#1. If there are 3 colors on a resistor... Ans: The tolerance is 20% and the 3rd band becomes the multiplier. #2. If there are 4 colors on a resistor... Ans: The tolerance is determined by the last band (4th band) and the 3rd band is the multiplier. #3. If there are 5 colors on a resistor... Ans: The tolerance is determined by the last band (5th band) and the 4th band is the multiplier. 100 Watts = ? Ans: 100 Watts = 1 Amp AC Ans: Alternating Current AC/DC War Ans: Niagara Falls was the worlds first hydroelectric power plant. They picked Tesla/Westinghouse's AC. Tesla makes it and doesn't even test it, but it works. Alessandro Volta Ans: Father of the battery. He came up with a recipe: 2 dissimilar metals in the pressence of an acid will produce an electrochemical charge. This is the recipe to make batteries. He built the worlds first battery, which at first shocked him and caused him to fly backward and land on his "rear end." AM Ans: Amplitude Modulation Andre Ampere Ans: A mathematician from France who proved that you can predict how much electricity there is. We measure all currents in amps. A wire carrying electric current can attract or repel another wire next to it that's also carrying electric current. C.H. Towne Ans: Father of the laser. Used in: #1. Medical Industry #2. Entertainment Industry #3. Industrial Industry #4. Military Use Capacitor Ans: Holds electrical charges that help the circuit function. Coal Power Plants Ans: Use fossil fuels to produce heat. Conductor Ans: Materials that allow electricity to pass through them. All metals are conductors. The more precious the metal, the better conductor it is. Platinum, gold, and silver are the best conductors but are far too expensive. Copper is the #1 most used (It is cost efficient). Aluminum is #2. DC Ans: Direct Current Diode Ans: Solve feedback. One way valve. The side with the stripe is where electricity enters. Has polarity must be installed the right way. Disc Capacitor Ans: Work in either direction. Ed Armstrong Ans: Father of the FM Triode Feed Circuit. Electricity Ans: A form of energy produced when tiny atomic particles called electrons move from one atom to another. It is the newest form of energy that mankind has harnessed. Electrolytic Capacitor Ans: The striped side is negative. FM Ans: Frequency Modulation Fuses are always measured in _______. Ans: Amps Georg Simon Ohm Ans: Took electricity and heated things too much and melted them (electrical circuits). So he made resistors out of carbon to slow down the electrons and the circuits started working and not burning/melting. George Westinghouse Ans: He was an industrialist from Pittsburg. He supported Tesla in using AC for the NYC electrical grid. Heinrich Hertz Ans: Proved that electricity travels in waves. He found that waves have lengths and patterns. The symbol for Hertz is Hz. All FM bands are measured in Mega Hertz (MHz). Anything with waves = Hz How many volts are in a 9 volt battery? Ans: 9 volts How many volts are in a AA battery? Ans: 1.5 volts How many volts are in a AAA battery? Ans: 1.5 volts How many volts are in a D battery? Ans: 1.5 volts I.C. Chip (Integrated Circuit Chip) Ans: Most expensive part of the kit. Cannot directly touch the chip. never solder directly to the board. Insulator Ans: Material that does not let electricity pass through. Examples: rubber, vinyl, plastic, ceramics, and fiberglass. We have to use these things to cover wires. James Watt Ans: Father of the steam engine. We measure light bulbs in watts. L.E.D. Ans: Light Emitting Diode. Produces light. Uses very little electricity. Must be installed following polarity. Laser Ans: Laser is not a word. It stands for Light Amplified Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Luigi Galvani Ans: A biologist who discovered electricity through dead frogs. He hung frog legs with aluminum paper clips onto iron/copper pipes and the legs started twitching. He came up with the idea of electricity. New York City was the first to ______. Ans: Have electrical power 24/7. Nikola Tesla Ans: First to truly utilize alternating current. He worked in France and was Croation born. He realized that Edison should use AC instead of DC for the NYC electrical grid. Father of the radio. Nuclear Power Plants Ans: Split atoms and produce heat. Nylar Capacitor Ans: Work in either direction. Ohm's Law Triangle Ans: E - Voltage measured in Volts [v] I - Currents measured in Amps [A] R - Resistance measured in Ohms [Ω - Omega Greek Symbol] Philadelphia Experiment Ans: In 1943, Albert Einstein and Tesla worked together on the Philidelphia experiment. They were given the U.S.S. Eldridge. Their goal was to make steel ships nonmagnetic. They