your hand by
Heat has transferred from your hand to the ice-block by conduction.
Heat has transferred from the ice-block into your hand by
Heat has transferred from your hand to the ice-block by convection.
13) When heating a liquid or gas, the particles become _______ and
begin to _______________.
energise; sink
less dense; rise
more dense; rise
more dense; sink
19. Classify each situation of heat transfer listed below as primarily being
an example of conduction, convection or radiation.
(a) Aiden feels his arms getting warm as he plays cricket on a summer
(b) Mika touches a tray that has just come out of the oven and burns her
(c) The interior of a car warms up soon after the heater has been turned
(3 marks)
20. Select the option that best completes the following sentence.
When radiation hits a shiny material it is:
absorbed, and the object warms up quickly
transmitted, and the object takes longer to warm up
reflected, and the object takes longer to warm up
absorbed, and the object warms up slowly
Don't want this look?
21. What colour clothing would you recommend wearing on a sunny day? Explain your
White/light. Light colours reflect heat so you would not warm up as fast.
22. Define magnetism.
A non-contact force
A type of electricity
A type of potential energy
A contact force
23. Identify whether the following statement is true or false.
Some magnets only have a north pole but no south pole.
24. Identify whether the following statement is true or false.
If the north poles of two magnets are brought close together, they will repel each
Chemical Reactions
How many hydrogen atoms are there in each molecule of ammonia, NH3?
All chemical equations have the general form:
metal + water → metal hydroxide + hydrogen
acid + base → salt + water
products → reactants
reactants → products
Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be formed by the following reaction:
hydrogen + chlorine → hydrogen chloride
What is the symbol equation for this reaction?
H2 → Cl2 + 2HCl
H2 + Cl2 → 2HCl
2HCl → H2 + Cl2
H2 + Cl2 + 2HCl
Endothermic reactions are written as:
Reactants + products -> energy
Reactants + energy -> products
Products + energy -> reactants
None of the above
The unbalanced equation for the reaction of potassium added to water to form
potassium hydroxide and hydrogen gas is:
K + H2O  KOH + H2
Why is this equation unbalanced?
There is K on the reactant side and KOH on the product side.
There are 2 hydrogens on the reactant side and only 1 hydrogen on the product side.
There are 2 hydrogens on the reactant side and 3 hydrogens on the product side.
There are 2 hydrogens on the reactant side and 1 oxygen on the product side.
Which of the following is the balanced chemical equation showing the
corrosion of aluminium?
Al + O2 → Al2O3
4Al + O2 → 2Al2O3
Al + 3O2 → 2Al2O3
4Al + 3O2 → 2Al2O3
Which of the following reactions shows the rusting of iron?
A 2Cu + H2O + CO2 + O2 → Cu(OH)2 + CuCO3
B 2Ag + H2S → Ag2S + H2
C 2Na + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2
D 4Fe + 3O2 + 2H2O → 2Fe2O3+ 2H2O
9. When petrol explodes, it releases energy in the form of heat and light.
This reaction is an example of:
A an endothermic reaction.
B an exothermic reaction.
C a neutralisation reaction.
D a corrosion reaction.
12. The reaction that releases energy for your cells to use is called:
aerobic respiration
13. Which of the following equations correctly summarises what happens
in photosynthesis?
A CO2 + H2O
B 6CO2 + 6H2O
C6H12O6 + O2
C6H12O6 + 6O2
C 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
D C6H12O6 + 6O2
6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
14. Photosynthesis and aerobic respiration might appear to be opposite
processes but they differ in many ways. Four differences are listed
below. One is WRONG. Which is it?
A Each proceeds via different steps.
B Photosynthesis occurs in all cells of all living things while aerobic
respiration only occurs in the chloroplasts in the cells of green plants.
C Photosynthesis happens only while it is light but aerobic respiration
happens continuously.
D The enzymes in photosynthesis speed up reactions while the enzymes
in aerobic respiration slow them down.
