Uploaded by Leonard Villaluna


#1. If there are 3 colors on a resistor...
Ans: The tolerance is 20% and the 3rd band becomes the multiplier.
#2. If there are 4 colors on a resistor...
Ans: The tolerance is determined by the last band (4th band) and the 3rd band is the multiplier.
#3. If there are 5 colors on a resistor...
Ans: The tolerance is determined by the last band (5th band) and the 4th band is the multiplier.
100 Watts = ?
Ans: 100 Watts = 1 Amp
Ans: Alternating Current
Ans: Niagara Falls was the worlds first hydroelectric power plant. They picked Tesla/Westinghouse's
AC. Tesla makes it and doesn't even test it, but it works.
Alessandro Volta
Ans: Father of the battery. He came up with a recipe: 2 dissimilar metals in the pressence of an acid will
produce an electrochemical charge. This is the recipe to make batteries. He built the worlds first
battery, which at first shocked him and caused him to fly backward and land on his "rear end."
Ans: Amplitude Modulation
Andre Ampere
Ans: A mathematician from France who proved that you can predict how much electricity there is. We
measure all currents in amps. A wire carrying electric current can attract or repel another wire next to
it that's also carrying electric current.
C.H. Towne
Ans: Father of the laser. Used in:
#1. Medical Industry
#2. Entertainment Industry
#3. Industrial Industry
#4. Military Use
Ans: Holds electrical charges that help the circuit function.
Coal Power Plants
Ans: Use fossil fuels to produce heat.
Ans: Materials that allow electricity to pass through them. All metals are conductors. The more precious
the metal, the better conductor it is. Platinum, gold, and silver are the best conductors but are far too
expensive. Copper is the #1 most used (It is cost efficient). Aluminum is #2.
Ans: Direct Current
Ans: Solve feedback. One way valve. The side with the stripe is where electricity enters. Has polarity must be installed the right way.
Disc Capacitor
Ans: Work in either direction.
Ed Armstrong
Ans: Father of the FM Triode Feed Circuit.
Ans: A form of energy produced when tiny atomic particles called electrons move from one atom to
another. It is the newest form of energy that mankind has harnessed.
Electrolytic Capacitor
Ans: The striped side is negative.
Ans: Frequency Modulation
Fuses are always measured in _______.
Ans: Amps
Georg Simon Ohm
Ans: Took electricity and heated things too much and melted them (electrical circuits). So he made
resistors out of carbon to slow down the electrons and the circuits started working and not
George Westinghouse
Ans: He was an industrialist from Pittsburg. He supported Tesla in using AC for the NYC electrical grid.
Heinrich Hertz
Ans: Proved that electricity travels in waves. He found that waves have lengths and patterns. The
symbol for Hertz is Hz. All FM bands are measured in Mega Hertz (MHz). Anything with waves = Hz
How many volts are in a 9 volt battery?
Ans: 9 volts
How many volts are in a AA battery?
Ans: 1.5 volts
How many volts are in a AAA battery?
Ans: 1.5 volts
How many volts are in a D battery?
Ans: 1.5 volts
I.C. Chip (Integrated Circuit Chip)
Ans: Most expensive part of the kit. Cannot directly touch the chip. never solder directly to the board.
Ans: Material that does not let electricity pass through. Examples: rubber, vinyl, plastic, ceramics, and
fiberglass. We have to use these things to cover wires.
James Watt
Ans: Father of the steam engine. We measure light bulbs in watts.
Ans: Light Emitting Diode. Produces light. Uses very little electricity. Must be installed following
Ans: Laser is not a word. It stands for Light Amplified Stimulated Emission of Radiation.
Luigi Galvani
Ans: A biologist who discovered electricity through dead frogs. He hung frog legs with aluminum paper
clips onto iron/copper pipes and the legs started twitching. He came up with the idea of electricity.
New York City was the first to ______.
Ans: Have electrical power 24/7.
Nikola Tesla
Ans: First to truly utilize alternating current. He worked in France and was Croation born. He realized
that Edison should use AC instead of DC for the NYC electrical grid. Father of the radio.
Nuclear Power Plants
Ans: Split atoms and produce heat.