perform the experiment in Philly in October. They wrapped the boat with a special material and energize it, causing the boat to disappear. After they turn it off, the people on board were vomiting buckets. A week later, someone said they saw the boat at 7:02 in Chesapeake Bay when it was turned on at 7:00 in Philly. Resistor (A.R.) Ans: Resistor (S.S.) Ans: Resistors Ans: They are the most popular component in the electronics industry. They have no polarity and can be placed either way. Schematic Ans: Technical drawings for electronic circuits. Semiconductors Ans: A substance, usually a solid chemical element or compound, that can conduct electricity under some conditions but not others, making it a good medium for the control of electrical current. Superconductors Ans: Certain materials, when made very cold, will have no resistance to the flow of electricity. The 2 Nonmetal Conductors Ans: #1: Silicon #2: Graphite The Tele-geo-dynamics Oscillator Ans: Earth Quake Machine The Teslabolt Ans: Designed in Utah, it pinpoints electrical bolts. Thomas Edison Ans: Inventor of the light bulb, electric voting machine, and father of the phonograph. Thomas Edison designed the ______. Ans: First electrical grid for NYC. He based it off of DC (Direct Current) which was a bad idea because of voltage drop. Transformer Ans: Can step up voltage. 4 leads, marked with dot. Transistor Ans: 3 leads, must be put in following polarity. Marked with one angled piece. Act as amplifiers for sound and amplifying currents. Transistor (Inventors) Ans: Invented by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley VD Ans: Voltage Drop - The current passes through the conductor (wire) from the DC source to the first resistor; as this occurs, some of the supplied energy is "lost" (unavailable to the load), due to the resistance of the conductor. Voltage drop exists in both the supply and return wires of a circuit. Water Ans: It is neither an insulator nor a conductor. It can be either. Watts = ? Ans: Watts = E x I When did mankind first store electricity? Ans: 1790s Where was the first computer built? Ans: Philadelphia Active RC filters Ans: Filters that use operational amplifiers and are less susceptible to filter characteristic alterations Armature Core Ans: Made of laminated steel, it provides a path of a low reluctance between poles. It's laminated so that it reduces the formation on eddy currents. It has axial slots to fit armature windings in. Armature Shaft Ans: This imparts the rotation of the armature core winding and the commutator Armature Windings Ans: Armature windings are tightly insulated coils, insulated from each other and the armature core. They're positioned in the slots electrically connected to the commutator Bad source conversion Current to Voltage Ans: A good current source makes a bad voltage source as when a source is converted, the internal resistance stays the same. For a current source R is very high so when using KCL, most the current will "flow" out to follow least resistive path. After conversion Rs is in series with source therefore cause a large voltage drop across source. Band Pass Filters Ans: Band Pass Filters pass only signals between two given frequencies, blocking lower and higher signals.The pass band lies between two frequencies, fl and fh. Signals between DC and fl are blocked, as are signals from fh to infinity. Brushes Ans: Composed of carbon and graphite and used to collect current from the generator. Brushes will maintain firm contact with the commutator segments during rotation to provide current flow Commutator Ans: Consists of copper segments, individually insulated from one another and from the shaft. The commutator by virtue of the shaft rotation, provides the necessary switching the commutation process Cycle Ans: Each repetition of a variable quantity, recurring at equal intervals, is termed a cycle. - Positive Cycle - Negative Cycle Diamagnetic Ans: Permeability ranges from just below unity Copper and silver EMF (e) = Blv Ans: L = Length B = Flux density v = velocity Ferromagnetic Ans: Permeability ranges from 100-10,000 eg iron and steel Field Poles Ans: Constructed of laminated steel, bolted or welded to the yoke after the assembly of field windings has been inserted on them. The pole shoe is curved and is wider than the pole core to the spread the flux more uniformly Field Windings Ans: They're essentially electromagnets ampere-turn produces required flux in the air gap to produce the EMF. Field windings may connected either in series or in parallel with the armature windings. (leading to different types of DC generators) Filter Ans: To remove interfering noise from a required information carrying