15. A 1.0 gram piece of magnesium was dropped into 150 mL of a
concentrated solution of hydrochloric acid. All the gas produced was
collected in a test-tube. The gas collected would be:
A hydrogen gas
B carbon dioxide gas
C oxygen gas
D water vapour
17. The unbalanced formula equation below shows a reaction that happens
when methane burns in a limited supply of oxygen gas.
CH4 + O2 → C + H2O
a Classify this reaction as complete combustion or incomplete combustion.
_____incomplete combustion___________________________
b Justify your answer.
_____there is not enough oxgen to form CO2_______
c Identify which two elements (C, O or H) are unbalanced in the above
__________H & O__________________________________
Copy the above equation and modify it so that it becomes balanced.
____________ CH4 + O2 → C + 2H2O___
(4 marks)
18. Ethane (C2H6) reacts with oxygen gas (O2) to form carbon dioxide (CO2)
and water vapour (H2O).
a Identify the reactants of this reaction.
_____ Ethane (C2H6) reacts with oxygen gas (O2) _______
b Identify the products of this reaction.
_______ carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (H2O).______ _
c Construct a word equation for this reaction.
___ Ethane + oxygen gas  carbon dioxide + water vapour__
d Construct an unbalanced formula equation for this reaction.
___C2H6 + O2  CO2 +H2O______________________
e Challenge: Modify the equation so that it is balanced.
___ 2C2H6 + 7O2  4CO2 +6H2O
(5 marks)
20. Two things can happen to an iron/steel shipwreck when it settles on
the ocean floor. It can stay on the floor OR it can sink into the mud. If
it stays on the ocean floor, it will rust. If covered by mud, it is
sometimes preserved without any rusting.
The rusting of iron is shown in the equation:
4Fe + 3O2 + 2H2O → 2Fe2O3.H2O
a Use this equation to identify the chemical formula for rust.
b List the three reactants needed for rust to form.
c Propose a reason why iron might not rust if the shipwreck is covered
by mud.
a. Fe2O3
b. Iron, Oxygen and water
c. the mud stops oxygen from reaching the shipwreck
Balance each equation.
Na +
2 Na +
MgF2 
NaF +
2 NaF +
Mg +
MgCl2 +
Mg +
MgCl2 +
Na +
Na +
Na +
2Na +
1. What is a force?
a. Something created by living organisms
b. A non-contact motion
c. A push or a pull
d. A movement
2. Forces are measured in:
a. kilograms
b. degrees
c. newtons
d. kilometres per hour
3. In a tug-of-war, which of the following best describes the tension in the rope?
a. The forces that stop the rope from pulling apart
b. The force of gravity as it applies to the rope
c. The forces that pull the rope apart
d. The pulling forces on either end of the rope
4. Friction always acts "backwards" – in the direction opposite to an object's motion.
a. False – friction can also act "forwards", causing objects to speed up
b. True – friction is a contact force that slows things down
c. False – friction is not a force, it just slows things down
d. True – friction is a non-contact force that pulls moving objects back towards
where they started moving
5. A spider is hanging motionless from a thread. What can you infer about the forces acting
on it?
a. The forces are equal in size and acting in the same direction
b. There are no forces
c. The forces are balanced
d. The forces are unbalanced
6. The net force acting on an object is:
a. The overall force acting on an object
b. the weakest force
c. the downward force
d. the strongest force
7. A skydiver jumps from an aeroplane and falls downward because of the Earth's
gravitational pull. In response to the skydiver, the Earth:
a. doesn't move, because it is not gravitationally attracted to the skydiver
b. moves up, but only an extremely small distance because of its much larger mass
c. doesn't move, because it has a fixed location in space
d. moves up an equal distance to meet the skydiver, however we don't notice this
8. A car moving in a straight line at constant speed:
a. is accelerating.
b. is decelerating.
c. has no overall force acting on it.
d. must be on a downhill slope.