Nylar Capacitor
Ans: Work in either direction.
Ohm's Law Triangle
Ans: E - Voltage measured in Volts [v]
I - Currents measured in Amps [A]
R - Resistance measured in Ohms [Ω - Omega Greek Symbol]
Philadelphia Experiment
Ans: In 1943, Albert Einstein and Tesla worked together on the Philidelphia experiment. They were
given the U.S.S. Eldridge. Their goal was to make steel ships nonmagnetic. They perform the experiment
in Philly in October. They wrapped the boat with a special material and energize it, causing the boat to
disappear. After they turn it off, the people on board were vomiting buckets. A week later, someone
said they saw the boat at 7:02 in Chesapeake Bay when it was turned on at 7:00 in Philly.
Resistor (A.R.)
Resistor (S.S.)
Ans: They are the most popular component in the electronics industry. They have no polarity and can
be placed either way.
Ans: Technical drawings for electronic circuits.
Ans: A substance, usually a solid chemical element or compound, that can conduct electricity under
some conditions but not others, making it a good medium for the control of electrical current.
Ans: Certain materials, when made very cold, will have no resistance to the flow of electricity.
The 2 Nonmetal Conductors
Ans: #1: Silicon
#2: Graphite
The Tele-geo-dynamics Oscillator
Ans: Earth Quake Machine
The Teslabolt
Ans: Designed in Utah, it pinpoints electrical bolts.
Thomas Edison
Ans: Inventor of the light bulb, electric voting machine, and father of the phonograph.
Thomas Edison designed the ______.
Ans: First electrical grid for NYC. He based it off of DC (Direct Current) which was a bad idea because of
voltage drop.
Ans: Can step up voltage. 4 leads, marked with dot.
Ans: 3 leads, must be put in following polarity. Marked with one angled piece. Act as amplifiers for
sound and amplifying currents.
Transistor (Inventors)
Ans: Invented by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley
Ans: Voltage Drop - The current passes through the conductor (wire) from the DC source to the first
resistor; as this occurs, some of the supplied energy is "lost" (unavailable to the load), due to the
resistance of the conductor. Voltage drop exists in both the supply and return wires of a circuit.
Ans: It is neither an insulator nor a conductor. It can be either.
Watts = ?
Ans: Watts = E x I
When did mankind first store electricity?
Ans: 1790s
Where was the first computer built?
Ans: Philadelphia
Active RC filters
Ans: Filters that use operational amplifiers and are less susceptible to filter characteristic alterations
Armature Core
Ans: Made of laminated steel, it provides a path of a low reluctance between poles. It's laminated so
that it reduces the formation on eddy currents. It has axial slots to fit armature windings in.
Armature Shaft
Ans: This imparts the rotation of the armature core winding and the commutator
Armature Windings
Ans: Armature windings are tightly insulated coils, insulated from each other and the armature core.
They're positioned in the slots electrically connected to the commutator
Bad source conversion
Current to Voltage
Ans: A good current source makes a bad voltage source as when a source is converted, the internal
resistance stays the same.
For a current source R is very high so when using KCL, most the current will "flow" out to follow least
resistive path. After conversion Rs is in series with source therefore cause a large voltage drop across
Band Pass Filters
Ans: Band Pass Filters pass only signals between
two given frequencies, blocking lower and
higher signals.The pass band lies between two frequencies, fl and fh. Signals between DC and fl are
blocked, as are signals from fh to infinity.
Ans: Composed of carbon and graphite and used to collect current from the generator. Brushes will
maintain firm contact with the commutator segments during rotation to provide current flow
Ans: Consists of copper segments, individually insulated from one another and from the shaft. The
commutator by virtue of the shaft rotation, provides the necessary switching the commutation process
Ans: Each repetition of a variable quantity, recurring at equal intervals, is termed a cycle.
- Positive Cycle
- Negative Cycle
Ans: Permeability ranges from just below unity
Copper and silver
EMF (e) = Blv
Ans: L = Length
B = Flux density
v = velocity
Ans: Permeability ranges from 100-10,000 eg iron and steel
Field Poles
Ans: Constructed of laminated steel, bolted or welded to the yoke after the assembly of field windings
has been inserted on them. The pole shoe is curved and is wider than the pole core to the spread the
flux more uniformly
Field Windings
Ans: They're essentially electromagnets ampere-turn produces required flux in the air gap to produce
the EMF. Field windings may connected either in series or in parallel with the armature windings.