data signal. Optimally demodulating data carrying signals in the presence of noise. Selecting a required radio channel from many that are transmitted Frequency Ans: The number of cycles per second, Frequency (f) is measured in Hertz (Hz) High Pass Filters Ans: High Pass filters pass high-frequency signals while blocking DC and low-frequency signals. The pass band ranges from a corner frequency (fc) to infinity Kirchoff's 1st Law (Current Law/ KCL) Ans: At any junction in a circuit, the sum of the currents arriving at the junction = the sum of the currents leaving the junction (Charge is conserved) Kirchoff's 2nd Law (Voltage Law/ KVL) Ans: KVL states that the algebraic sum of the voltage drop across the closed path is equal to zero Low Pass Filter Ans: Low pass filters pass low-frequency signals while blocking high-frequency signals. The pass band ranges from DC (0 Hz) to a corner frequency fC Mica Ans: Commonly used as the insulting material Ohm's Law Ans: Ohms law states that the current flowing through a component conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points Paramagnetic Ans: Permeability ranges from just above unity Aluminium and platinum Passive filters Ans: Simple filters using only resistors, capacitors and inductors. Disadvantaged as components alter characteristics of fiter Period Ans: The time duration of one complete cycle in seconds T (s) Rotor Ans: Rotating parts of a motor or DC generator Stator Ans: Stationary parts of the motor Superposition Theorem Ans: This theorem states that the total response of a linear circuit is the sum of the individual responses of each individual source Waveform Ans: The variation of a quantity such as voltage or current shown on a graph to a base of time is a waveform Yoke Ans: The yoke is a cylindrical frame made up of cast or rolled steel. It serves as the support for the field circuit and provides a flux return path for the magnetic circuit produced by the field circuit A transistor is made bv joining how many lavers of semiconductor material? Ans:Three A__________________rectifier will produce the smoothest DC output voltage. Ans: bridge An SRC is made from adjoining layers of semiconductor material in the________ Ans: PNPN arrangement By adding ____________________to semiconductor material, P-type material will be created. Ans: gallium Convert AC power to DC power using_______ Ans: rectifier diodes High-power transistors are manufactured in which configurations? Ans: Studs and heats sinks How many diodes are required to convert three-phase AC power to high-efficiency DC power? Ans: Six How many diodes are required to form a bridge rectifier? Ans: Four How many diodes are required to form a transformer center-tap full-wave rectifier circuit? Ans: Two In order to permit the emergence of the maximum number of photons in an LED, the conducting surface___________ Ans: connected to the P-type material is much smaller In the figure above, the lead marked A is the transistor__________ Ans: emitter In the figure above, the lead marked C is the transistor___________ Ans: collector On a transistor, control voltages are applied to the________ Ans: base One end of a diode has a beveled end which indicates that it is the Ans: cathode Silicon is widely used as a semiconductor because it Ans: withstands heat The applied voltage does not have to exceed the breakage voltage in order for conduction to begin on a(n)__________ Ans: diac The difference between an N-channel and a P-channel JFET is_______ Ans: the polarity of the voltage The difference between an SCR and a diode is that an SCR_______ Ans: has three terminals The figure above shows the electrical symbol for a(n)______ Ans: NPN transistor The point at which avalanche break over occurs in a diode is known as the_________ Ans: peak inverse voltage The process of giving off light by applying an electrical source of energy is called Ans: electroluminescence The schematic symbol for an LED is the same as that ofa diode with the addition of a(n) Ans: arrow pointing away from the diode The term solid state refers to_____________ Ans: the use of semiconductor material in electronic components The two basic types of diodes are the silicon and the___________ Ans: germanium What is the average number of valence electrons in a conductor atom? Ans: One or two What is the name given to the areas where P-type materials join N-type materials to form a diode? Ans: Gate junction What semiconductor material comprises the base of an NPN transistor? Ans: P-type germanium When possible, transistor casings will have some marking to indicate_____ Ans: which leads are connected to the emitter, collector, or base When used in a circuit, an