Science and Technology Studies, or Science, Technology and Society Studies (STS) study of how society, politics, and culture affect scientific research and technological innovation, and how these, in turn, affect society, politics and culture. relatively recent discipline, originating in the 60s and 70s, following Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962). result of a “sociological turn” in science studies. makes the assumption that science and technology are essentially intertwined and that they are each profoundly social and profoundly political. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Latin word scientia > knowledge. knowledge attained through study or practice. system of acquiring knowledge which uses observation and experimentation. organized body of knowledge gained using scientific method or research. TECHNOLOGY Greek words techne > art, craft,or skill. Logos > to speak of ;to imply the practical application of techne. the application of scientific knowledge to the practical aims of human life. Refers to methods, systems, and devices which are the result of scientific knowledge being used for practical purposes. Interconnections between Science and Technology Science -purpose of knowing. Technology -purpose of something useful from that knowledge Science > THEORY Technology > PRACTICE SOCIETY came from the Latin word societas, derived from the noun socius ("comrade, friend, ally"; adjectival form socialis) used to describe a bond or interaction between parties that are friendly, or at least civil. grouping of individuals > common interest-distinctive cultureinstitutions. SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 1. Science as an Idea systematic explanations and observations about the natural and physical world. 2. Science as an intellectual activity encompasses a systematic and practical study. systematic observation and experimentation. 3. Science as a body of knowledge deals with the process of learning about the natural and physical world. refer to as school science. 4. Science as a personal and social activity science is both knowledge and activities done by human beings It means to improve life and to survive in life. Idea of Scientific Revolution started in the early 16th century up to the 18th century in Europe. Why in Europe? invention of printing machine and the blooming intellectual activities done in various places of learning. was the period of enlightenment It explained the emergence or birth of modern science . was the golden age for people committed to scholarly life in science. Notable Scientist 1. Nicolaus Copernicus Heliocentric theory One of the renaissance men strongly influenced by a book entitled Epitome published in 1496 Copernicu's idea and model of the universe was essentially complete in 1510 Two kinds of planetary motion (1) the orbits of Venus ,Mercury lay inside the orbit of the Earth, thus, closer to the Sun; (2) the orbits of Mars, Saturn, and Jupiter lay outside the Earth’s orbits, thus, farther from the Sun. 2. Charles Darwin published his book The Origin of Species in 1589. 3. Sigmund Freud famous figure in the field of psychology. Psychoanalysis -study the human mind and neurotic illness 4. Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemy) Ancient Greek philosopher Earth was the center of the Universe. 5. Tycho Brahe well known in his lifetime as an astronomer, astrologer, and alchemist. Tychonic system. 6. Johannes Kepler best known for his laws of planetary motion. His calculations supported the Copernicus’ Heliocentric Theory. His calculations also showed that the planets moved in Oval shaped. 7. Galileo Galilei "father of observational astronomy", "father of modern physics" "father of the scientific method" "father of modern science". He contradicted Ptolemy's idea and concept. He also invented the telescope. Cradles of Early Science Development of Science in Mesoamerica Maya Civilization (Mayan civilization) lasted for approximately 2,000 years. known for their works in astronomy. Temple of Kukulcan Chichen itza in Mexico Serpent of God Mayans believed in Reincarnation believed that the universe is destroyed and then recreated at the start of each universal cycle. built looms for weaving cloth and devised a rainbow of glittery paints made from mineral called mica. one of the world's first civilizations to use a writing system as the Mayan Hieroglyphics. “first people “to produce rubber products. 3 calendars of MAYAN The Haab is a 365-day solar calendar which is divided into 18 months of 20 days each and one month which is only 5 days long (Uayeb). The Tzolkin (the distribution of the days) also called the Divine Calendar and the Sacred Round. It is a 260-day calendar with 20 periods of 13 days The Long Count (universal cycle) is an astronomical calendar which is used to track longer periods of time. Each such cycle is calculated to be 2,880,000 days long (about 7885 solar years). Inca civilizations Road paved with stones; Stone buildings Irrigation system and technique for storing water Calendar with 12 months to mark their religious festivals and prepare them for panting season The first suspension bridge; Inca textiles- type of cloth Quipu- only experts can interpret Aztec Civilization 1. Mandatory Education puts value on education 2. Chocolates they used it as currency. valued the cacao beans highly and made it as part of their tribute to their gods. 3. Antispasmodic prevent muscle spasms and relax muscles, which could help during surgery. 4. Chinampa Technology for agricultural farming > divided into rectangular areas and surrounded by canals. 5. Aztec calendar This enabled them to plan their activities, rituals, and planting season. 6. Invention of the Canoe light narrow boat used for traveling in water system. Development of Science in Asia • • • known for manufacturing iron and in metallurgical works. Ayurveda- traditional medicine that originated in ancient India before 2500 BC. AYUR=life and VEDA=science or knowledge. Susruta Samhita- describes the different surgical and other medicinal procedures famous in Ancient India. CHINA • • • known in traditional medicines uses of different plants and animals to cure human illness. invented the first seismological detector. Acupuncture, Reduced Stress, Reduced Back Pain, Relief from Headaches, Reduced Eye Strain, etc. IN TERMS OF TECHNOLOGY 1. COMPASS-use for travelling. 