List of Mathematical Symbols • R = real numbers, Z = integers, N=natural numbers, Q = rational numbers, P = irrational numbers. • ⊂= proper subset (not the whole thing) ⊆=subset • ∃ = there exists • ∀ = for every • ∈= element of S • = union (or) T • = intersection (and) • s.t.= such that • =⇒ implies • ⇐⇒ if and only if P • = sum • \ = set minus • ∴= therefore 1