LED is generally operated at about Ans:20mA or less Which of the following can be thought of as an AC switch? Ans: Diac Which of the following can be viewed as a diac with a gate terminal added? Ans: Triac Which of the following is an excellent conductor but too expensive to use on a larger scale? Ans: Silver Which of the following makes the best conductor? Ans: Aluminum Which statement about transistors is correct? Ans: There are three types of junction field-effect transistors. a good current meter has a low ____ _____. Ans: input impedance A good voltemeter has a high _______ _____. Ans: input impedance A linear relationship must have two properties, called ____ and ____. (both end ity) Ans: homogeneity, and additivity a short circuit implies zero ____. an open circuit implies zero ____. Ans: sht ckt zvoltage, opnckt z eroc urrent a typical household electrical circuit is about how many amps? Ans: 15-20 A (110V) add conductances in parallel Ans: Geq = G1 +G2 add conductances in series Ans: 1/Geq = 1/G1+1/G2 current enters a junction and splitts off, is it true that more current will flow through the smaller resistor? Ans: false, it depends on what is connected further downstream. discuss: a 10kOhm resistor dissipates more power than a 1kOhm resistor Ans: may or may not be true; if they both have the same voltage, the smaller resistor dissipates more power (V^2/R). if they both have the same current, the larger resistor dissipates more power (I^2R) explain exactly when you need to use supernode when doing nodal analysis Ans: when there is a voltage source with neither end connected to ground explain when need supermesh in mesh analysis Ans: whenever there is an internal current source(shared by two loops) Give a precise statement of Thevenin's theorem Ans: any linear, time-invariant, resistive circuit is equivalent at its terminals to the parallel combination of an ideal current source and a resistor (the Thevenin equivalent resistance). How do you determine if a circuit element is absorbing or supplying power to/from a circuit? Ans: 1) finding the current and voltage to satisfy passive sign convention, find power multiply current and voltage I-V relationships showing linearity Ans: see chart In a lightning storm, why are you safe in a car Ans: because you are not grounded Mesh analysis is restrictive to what kind of circuits? Ans: planar circuits, because no wires are crossing power is negative Ans: supplying power power is positive Ans: absorption of power Precise statement of KCL Ans: the algebraic sum of all currents leaving or entering a node (or any other closed surface) in a circuit is zero precise statement of KVL Ans: the algebraic sum of all voltage drops or rises around a closed loop in a circuit (which need not run entirely through conductors or circuit elements) is zero precise statement of Norton's theorem Ans: any linear, time-invariant, resistive circuit is equivalent at its terminals to the parallel(//) combination of an ideal current source and a resistor(the thevenin equivalent resistance) precise statement of Superposition theorem Ans: in any linear, time-invariant resistive circuit, we can find any voltage or current in the circuit by summing the corresponding voltages or currents that are caused by each independent source acting separately (after "killing" all other independent sources) relations between the following units J N s m Kg C V W Ohm A S Ans: J=N*m=kg*m^2/s^2 N=kg*m/s^2 J= C*V=W*s S=1/Ohms=A/V A=C/s V =Ohms*A W=V*A=J/s superposition can only be used to find Ans: current and voltage, NOT POWER superposition, Ans: can't sum the current or voltage from an alone dependent source t f the recommendend "final" ar that should appear in the equations resulting from nodal analysis include node voltages and all control variales for dependent sources Ans: False. the control variables should preferrably be eliminated, leaving only node voltages. t f the thevenin equivalent circuit of one with a dependent source could have a negative Rth Ans: true t f the voltage at the positive end of a 6.2 V source is necessarily 6.2 V Ans: False! voltage sources only establish voltage differences, not absolute; this only applies if the negative end is connected to agnd t f when performing nodal analysis, it is necessary and advisable to define a notation for every current entering or leaving each node. Ans: FALSE this is unneccessary TnGpkmufMa Ans: tera=10^12 nano=10^-9 giga=10^9 pico=10^-12 kilo=10^3 mili=10^-3 femto=10^-15 micro=10^-6 atto=10^-18 Mega=10^6 t or f, can kill dependent sources Ans: false, only kill independent sources the current through an ideal voltage source is Ans: whatever it needs to be