(leading to different types of DC generators)
Ans: To remove interfering noise from a required
information carrying data signal. Optimally demodulating data carrying signals
in the presence of noise. Selecting a required radio channel from many
that are transmitted
Ans: The number of cycles per second, Frequency (f) is measured in Hertz (Hz)
High Pass Filters
Ans: High Pass filters pass high-frequency signals
while blocking DC and low-frequency signals. The pass band ranges from a corner frequency
(fc) to infinity
Kirchoff's 1st Law (Current Law/ KCL)
Ans: At any junction in a circuit, the sum of the currents arriving at the junction = the sum of the
currents leaving the junction (Charge is conserved)
Kirchoff's 2nd Law (Voltage Law/ KVL)
Ans: KVL states that the algebraic sum of the voltage drop across the closed path is equal to zero
Low Pass Filter
Ans: Low pass filters pass low-frequency signals while blocking high-frequency signals. The pass band
ranges from DC (0 Hz) to a corner frequency
Ans: Commonly used as the insulting material
Ohm's Law
Ans: Ohms law states that the current flowing through a component conductor between two points is
directly proportional to the voltage across the two points
Ans: Permeability ranges from just above unity
Aluminium and platinum
Passive filters
Ans: Simple filters using only resistors, capacitors and inductors. Disadvantaged as components alter
characteristics of fiter
Ans: The time duration of one complete cycle in seconds T (s)
Ans: Rotating parts of a motor or DC generator
Ans: Stationary parts of the motor
Superposition Theorem
Ans: This theorem states that the total response of a linear circuit is the sum of the individual
responses of each individual source
Ans: The variation of a quantity such as voltage or current shown on a graph to a base of time is a
Ans: The yoke is a cylindrical frame made up of cast or rolled steel. It serves as the support for the field
circuit and provides a flux return path for the magnetic circuit produced by the field circuit
A transistor is made bv joining how many lavers of semiconductor material?
A__________________rectifier will produce the smoothest DC output voltage.
Ans: bridge
An SRC is made from adjoining layers of semiconductor material in the________
Ans: PNPN arrangement
By adding ____________________to semiconductor material, P-type material will be created.
Ans: gallium
Convert AC power to DC power using_______
Ans: rectifier diodes
High-power transistors are manufactured in which configurations?
Ans: Studs and heats sinks
How many diodes are required to convert three-phase AC power to high-efficiency DC power?
Ans: Six
How many diodes are required to form a bridge rectifier?
Ans: Four
How many diodes are required to form a transformer center-tap full-wave rectifier circuit?
Ans: Two
In order to permit the emergence of the maximum number of photons in an LED, the conducting
Ans: connected to the P-type material is much smaller
In the figure above, the lead marked A is the transistor__________
Ans: emitter
In the figure above, the lead marked C is the transistor___________
Ans: collector
On a transistor, control voltages are applied to the________
Ans: base
One end of a diode has a beveled end which indicates that it is the
Ans: cathode
Silicon is widely used as a semiconductor because it
Ans: withstands heat
The applied voltage does not have to exceed the breakage voltage in order for conduction to begin on
Ans: diac
The difference between an N-channel and a P-channel JFET is_______
Ans: the polarity of the voltage
The difference between an SCR and a diode is that an SCR_______
Ans: has three terminals
The figure above shows the electrical symbol for a(n)______
Ans: NPN transistor
The point at which avalanche break over occurs in a diode is known as the_________
Ans: peak inverse voltage
The process of giving off light by applying an electrical source of energy is called
Ans: electroluminescence
The schematic symbol for an LED is the same as that ofa diode with the addition of a(n)
Ans: arrow pointing away from the diode
The term solid state refers to_____________
Ans: the use of semiconductor material in electronic components
The two basic types of diodes are the silicon and the___________
Ans: germanium
What is the average number of valence electrons in a conductor atom?