2. PAPER MAKING -first paper making produced by china. 3. GUNPOWDER 4. Different Models of Bridges etc. Middle East Countries • • dominantly occupied by Muslims. Muslim scientist placed greater value on science experiments rather than plain-thought experiments. Abu Ali al Hasan Ibn Al –Haytham (“Ibn” means son of)- is also regarded as the Father of Optics. Jābir ibn Hayyān - Father of Chemistry. Aviccena Ibn Sina -was the first physician to conduct clinical trials. Two notable works in medicine The book of healing The canon of medicine Development of Science in Africa Africa • • INDIA • • • blessed with natural and mineral resources. Egypt was known to be a center of alchemy, which is known as the medieval forerunner of chemistry. Metallurgy is also known in the African regions during the ancient times. Lebombo Bone oldest artefact dated from 35000 BCE. found from the mountains between Swaziland and South Africa SCIENCE,TECHNOLOGY,AND NATION-BUILDING (PART 1) Brief Historical background of Science and Technology in the Philippines PRE-COLONIAL had their own culture and traditions. had their own belief system and indigenous knowledge system. Science is embedded in the way of life of the people. Scientific knowledge is observed in the way: plant their crops that provide them food. taking care of animals to help them in their daily tasks, and for food production. movements of heavenly bodies to predict seasons and climates, and in organizing days into months and years. they use science in preparing the soil for agricultural purposes. they discovered the medicinal uses of plants. Technology is used by; people in building houses irrigations developing tools that they can use in everything life. They developed tools for planting, hunting, cooking, and fishing. They also developed technologies in creating musical instruments. All these ancient practices in science and technology are considered now as indigenous science or folk science. SPANISH brought with them their own culture and practices. They established school for boys and girls and introduced the concept of subjects and disciplines. Medicine and advanced science were introduced in formal colleges and universities. Galleontrade- these trades allowed other ideas, crops, tools, cultural practices, technology, and Western practices to reach the country. Philippines -being one of the centers of global trade in Southeast Asia during that time, was considered to be one of the most developed places in the region. AMERICANS They established the public education system, improved the engineering works and the health conditions of the people. They established a modern research university. The mineral resources of the country were also explored and exploited. Transportation and communication systems were improved. The teaching in higher education has also greatly improved and modernize. Researches were done to control malaria, cholera, and tuberculosis and other tropical disease. World War II - has destabilized the development of the country in many ways. Institutions and public facilities were tuned into ashes, houses were burned, and many lives were destroyed. The human spirit to survive and to rebuild the country may be strong but the capacity of the country to bring back what was destroyed was limited. The reparation funds focused on building some institutions and public facilities like schools, hospitals, and transportation systems. Famous Filipinos in the Field of Science 1. Ramon Cabanos Barba –tissue culture in Philippine Mangoes. 2. Josefino Cacas Comiso –observing the characteristics of Antarctica by using satellite images. 3. Jose Bejar Cruz Jr. –field of electrical engineering; was elected as officer of the famous Institute of Electrical and Electrical Engineering. 4. Lourdes Jansuy Cruz – notable for her research in sea snail venom. 5. Fabian Millar Dayrit – for his research on herbal medicine. 6. Rafael Dineros Guerrero III – for his research on tilapia culture. 7. Enrique Mapua Ostrea Jr. – for inventing the meconium drugs testing. 8. Lilian Formalejo Patena – for doing research on plant biotechnology. 9. Mari-Jo Panganiban Ruiz – for being outstanding educator and graph theorist. 10. Gregory Ligot tangonana – for his research in the field of communications technology. Filipino scientists who are recognized here and abroad for their outstanding contributions in science: 1. Caesar A. Saloma – an internationally renowned physicist. 2. Edgardo Gomez – famous scientist in marine science. 3. William Padolina – chemistry and president of National Academy of Science and Technology (NAST) – Philippines. 4. Angel Alcala – Marine science. The University of the Philippines Los Baños -is a science paradise for agriculture, forestry, plant and animal science, and veterinary science. Visayas- is also a national center for marine science, fisheries, and other related sciences. Manila- is a center of excellence and has produced many researchers, doctors, health professionals, and a scientists in the area of medical and public health. Diliman- also has established a national science and engineering complex to develop more research and produce more scientists and engineers in the country. Government Policies on Science and Technology (PART 2) Philippine government- introduced and implemented programs, projects and policies to boost science and technology. Goal - to prepare the whole country and its people to meet the demands of a technologically driven world and capacitate the people to live in a world driven by science. The NRCP clustered these policies into four: 1. Social Sciences, Humanities, Education, International Policies and Governance • Integrating ASEAN awareness in basic education without adding to the curriculum. • Emphasizing teaching in the mother tongue. • Developing school infrastructure and providing ICT broadband. • Local food security. 2. Physics, Engineering and Industrial Research, Earth and Space Sciences, and Mathematics • Emphasizing degrees, licenses and employment opportunities. • Outright grants for peer monitoring. • Review of RA 9184. • Harnessing science and technology as an independent mover of development. 