9. It is more slippery walking on ice than walking on a footpath. This is because:
a. there is more friction between the ice and your shoes.
b. there is less friction between the ice and your shoes.
c. your shoes get wet.
d. you weigh less on ice than on the footpath
10. The aircraft shown below has four forces acting on it.
As a result of these forces, it will:
a. move to the right.
b. move to the left.
c. move up.
d. move down.
Tasha puts a small block of wood on a smooth surface.
She puts different forces on the block.
The diagrams below show the size and direction of these forces.
Will each block move to the left, to the right or stay still?
Tick the correct box in each row.
forces on block
to the
the stays
1 mark
1 mark
1 mark
1 mark
Which piece of equipment should Tasha use to measure the forces
on the block?
Tick the correct box.
1 mark
Give the name of the equipment used to measure force.
.....spring balance...........................................................
1 mark
Sally pulls a sledge in the ice.
Draw an arrow on the rope to show the direction of the force of the
rope on
the sledge.
Label the arrow R.
Draw an arrow on the diagram to show the direction of the force of
on the sledge.
Label the arrow G.
2 marks
Force F is the friction between the sledge and the ice.
Sally then pulled the sledge over a concrete path.
Friction is less on ice than on concrete.
Give the reason for this.
....ice is smoother than concrete...........................................................
1 mark
maximum 3 marks
The lift in a tall building hangs from a strong cable. The movement of the lift is
affected by only two forces.
These forces are the tension in the cable and the weight of the lift.
The lift is not moving. How do the sizes of the two forces compare?
Tick the correct box.
1 mark
When the lift is moving upwards and its speed is increasing, how do the
sizes of the two forces compare?
....tension is greater than the weight/gravitational pull.............................
1 mark
When the lift is moving upwards at a constant speed, how do the sizes
of the two forces compare?
1 mark
Near the top of the building the lift is moving upwards, but slowing down.
How do the sizes of the two forces now compare?
....weight is greater than tension...........................................................
1 mark
Maximum 4 marks
The drawings show the mass and weight of four objects on different planets.
On which of the four planets is the object with the largest mass?
1 mark
How can you tell, from the drawings, that gravity is greater on Earth than
..........The weight is bigger, even though the mass is the same.......
1 mark
Gravity is less on the Moon than on the Earth.
Complete the sentences below to compare the weight and mass of an
on the Moon and on the Earth.
The weight of an astronaut on the Moon is .....less............................ the
weight of an astronaut on the Earth.
1 mark
The mass of an astronaut on the Moon is .......the same as............. the
mass of the astronaut on the Earth.
1 mark
Nazia is investigating how easily a block of wood slides along a wooden bench.
The diagram shows her experiment.
Nazia does the experiment with different weights on top of the block. She
counts how many slotted masses she needs to hang from the string to
make the block of wood slide. Her results are shown in the table.
weight on top of
the block in N
number of slotted
masses needed
Describe how the number of slotted masses needed to move the
block varies with the weight on top of the block.
.......increases by 2 for each extra N of weight...............
1 mark
Nazia does the experiment with a weight of 3.5 N on top of the block
of wood.
How many slotted masses would she need to make the block slide?
1 mark
Nazia does her experiment again. This time she slides the block of wood
over a sheet of glass instead of the bench top.
Suggest how her results would be different this time.
.....less slotted masses required.....................................
1 mark
Physical & Chemical Change
1. Which of the following is a chemical change?
A. Fireworks explode in a colourful light display.
B. Water freezes to form ice.
C. Sawdust is produced from wood being cut by a power saw.
D. Juice is obtained from an orange.
2. A permanent colour change may be an indication that a chemical reaction has
taken place. Identify which of the following is not an indication of a chemical
A. glass breaking
B. sugar caramelising
C. toasting bread
D. burning a match
3. Identify which of the following would indicate a reaction that requires an
input of energy.