Ans: One or two
What is the name given to the areas where P-type materials join N-type materials to form a diode?
Ans: Gate junction
What semiconductor material comprises the base of an NPN transistor?
Ans: P-type germanium
When possible, transistor casings will have some marking to indicate_____
Ans: which leads are connected to the emitter, collector, or base
When used in a circuit, an LED is generally operated at about
Ans:20mA or less
Which of the following can be thought of as an AC switch?
Ans: Diac
Which of the following can be viewed as a diac with a gate terminal added?
Ans: Triac
Which of the following is an excellent conductor but too expensive to use on a larger scale?
Ans: Silver
Which of the following makes the best conductor?
Ans: Aluminum
Which statement about transistors is correct?
Ans: There are three types of junction field-effect transistors.
a good current meter has a low ____ _____.
Ans: input impedance
A good voltemeter has a high _______ _____.
Ans: input impedance
A linear relationship must have two properties, called ____ and ____. (both end ity)
Ans: homogeneity, and additivity
a short circuit implies zero ____. an open circuit implies zero ____.
Ans: sht ckt zvoltage,
opnckt z eroc urrent
a typical household electrical circuit is about how many amps?
Ans: 15-20 A (110V)
add conductances in parallel
Ans: Geq = G1 +G2
add conductances in series
Ans: 1/Geq = 1/G1+1/G2
current enters a junction and splitts off, is it true that more current will flow through the smaller
Ans: false, it depends on what is connected further downstream.
discuss: a 10kOhm resistor dissipates more power than a 1kOhm resistor
Ans: may or may not be true; if they both have the same voltage, the smaller resistor dissipates more
power (V^2/R). if they both have the same current, the larger resistor dissipates more power (I^2R)
explain exactly when you need to use supernode when doing nodal analysis
Ans: when there is a voltage source with neither end connected to ground
explain when need supermesh in mesh analysis
Ans: whenever there is an internal current source(shared by two loops)
Give a precise statement of Thevenin's theorem
Ans: any linear, time-invariant, resistive circuit is equivalent at its terminals to the parallel
combination of an ideal current source and a resistor (the Thevenin equivalent resistance).
How do you determine if a circuit element is absorbing or supplying power to/from a circuit?
Ans: 1) finding the current and voltage to satisfy passive sign convention, find power multiply current
and voltage
I-V relationships showing linearity
Ans: see chart
In a lightning storm, why are you safe in a car
Ans: because you are not grounded
Mesh analysis is restrictive to what kind of circuits?
Ans: planar circuits, because no wires are crossing
power is negative
Ans: supplying power
power is positive
Ans: absorption of power
Precise statement of KCL
Ans: the algebraic sum of all currents leaving or entering a node (or any other closed surface) in a
circuit is zero
precise statement of KVL
Ans: the algebraic sum of all voltage drops or rises around a closed loop in a circuit (which need not
run entirely through conductors or circuit elements) is zero
precise statement of Norton's theorem
Ans: any linear, time-invariant, resistive circuit is equivalent at its terminals to the parallel(//)
combination of an ideal current source and a resistor(the thevenin equivalent resistance)
precise statement of Superposition theorem
Ans: in any linear, time-invariant resistive circuit, we can find any voltage or current in the circuit by
summing the corresponding voltages or currents that are caused by each independent source acting
separately (after "killing" all other independent sources)
relations between the following units
J N s m Kg C V W Ohm A S
Ans: J=N*m=kg*m^2/s^2
J= C*V=W*s S=1/Ohms=A/V
A=C/s V =Ohms*A
superposition can only be used to find
Ans: current and voltage, NOT POWER
Ans: can't sum the current or voltage from an alone dependent source
t f the recommendend "final" ar that should appear in the equations resulting from nodal analysis
include node voltages and all control variales for dependent sources
Ans: False. the control variables should preferrably be eliminated, leaving only node voltages.
t f the thevenin equivalent circuit of one with a dependent source could have a negative Rth
Ans: true
t f the voltage at the positive end of a 6.2 V source is necessarily 6.2 V
Ans: False! voltage sources only establish voltage differences, not absolute; this only applies if the
negative end is connected to agnd
t f when performing nodal analysis, it is necessary and advisable to define a notation for every current
entering or leaving each node.