3. Medical, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences Ensuring compliance of drug manufacturing firms with ASEANharmonized standards by full implementation of FDA. Creating an education council dedicated to standardization of pharmaceutical services and care. Empowering food and drug agencies to conduct evidence-based research as pool of information. Allocating two percent of the GDP to research. Legislating a law supporting human genome projects. 4. Biological Sciences, Agriculture and Forestry • Protecting and conserving biodiversity by full implementation of existing laws. • Use of biosafety and standard model by ASEAN countries. • Promoting indigenous knowledge systems and indigenous people’s conservation. • Formulation of common food and safety standards. DOST PROGRAMS SUPPORTED BY THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT Providing funds for basic research and patents related to S&T. Providing scholarships for undergraduate and graduate studies of students in the field of S&T. more branches of the Philippine Science High School System Creating parks. Balik Scientist Program. Capacity-building programs by the Philippine-American Academy of Science and Engineering (PAASE, 2008): National centers of excellence. Manpower and institutional development programs such as Engineering and Science Education Program (ESEP). Regional centers to support specific industries. Business centers. Science education at an early stage through PSHS system. In the field of Education K-12 Education program included Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) as one of the major tracks in Senior High School program Special science classes. Special science elementary schools. Science and math in basic education were continuously improved. Commission on Higher Education (CHED)launched its PhilippineCalifornia Advance Research Institutes (PICARI) allow several higher education institutions in the Philippines and some USbased laboratories, research institutes, and universities to work. This project hoped to strengthen the STEM. The Philippine congress laws related to science and technology These laws serve as legal framework for S&T in the country. They vary according to different themes such as conservation, health related, technology building and supporting basic research. SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILIPPINES IN THE The Concept of Science Education TEACHING SCIENCE - involves developing ways on how to effectively teach science (explore pedagogical theories and models). LEARNING SCIENCE - includes both pedagogy and helping students understand and love science. Understanding Science – developing and applying scienceprocess skills and using science literacy in understanding the natural world and activities in everyday life. John Dewey (2001)- stressed the importance of utilizing the natural environment to teach science. Marx (1994) - opines that science is going to be one of the most important school subjects in the future. It is not surprising therefore that science education is important. IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Science education is justified by the vast amount of scientific knowledge developed in this area. Science education provides skills and knowledge. Developing a science culture is therefore an immense responsibility for schools. Science Education in Basic and Tertiary Education BASIC EDUCATION Science education helps students learn importantconcepts and facts that are related to everyday life. Including important skills such as: Process skills Critical thinking skills Life skills Science education also develops positive attitudes such: love for knowledge passion for innovative things curiosity to study nature creativity TERTIARY EDUCATION • Deals with developing students’ understanding and appreciation of science ideas and scientific works (through General Education curriculum) Curriculum also utilizes different instructional approaches Quezon City Regional Science High School Establish on September 17, 1967 Originally, it was named Quezon City Science High School. Turned into a regional science high school for the National Capital Region in 1999. Curriculum is focused on science and technology. Manila Science High School • Focuses on the preparation of science teachers, scientists,engineers and other professionals in various science-related fields such engineering, agriculture, medicine and health sciences. • The state also provides scholarships to encourage more students to pursue science courses. Science Schools in the Philippines Philippine Science High School System (PSHSS) Government program for gifted students in the country. Under DOST, offering free scholarship for the secondary course with special emphasis to science subjects. Special Science Elementary Schools (SSES) Project Started in 2007 with 57 identified elementary schools as science elementary schools in the country. SSES Project aims to develop Filipino children equipped with scientific and technological knowledge, skills and values. MISSION: Provide a learning environment to science-inclined children through a special curriculum that recognizes the multiple intelligences of the learners; Promote the development of lifelong learning skills; foster the holistic development of the learners The Subject science and health is taught in Grade I with longer time compared to other subjects 70 minutes for Grade I – III and 80 minutes for Grade IV to VI. Established on October 1, 1963 as the Manila Science High School(MSHS). First science high school in the Philippines. The organization and curriculum puts more emphasis on Science and Mathematics. Aims to produce scientists with souls. Central Visayan Institute Foundation It is the home and pioneer of the prominent school-based innovation known as the Dynamic Learning Program (DLP). DLP is a synthesis of classical and modern pedagogical theories adapted to foster the highest level of learning, creativity and productivity. The school takes pride in its Research Center for TheoreticalPhysics (RCTP) establish in 1992, which organizes small international workshops. Science education deals with the teaching and learning of science and in helping the public develop science.