to maintain the voltage at a fixed value the currents of two current sourses in series Ans: must be the same the currents of two voltage sources in series --> Ans: must be the same the voltage across an ideal current source is _____ Ans: whatever it needs to be to maintain the current at a fixed value the voltages of two current sources in series Ans: add algebraically the voltages of two voltage sources in series--> Ans: add algebraically two elements in ____ must have the same current Ans: series two elements in parallel must have the same ____ Ans: voltage (parallel has l's, so does voltage) unit names are not capitalized, ever ever ever Ans: coulombs amperes siemens joule Units for the gain of: current-controlled VS voltage-controlled CS current-controlled CS voltage-controlled VS Ans: ohms siemens dimensionless dimensionless what is the value of Rth for an ideal CURRENT source? Ans: infinite! ∞∞∞∞ what is the value of Rth, for an ideal voltage source? Ans: zero what must be true about a current source to apply source transformation Ans: resistor connected in // with it . CANNOT BE TRANSFORMED IF // RESISTANCE IS ∅ what must be true about a voltage source to apply SOURCE TRANSFORMATION Ans: it must have a finite resistor in series with it, if the series resistance is zero, can't be transformed when applying KVL to sum voltage drops, we conventionally add a minus sign to the value of a voltage source when the direction we are following leads us into the Ans: negative terminal, and the terms across the resistors are positive when breaking a circuit to use Thevenin's theorem to solve it, NEVER do what? Ans: separate a controlled source from its controlled variable. when dependent sources are present and we are doing mesh or node analysis, the control variables for the dependent sources must be expressed in terms of what, exactly? Ans: the node voltages, in nodal analysis the mesh currents, in mesh analysis when is it necessary to use a test source at the terminals of a circuit to find its norton equivalent circuit? Ans: whenever the circuit has no independent sources, when short-circuit current is zero and open circuit voltage is zero which type of analysis leads to matrix equations? Ans: NODE AND MESH Area in Circular Mils Ans: Acm = d^2 Capacitance Ans: the capacity to store charge Conductance Ans: G = 1/R (inverse of resistance) Current Divider Rule Ans: current entering a node from one direction and exiting into two parallel elements will split, with some current going through each parallel element Irx = I(in)(Ry/(Rx+Ry) Electric Field Ans: E = Q / (4*pi*epsilon*r^2) Electric Fource Ans: F = (k*Q1*Q2) / r^2 k = 8.99 * 10^9 Energy in Joules Ans: Ej = P*t power in Watts, time in seconds Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL) Ans: the current flowing into the node (junction) equals the current flowing out of that node Maximum Power Transfer Ans: demonstrates that behavior of Norton and Thevenin equivalent circuit are identical since the power source to load power (RL = Rth + Rn) Mesh (Loop) Analysis Ans: useful for multiple source circuits. Its basis is Kirchhoff Voltage Law, so it works only with voltage sources. Mils --> Inch Ans: 1 mil = 0.001 in Nodal Analysis Ans: useful for multiple source circuits. Its basis is Kirchhoff Current Law, so it works only with current sources. Norton Equivalent Ans: The method to find the Norton equivalent is to find the short-circuit current, then the internal resistance. The internal resistance is found by removing the current source, replacing it with an open circuit, and finding the resistance in the same manner as Thevenin equivalent resistance (Rth = Rn) Ohm's Law Ans: V = I*R Parallel Resistor Equation Ans: Rt = (1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + ... + 1/Rn)^-1 Permittivity Ans: measures how easily a material will form an electric field, is in units (F/m) and is represented by a lowercase epsilon Power Equation(s) Ans: P = I*V P = V^2/R P = I^2*R Resistance General Equation Ans: R = (rho * L)/ Acm Series Resistor Equation Ans: Rt = R1 + R2 + R3 + ... + Rn Superposition Ans: all sources are removed except one, and then the circuit is analyzed Thevenin Equivalent Ans: The model is an ideal voltage source with a series resistor called the Thevenin equivalent output resistance (Rth) and the voltage equivalent (Vth) Thevenin equivalent is used only with voltage sources Voltage Divider Rule Ans: Vr1 = Vs (R1/Rt) How do you add resistors in parallel? Ans: 1/Req=1/R1+1/R2... How do you add resistors in series? Ans: Algebraically How do you use supernodes? Ans: You write a KCL equation for them, involving each current coming into the whole thing, then