Ans: FALSE this is unneccessary
Ans: tera=10^12
t or f, can kill dependent sources
Ans: false, only kill independent sources
the current through an ideal voltage source is
Ans: whatever it needs to be to maintain the voltage at a fixed value
the currents of two current sourses in series
Ans: must be the same
the currents of two voltage sources in series -->
Ans: must be the same
the voltage across an ideal current source is _____
Ans: whatever it needs to be to maintain the current at a fixed value
the voltages of two current sources in series
Ans: add algebraically
the voltages of two voltage sources in series-->
Ans: add algebraically
two elements in ____ must have the same current
Ans: series
two elements in parallel must have the same ____
Ans: voltage (parallel has l's, so does voltage)
unit names are not capitalized, ever ever ever
Ans: coulombs amperes siemens joule
Units for the gain of:
current-controlled VS
voltage-controlled CS
current-controlled CS
voltage-controlled VS
Ans: ohms
what is the value of Rth for an ideal CURRENT source?
Ans: infinite! ∞∞∞∞
what is the value of Rth, for an ideal voltage source?
Ans: zero
what must be true about a current source to apply source transformation
Ans: resistor connected in // with it . CANNOT BE TRANSFORMED IF // RESISTANCE IS ∅
what must be true about a voltage source to apply SOURCE TRANSFORMATION
Ans: it must have a finite resistor in series with it, if the series resistance is zero, can't be transformed
when applying KVL to sum voltage drops, we conventionally add a minus sign to the value of a voltage
source when the direction we are following leads us into the
Ans: negative terminal, and the terms across the resistors are positive
when breaking a circuit to use Thevenin's theorem to solve it, NEVER do what?
Ans: separate a controlled source from its controlled variable.
when dependent sources are present and we are doing mesh or node analysis, the control variables for
the dependent sources must be expressed in terms of what, exactly?
Ans: the node voltages, in nodal analysis
the mesh currents, in mesh analysis when is it necessary to use a test source at the terminals of a
circuit to find its norton equivalent circuit?
Ans: whenever the circuit has no independent sources,
when short-circuit current is zero and open circuit voltage is zero which type of analysis leads to
matrix equations?
Area in Circular Mils
Ans: Acm = d^2
Ans: the capacity to store charge
Ans: G = 1/R (inverse of resistance)
Current Divider Rule
Ans: current entering a node from one direction and exiting into two parallel elements will split, with
some current going through each parallel element
Irx = I(in)(Ry/(Rx+Ry)
Electric Field
Ans: E = Q / (4*pi*epsilon*r^2)
Electric Fource
Ans: F = (k*Q1*Q2) / r^2
k = 8.99 * 10^9
Energy in Joules
Ans: Ej = P*t
power in Watts, time in seconds
Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL)
Ans: the current flowing into the node (junction) equals the current flowing out of that node
Maximum Power Transfer
Ans: demonstrates that behavior of Norton and Thevenin equivalent circuit are identical since the
power source to load power (RL = Rth + Rn)
Mesh (Loop) Analysis
Ans: useful for multiple source circuits. Its basis is Kirchhoff Voltage Law, so it works only with voltage
Mils --> Inch
Ans: 1 mil = 0.001 in
Nodal Analysis
Ans: useful for multiple source circuits. Its basis is Kirchhoff Current Law, so it works only with
current sources.
Norton Equivalent
Ans: The method to find the Norton equivalent is to find the short-circuit current, then the internal
resistance. The internal resistance is found by removing the current source, replacing it with an open
circuit, and finding the resistance in the same manner as Thevenin equivalent resistance (Rth = Rn)
Ohm's Law
Ans: V = I*R
Parallel Resistor Equation
Ans: Rt = (1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + ... + 1/Rn)^-1
Ans: measures how easily a material will form an electric field, is in units (F/m) and is represented by
a lowercase epsilon
Power Equation(s)
Ans: P = I*V
P = V^2/R
P = I^2*R
Resistance General Equation
Ans: R = (rho * L)/ Acm
Series Resistor Equation
Ans: Rt = R1 + R2 + R3 + ... + Rn
Ans: all sources are removed except one, and then the circuit is analyzed
Thevenin Equivalent
Ans: The model is an ideal voltage source with a series resistor called the Thevenin equivalent output
resistance (Rth) and the voltage equivalent (Vth)
Thevenin equivalent is used only with voltage sources
Voltage Divider Rule
Ans: Vr1 = Vs (R1/Rt)
How do you add resistors in parallel?