A. the reaction feels cold to the touch
B. a gas is given off
C. a precipitate forms
D. the reaction glows
4. Joe collected some snow and placed it in a beaker. During the day it melted
to produce clear water. Joe and his friends made the following comments
about the process.
Joe: This is a chemical change as there is a change in colour.
Jill: The beaker is now warmer than when you collected the snow. This must be
a chemical change as energy is absorbed.
Jenny: This is a physical change as the trapped air bubbles react with the snow.
Jamal: This is a physical change as no new substances are created.
State who is correct.
A. Jenny
B. Joe
C. Jamal
D. Jill
5. A common compound found in coffee, bread and ripe fruit is acetaldehyde,
which has the molecular formula C2H4O.
Which of the following diagrams would best represent a molecule of
Answer is D
6. Which of the following is an example of chemical change?
A. Taking a glass of water and freezing it by placing it in the freezer.
B. A plant collecting sunlight and turning it into food.
C. Your dog ripping up your homework.
D. Filling up a balloon with hot air.
7. When a car rusts, iron combines with oxygen in the air to form iron oxide. Is
rusting a physical change or a chemical change?
A. Chemical, because the colour changes and a new substance is produced.
B. Chemical, because the iron and oxygen atoms simply mix together
without forming a new substance.
C. Physical, because the change can easily be reversed.
D. Physical, because it occurs very slowly whereas chemical changes are
always fast.
8. During a chemical change, the number of ____________ always remains the
A. Substances
B. chemical bonds
C. Atoms
D. molecules
9. The law of conservation of mass states that ‘During a chemical reaction,
atoms are neither created nor destroyed’. This law suggests that if a chemical
reaction occurred inside a closed container, the total mass of the container
and its contents would:
A. increase as more chemicals are produced by the reaction.
B. stay the same.
C. decrease if the chemical reaction produces a gas.
D. increase or decrease depending on the type of chemical reaction.
10.In the chemical reaction CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O, there are reactants and
products. If you count the atoms in the reactants, there are:
A. 4 carbon atoms, 4 hydrogen atoms, and 4 oxygen atoms.
B. 4 carbon atoms, 4 hydrogen atoms, and 2 oxygen atoms.
C. 1 carbon atom, 4 hydrogen atoms, and 4 oxygen atoms.
D. 1 carbon atom, 4 hydrogen atoms, and 2 oxygen atoms.
11.Ruth put a piece of a different metal in each of four test tubes.
She poured 10 cm3 of hydrochloric acid onto each metal.
Look at the diagrams above.
How do these show if a metal reacts with the acid?
1 mark
Which metal is most reactive with hydrochloric acid?
1 mark
12.Joanne added iron filings to copper sulphate solution.
She observed the reaction after one week.
What evidence in the diagrams shows that a chemical reaction
has taken place?
.......change of colour...........................................................
1 mark
13.A pupil heated 1.24 g of copper carbonate strongly. The chemical reaction
which took place is represented by the equation:
CuCO3(s) → CuO(s) + CO2(g)
After the solid which remained had cooled, he weighed it.
He found that its mass was 0.80 g.
a) Why did the pupil find a decrease in mass in this experiment?
The CO2 escaped into the atmosphere
1 mark
He then heated the 0.80 g of solid again. When he weighed it after
cooling, its mass was still 0.80 g.
b) Explain why it had not changed in mass this time.
....the chemical reaction had already taken place. The new solid
(CuO) will not form CO2, as there is no carbon (C) in this new
1 mark
c) In another experiment, he burnt magnesium ribbon in air. He found
that the mass of the powder formed was greater than the original mass of
the ribbon. Explain this.
...when the magnesium was burnt, it combined with the oxygen in
the air, creating magnesium oxide.............
1 mark
14. What is the main difference between a chemical and a physical
....a chemical change creates a new substance. A physical change
does not...............
2 mark