you write an equation using the internal voltage source saying that all of the node voltages for node included in the supernode must add to give the voltage of the internal voltage source What are the steps of nodal analysis? Ans: Find all the nodes, choose one to be the ground, assign a node voltage to each node, write KCl relations for each node using the same sign conventions in terms of the voltages, then solve for the voltages What can you do with the equation for power and ohm's law? Ans: Combine them to calculate power using different kinds of information What do we mean by an equivalent resistor? Ans: We mean that from the perspective of the two nodes at either end, V and I are the same What do you need to be careful of in nodal analysis when a node is not connected to the ground? Ans: The voltage you calculate will be relative to nearby voltages, not the ground, which means to determine the actual node voltage you will need to subtract other voltages What does Kirchhoff's current law state? Ans: The algebraic sum of currents entering and leaving a given node is 0 What does Kirchhoff's voltage law state? Ans: The algebraic sum of voltages around any loop is 0 What does ohm's law state? Ans: V=±RI, depending on passive sign convention What happens to Req if one of the "resistors" in parallel is a short circuit? Ans: Req=0 What information do we need to know a voltage? Ans: Quantity and polarity What information do you need to know a charge? Ans: A quantity and a direction What is a current source? Ans: An element that provides a constant current regardless of the voltage across it What is a loop? Ans: A path where one node, which is both the first and the last, is passed twice What is a node? Ans: A junction between two or more circuit elements, made of interconnected perfect conductors What is a path? Ans: A route between nodes where no node is crossed more than once What is a Siemen? (S) Ans: The unit for conductance, the opposite of resistance, =1/Ω What is a supernode? Ans: A combination of two or more nodes in nodal analysis, with a voltage source inside What is a voltage source? Ans: An element that provides a constant voltage regardless of the current through it What is A.C. voltage? Ans: Voltage that varies with respect to time What is current as a rate of change? Ans: The rate of change of current over time, dq(t)/dt What is current in an open circuit? Ans: 0 What is D.C. voltage? Ans: Voltage that is constant with respect to time What is power as a rate of change? Ans: The rate of change of energy over time, dw(t)/dt What is required for a parallel connection? Ans: The elements involved must share two nodes What is required for a series connection? Ans: Two circuits should be connected back to back without another current path available What is resistance in a short circuit? Ans: 0 What is resistance in an open circuit? Ans: Infinite What is the alternate equation for Req in parallel? Ans: Req=(R1R2)/(R1+R2) What is the equation for current division across parallel resistors? Ans: I1=[R2/(R1+R2)](Itot) What is the equation for power in terms of voltage and current? Ans: P=±V(I), depending on whether passive sign convention holds What is the equation for voltage division across series resistors? Ans: V1=[R1/(R1+R2)](Vtot) What is the shape of a dependent source? Ans: A square What is the shape of an independent source? Ans: A circle What is the SI unit for charge? Ans: Amperes, Columbs/second What is true of the power absorbed and emitted by each element in a circuit? Ans: By power conservation, they must all add algebraically to 0 What is voltage as a rate of change? Ans: change in energy/change in charge What is voltage in a short circuit? Ans: 0 What is voltage? Ans: A measure of the energy needed to move one unit of charge between two points on a circuit When does a voltage-current pair conform to passive sign convention? Ans: When the current moves from the positive to the negative of the voltage When doing nodal analysis, which voltage to subtract from which? Ans: After assuming a current direction for your overall sign, voltage at the tail of the arrow-voltage at the head of the arrow Will KVL and KCL work regardless of which directions you assume? Ans: Yes AC power supply Ans: Alternating Current (AC) Ans: rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction Amps (Amperes) Ans: Unit of electric current, written: A current Ans: the flow of electrons Currents through all resistors are always equal in a Ans: Series Circuit Currents through the different resistors are not always equal in a Ans: Parallel Circuit DC power supply Ans: Direct Current (DC) Ans: This current has electrons that flow