Ans: 1/Req=1/R1+1/R2...
How do you add resistors in series?
Ans: Algebraically
How do you use supernodes?
Ans: You write a KCL equation for them, involving each current coming into the whole thing, then you
write an equation using the internal voltage source saying that all of the node voltages for node
included in the supernode must add to give the voltage of the internal voltage source
What are the steps of nodal analysis?
Ans: Find all the nodes, choose one to be the ground, assign a node voltage to each node, write KCl
relations for each node using the same sign conventions in terms of the voltages, then solve for the
What can you do with the equation for power and ohm's law?
Ans: Combine them to calculate power using different kinds of information
What do we mean by an equivalent resistor?
Ans: We mean that from the perspective of the two nodes at either end, V and I are the same
What do you need to be careful of in nodal analysis when a node is not connected to the ground?
Ans: The voltage you calculate will be relative to nearby voltages, not the ground, which means to
determine the actual node voltage you will need to subtract other voltages
What does Kirchhoff's current law state?
Ans: The algebraic sum of currents entering and leaving a given node is 0
What does Kirchhoff's voltage law state?
Ans: The algebraic sum of voltages around any loop is 0
What does ohm's law state?
Ans: V=±RI, depending on passive sign convention
What happens to Req if one of the "resistors" in parallel is a short circuit?
Ans: Req=0
What information do we need to know a voltage?
Ans: Quantity and polarity
What information do you need to know a charge?
Ans: A quantity and a direction
What is a current source?
Ans: An element that provides a constant current regardless of the voltage across it
What is a loop?
Ans: A path where one node, which is both the first and the last, is passed twice
What is a node?
Ans: A junction between two or more circuit elements, made of interconnected perfect conductors
What is a path?
Ans: A route between nodes where no node is crossed more than once
What is a Siemen? (S)
Ans: The unit for conductance, the opposite of resistance, =1/Ω
What is a supernode?
Ans: A combination of two or more nodes in nodal analysis, with a voltage source inside
What is a voltage source?
Ans: An element that provides a constant voltage regardless of the current through it
What is A.C. voltage?
Ans: Voltage that varies with respect to time
What is current as a rate of change?
Ans: The rate of change of current over time, dq(t)/dt
What is current in an open circuit?
Ans: 0
What is D.C. voltage?
Ans: Voltage that is constant with respect to time
What is power as a rate of change?
Ans: The rate of change of energy over time, dw(t)/dt
What is required for a parallel connection?
Ans: The elements involved must share two nodes
What is required for a series connection?
Ans: Two circuits should be connected back to back without another current path available
What is resistance in a short circuit?
Ans: 0
What is resistance in an open circuit?
Ans: Infinite
What is the alternate equation for Req in parallel?
Ans: Req=(R1R2)/(R1+R2)
What is the equation for current division across parallel resistors?
Ans: I1=[R2/(R1+R2)](Itot)
What is the equation for power in terms of voltage and current?
Ans: P=±V(I), depending on whether passive sign convention holds
What is the equation for voltage division across series resistors?
Ans: V1=[R1/(R1+R2)](Vtot)
What is the shape of a dependent source?
Ans: A square
What is the shape of an independent source?
Ans: A circle
What is the SI unit for charge?
Ans: Amperes, Columbs/second
What is true of the power absorbed and emitted by each element in a circuit?
Ans: By power conservation, they must all add algebraically to 0
What is voltage as a rate of change?
Ans: change in energy/change in charge
What is voltage in a short circuit?
Ans: 0
What is voltage?
Ans: A measure of the energy needed to move one unit of charge between two points on a circuit
When does a voltage-current pair conform to passive sign convention?
Ans: When the current moves from the positive to the negative of the voltage
When doing nodal analysis, which voltage to subtract from which?
Ans: After assuming a current direction for your overall sign, voltage at the tail of the arrow-voltage at
the head of the arrow
Will KVL and KCL work regardless of which directions you assume?
Ans: Yes
AC power supply
Alternating Current (AC)
Ans: rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction
Amps (Amperes)
Ans: Unit of electric current, written: A
Ans: the flow of electrons
Currents through all resistors are always equal in a
Ans: Series Circuit
Currents through the different resistors are not always equal in a
Ans: Parallel Circuit
DC power supply
Direct Current (DC)
Ans: This current has electrons that flow around in a loop.
In a series circuit, if voltage equals 12v and current equals 3A then, resistance must equal...
Ans: 4 ohms
Ohm's Law
Ans: V=IR
Ans: unit for resistance
parallel circuit
Ans: A circuit that contains more than one path for current flow.
Parallel Circuit (image)
Ans: the rate at which work is done
Resistor (image)
series circuit
Ans: An electric circuit with a single path
Series Circuit (image)
symbol for ohms (unit of resistance)
Total resistance in parallel
Total resistance in series
Ans: R1 + R2 + R3
Ans: potential difference expressed in volts.
Ans: unit for voltage
Ans: unit for power
active device
Ans: need power sources to function in a circuit; eg, transistors/ICs
Alexander Graham Bell
Ans: inventor of the telephone in 1876
all-electronic computer
Ans: ENIAC, first introduced in 1945
alternating current
Ans: voltage and current sources vary sinusoidally; abbreviated "ac"
Ans: a way of rating a power supply in terms of amperes used per hour
Ans: part of the study of electric circuits; the understanding of how a single circuit works
basic elements
Ans: elements of a circuit or device with idealized characteristics
Ans: trace between two consecutive nodes with only one element between them
chassis ground
Ans: the term for ground in relation to mobile systems
Ans: the subsystems within a system; a system of electrical conductors and components forming a
complete and closed path
circuit diagram
Ans: the electrical configuration of a circuit
conduction current
Ans: the current caused by electron drift
cumulative charge
Ans: an amount of charge transferred in a certain cross section in a given time
current-controlled voltage source
Ans: CCVS; a form of dependent voltage source where the voltage is dependent on a current elsewhere
in the circuit
dependent voltage source
Ans: an artificial source of voltage where the voltage level is defined in terms of specific
voltage/current somewhere else in the circuit
Ans: synonymous to synthesis; the realization of a circuit whose functionality meets a set of
Ans: also known as components; the individual elements within a circuit (eg, resistors, ICs)
Ans: a fundamental measurement of something
direct current
Ans: voltage and current sources are constant to time; abbreviated "dc"
Ans: the way electrons move within a circuit when caused by polarity of a terminal; opposite to freeflow
drift velocity
Ans: the actual physical speed at which electrons move inside wires
Earth ground
Ans: the term for ground in relation to fixed systems
electric circuit
Ans: a complete or partial path over which current may flow; the path may be confined to a physical
structure or may be an unbounded channel carrying electrons through it; composed of passive devices
electric current
Ans: the time rate of transfer of electric charges across a specified cross section
electron drift
Ans: the process of sequential migration of electrons from one atom to the next
Ans: synonymous with transistors and other active devices
equivalent circuit
Ans: a circuit composed of basic elements with idealized characteristics used to model the operation of
more complex circuits and devices
equivalent ideal voltage source
Ans: a voltage source that provides a specified voltage across its terminals with idealized
characteristics; v sub s...not sure tho
equivalent resistance
Ans: R sub s; the total resistance of 2+ resistors in a circuit
Ans: on the outside of or not related to a certain circuit
extraordinary node
Ans: a node with three or more elements
functional block diagram
Ans: a design of a circuit detailing what we want the circuit to do
Ans: a reference point in the circuit from which all voltages in a circuit are measured; assigned v=0
Guglielmo Marconi
Ans: first demonstrated radio telegraphy in 1901
Heinrich Hertz
Ans: first generated radio waves on 1887
i-v relationship
Ans: relationship between current and voltage; i = v / R
ideal independent current source
Ans: provides a specified current flowing through it, regardless of voltage across it (except when
connected to an open circuit)
ideal independent voltage source
Ans: provides a specified voltage across its terminals independent of the type of load or circuit