around in a loop. In a series circuit, if voltage equals 12v and current equals 3A then, resistance must equal... Ans: 4 ohms Ohm's Law Ans: V=IR Ohms Ans: unit for resistance parallel circuit Ans: A circuit that contains more than one path for current flow. Parallel Circuit (image) Ans: Power Ans: the rate at which work is done Resistor (image) Ans: series circuit Ans: An electric circuit with a single path Series Circuit (image) Ans: symbol for ohms (unit of resistance) Ans: Total resistance in parallel Ans: Total resistance in series Ans: R1 + R2 + R3 Voltage Ans: potential difference expressed in volts. Volts Ans: unit for voltage Watts Ans: unit for power active device Ans: need power sources to function in a circuit; eg, transistors/ICs Alexander Graham Bell Ans: inventor of the telephone in 1876 all-electronic computer Ans: ENIAC, first introduced in 1945 alternating current Ans: voltage and current sources vary sinusoidally; abbreviated "ac" ampere-hours Ans: a way of rating a power supply in terms of amperes used per hour analysis Ans: part of the study of electric circuits; the understanding of how a single circuit works basic elements Ans: elements of a circuit or device with idealized characteristics branch Ans: trace between two consecutive nodes with only one element between them chassis ground Ans: the term for ground in relation to mobile systems circuit Ans: the subsystems within a system; a system of electrical conductors and components forming a complete and closed path circuit diagram Ans: the electrical configuration of a circuit conduction current Ans: the current caused by electron drift cumulative charge Ans: an amount of charge transferred in a certain cross section in a given time current-controlled voltage source Ans: CCVS; a form of dependent voltage source where the voltage is dependent on a current elsewhere in the circuit dependent voltage source Ans: an artificial source of voltage where the voltage level is defined in terms of specific voltage/current somewhere else in the circuit design Ans: synonymous to synthesis; the realization of a circuit whose functionality meets a set of specifications device Ans: also known as components; the individual elements within a circuit (eg, resistors, ICs) dimension Ans: a fundamental measurement of something direct current Ans: voltage and current sources are constant to time; abbreviated "dc" drift Ans: the way electrons move within a circuit when caused by polarity of a terminal; opposite to freeflow drift velocity Ans: the actual physical speed at which electrons move inside wires Earth ground Ans: the term for ground in relation to fixed systems electric circuit Ans: a complete or partial path over which current may flow; the path may be confined to a physical structure or may be an unbounded channel carrying electrons through it; composed of passive devices electric current Ans: the time rate of transfer of electric charges across a specified cross section electron drift Ans: the process of sequential migration of electrons from one atom to the next electronic Ans: synonymous with transistors and other active devices equivalent circuit Ans: a circuit composed of basic elements with idealized characteristics used to model the operation of more complex circuits and devices equivalent ideal voltage source Ans: a voltage source that provides a specified voltage across its terminals with idealized characteristics; v sub s...not sure tho equivalent resistance Ans: R sub s; the total resistance of 2+ resistors in a circuit external Ans: on the outside of or not related to a certain circuit extraordinary node Ans: a node with three or more elements functional block diagram Ans: a design of a circuit detailing what we want the circuit to do ground Ans: a reference point in the circuit from which all voltages in a circuit are measured; assigned v=0 Guglielmo Marconi Ans: first demonstrated radio telegraphy in 1901 Heinrich Hertz Ans: first generated radio waves on 1887 i-v relationship Ans: relationship between current and voltage; i = v / R ideal independent current source Ans: provides a specified current flowing through it, regardless of voltage across it (except when connected to an open circuit) ideal independent voltage source Ans: provides a specified voltage across its terminals independent of the type of load or circuit connected to it (except when connected to a short circuit) in parallel Ans: elements that share the same voltage; share two extraordinary nodes in series Ans: elements that share the same current; have only ordinary nodes between them input/output Ans: stimulus vs. response; interfacing with a computer through sensors which convert