connected to it (except when connected to a short circuit)
in parallel
Ans: elements that share the same voltage; share two extraordinary nodes
in series
Ans: elements that share the same current; have only ordinary nodes between them
Ans: stimulus vs. response; interfacing with a computer through sensors which convert to
voltages/currents vs. the resultant voltage/current which interfaces with the real world
integrated circuit
Ans: an electronic circuit formed on a small piece of conducting material performing the same function
as a larger circuit made from discrete components; invented in 1958 and allowed the exponential
growth of micro/nanotechnology
International System of Units
Ans: also known as SI; the standard system used today to express the units of physical qualities
Ans: when atoms lose electrons and become positively charged
Ans: a way of rating a power supply in terms of kilowatts used per hour
law of conservation of power
Ans: requires that the algebraic sum of power for the entire circuit always be zero
linear circuit
Ans: a circuit composed entirely of elements with linear i-v relationships
linear i-v relationship
Ans: when a resistor exhibits a proportional relationship between current and voltage
Ans: a closed path with the same start and end node
Ans: a loop that encloses no other loop
net charge
Ans: deltaQ; the total charge an ion has
Ans: when a circuit cannot be drawn on a two-dimensional plane without having any two of its
branches crossing over or under one another
Ohm's law
Ans: i = v / R; first notated in 1827
op amp
Ans: a form of integrated circuit; an electronic device with a complex architecture composed of
transistors, resistors, capacitors, and diodes, but in practice can be represented by a rather simple
circuit consisting of two resistors and a dependent voltage source; amplifies voltage by a certain factor
open circuit
Ans: refers to the condition of path discontinuity (infinite resistance) between two points; no current
can flow through it, regardless of voltage
ordinary node
Ans: an electrical connection point that connects only two elements
passive device
Ans: a device which does not require a power source; eg, resistors, capacitors, inductors
passive sign convention
Ans: set of assignments of voltage polarities relative to the direction flow for devices generating power
versus those consuming power
Ans: a continuous sequence of branches with no node being encountered more than once
PCB layout
Ans: printed-circuit-board layout; the designed layout for a specific circuit
Ans: if it is possible to draw the circuit on a two-dimensional plane without any two of its branches
crossing each other
potential difference
Ans: also known as voltage
Ans: a word affixed to the front of a dimension to notate a certain size
printed circuit board
Ans: the physical layout of the components in a circuit
printed conducting lines
Ans: in lieu of wires, lines are used to connect the elements in a circuit
real voltage source
Ans: behaves like a combination of an equivalent ideal voltage source in series with an equivalent
realistic current source
Ans: consists of an ideal current source in parallel with a resistor
Ans: synonymous to output; the computer's reaction to stimulus
secondary dimension
Ans: a non-fundamental SI unit which can be expressed in terms of the seven fundamental units
short circuit
Ans: the condition of complete path continuity (0 resistance) between two points; there are no voltage
drops, regardless of the magnitude of current
single-pole double-throw
Ans: combines two switching functions to connect a common terminal to two others
single-pole single-throw
Ans: a simple ON/OFF switch
Ans: synonymous to input; the interaction with a computer that will be converted into voltages and
Ans: part of the study of electric circuits; the opposite of analysis, but synonymous to design; defining
operational specifications and building a circuit to meet the specs; can result in multiple possible
Ans: the overall entity which contains subsystems and devices
Thomas Edison
Ans: invented the incandescent light bulb in 1880 and built the first electrical distribution system in a
small part of NYC
Ans: invented in 1947, a semi conductor device with three connections, capable of amplification in
addition to rectification; along with the invention of ICs, led to the exponential growth of
transmission velocity
Ans: the speed at which electrons travel in a circuit
Ans: the expression of a dimension
voltage drop
Ans: energy removed from a circuit; voltage on receiving end becomes less than sending end voltage
voltage rise
Ans: energy added to a circuit; voltage on receiving end is more than sending end voltage
voltage-controlled voltage source
Ans: VCVS; a form of dependent voltage course where the voltage level is dependent on a voltage
elsewhere in the circuit