to voltages/currents vs. the resultant voltage/current which interfaces with the real world integrated circuit Ans: an electronic circuit formed on a small piece of conducting material performing the same function as a larger circuit made from discrete components; invented in 1958 and allowed the exponential growth of micro/nanotechnology International System of Units Ans: also known as SI; the standard system used today to express the units of physical qualities ionization Ans: when atoms lose electrons and become positively charged kilowatt-hours Ans: a way of rating a power supply in terms of kilowatts used per hour law of conservation of power Ans: requires that the algebraic sum of power for the entire circuit always be zero linear circuit Ans: a circuit composed entirely of elements with linear i-v relationships linear i-v relationship Ans: when a resistor exhibits a proportional relationship between current and voltage loop Ans: a closed path with the same start and end node mesh Ans: a loop that encloses no other loop net charge Ans: deltaQ; the total charge an ion has nonplanar Ans: when a circuit cannot be drawn on a two-dimensional plane without having any two of its branches crossing over or under one another Ohm's law Ans: i = v / R; first notated in 1827 op amp Ans: a form of integrated circuit; an electronic device with a complex architecture composed of transistors, resistors, capacitors, and diodes, but in practice can be represented by a rather simple circuit consisting of two resistors and a dependent voltage source; amplifies voltage by a certain factor open circuit Ans: refers to the condition of path discontinuity (infinite resistance) between two points; no current can flow through it, regardless of voltage ordinary node Ans: an electrical connection point that connects only two elements passive device Ans: a device which does not require a power source; eg, resistors, capacitors, inductors passive sign convention Ans: set of assignments of voltage polarities relative to the direction flow for devices generating power versus those consuming power path Ans: a continuous sequence of branches with no node being encountered more than once PCB layout Ans: printed-circuit-board layout; the designed layout for a specific circuit planar Ans: if it is possible to draw the circuit on a two-dimensional plane without any two of its branches crossing each other potential difference Ans: also known as voltage prefix Ans: a word affixed to the front of a dimension to notate a certain size printed circuit board Ans: the physical layout of the components in a circuit printed conducting lines Ans: in lieu of wires, lines are used to connect the elements in a circuit real voltage source Ans: behaves like a combination of an equivalent ideal voltage source in series with an equivalent resistance realistic current source Ans: consists of an ideal current source in parallel with a resistor response Ans: synonymous to output; the computer's reaction to stimulus secondary dimension Ans: a non-fundamental SI unit which can be expressed in terms of the seven fundamental units short circuit Ans: the condition of complete path continuity (0 resistance) between two points; there are no voltage drops, regardless of the magnitude of current single-pole double-throw Ans: combines two switching functions to connect a common terminal to two others single-pole single-throw Ans: a simple ON/OFF switch stimulus Ans: synonymous to input; the interaction with a computer that will be converted into voltages and currents synthesis Ans: part of the study of electric circuits; the opposite of analysis, but synonymous to design; defining operational specifications and building a circuit to meet the specs; can result in multiple possible circuits system Ans: the overall entity which contains subsystems and devices Thomas Edison Ans: invented the incandescent light bulb in 1880 and built the first electrical distribution system in a small part of NYC transistor Ans: invented in 1947, a semi conductor device with three connections, capable of amplification in addition to rectification; along with the invention of ICs, led to the exponential growth of micro/nanotechnology transmission velocity Ans: the speed at which electrons travel in a circuit unit Ans: the expression of a dimension voltage drop Ans: energy removed from a circuit; voltage on receiving end becomes less than sending end voltage voltage rise Ans: energy added to a circuit; voltage on receiving end is more than sending end voltage voltage-controlled voltage source Ans: VCVS; a form of dependent voltage course where the voltage level is dependent on a voltage elsewhere in the circuit