Service Training Self-study Programme Service Operations 12 Service KPI´s – Work Performance Introduction Dear Reader, This is the Self-Study Programme Service Operations 12 “Service KPI´s – Work Performance” issued by the Volkswagen Academy Sales & Service Wolfsburg. This self-study programme was produced in close cooperation with After Sales Business Management (VSN/1) at Volkswagen AG. Along with their contribution to the content, we would also like to thank the department for their final corrections. The following volume should, above all, provide support for dealership principals, service managers, trainers and service field forces during their everyday work. Furthermore, it is also a suitable medium for other interested service 2 employees in Volkswagen dealerships wishing to broaden their knowledge of business management. The Service KPI´s described here form the basis for a uniform and comparable evaluation of the service. This self-study programme should help to identify potential for improvement at the company as well as to examine the effectiveness of measures taken by looking at changes to the key figures. Only if the service figures are recorded and analysed regularly and correctly at the company will they be able to contribute to success. You can learn about the definitions, meanings and variables influencing these figures in this programme, which are explained in brief. You can use the questions at the end of this volume to test your knowledge. We hope you enjoy studying and wish you every success in applying the knowledge gained at your dealership. Note: Information box Exercise box The information box contains valuable additional information. To aid textual comprehension, there is a practical exercise to complete in the exercise box. Contents 1 The After Sales division at the Volkswagen dealership . . . . . . .4 2 Types of customers, orders and invoices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 3 Productive workers, partly productive workers, the number of productive workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 4 Productive hours for apprentices and trainees. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5 Time tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6 Paid hours and total hours. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7 Productive hours and their calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 8 Hours worked and hours sold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 9 Distribution of hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 10 Key figures of work performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 Attendance rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Utilisation rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Efficiency rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Annual overall performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Target values for trainees and apprentices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 11 Evaluating spare capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 12 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 13 Test Your Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 The groups of people named in the Self-Study Programme Service Operations refer both to men and women. The female pronoun has not been explicitly used for reasons of readability and simplicity. The term “Volkswagen” always refers to the brand “Volkswagen Passenger Cars”. 3 1 The After Sales division at the Volkswagen dealership Volkswagen dealerships are contractually bound to Volkswagen AG and are assigned a company number. They are divided into the following divisions: Fig. 1 The Sales and After Sales divisions at the Volkswagen dealership &OUJSFEFBMFSTIJQ 4BMFT 4 /FXDBS 6TFEDBS "GUFS4BMFT 4FSWJDF 1BSUT The After Sales division at the Volkswagen dealership is comprised of the Service and Parts departments. Together they assume responsibility for staff working in, and the cost effectiveness of, repairs and customer service. The Service department maintains and repairs the customers' vehicles. It performs regular inspections and eliminates damage which occurs during use or as a result of accidents. It uses Volkswagen Genuine Parts and Volkswagen Genuine Accessories to do so, which are provided by the Parts department. These services help maintain the comfort and safety of customer vehicles. Ultimately revenue is generated, this being labour revenue from the sale of repair hours and parts revenue from the sale of vehicle components. A high level of customer satisfaction ensures revenue in the After Sales division. If After Sales meets customer's expectations of quality, or even exceeds them, then the customer will continue to use the services provided by the respective Volkswagen partner in future. To improve and monitor its own performance, After Sales uses essential key success figures. These can provide information about adherence to defined processes, the achievement of cost, turnover and profit targets, and can also indicate ways to improve competitiveness. 5 2 Types of customers, orders and invoices Customers can be classified into different groups at the Volkswagen dealerships. Although the distinctions depend on the market area and the system-based prerequisites, a few basic definitions apply: • A customer is the person who initiates an order in a division of the Volkswagen dealership. • A service customer is the person who initiates an order in the Service department of the Volkswagen dealership. • A Volkswagen customer is the person who initiates an order related to the Volkswagen Passenger Cars brand in a division of the Volkswagen dealership. 6 Other ways of defining customers are also used in the Sales business sector and in the After Sales departments, based on the following differentiation: • • • Customer in Parts department Volkswagen customer in Parts department Volkswagen service customer After Sales customers are also differentiated according to where they originate from: • Internal customers originate from the Volkswagen dealership's own business operations. If, for example, the Used Car department has repairs done to a vehicle which it purchased, then it is an internal customer for the Service department in terms of the work ordered, and an internal customer in the Parts department in terms of the vehicle components needing replacement. The Used Car department orders the services from the Service and the Parts department. For internal customers the scope of the work and the required vehicle parts are recorded via internal orders . In each instance they must be settled internally, meaning between the department ordering the service and the department rendering the service. This is a means of settling the cost of services internally. • Normal customers do not originate from the Volkswagen dealership's own business operations. All work performed for them and the vehicle components assigned to them must always be invoiced via standard orders. Orders in After Sales are essentially divided into service orders and parts orders. • Service orders contain work items or a combination of work items and parts. Service invoices are issued for them (invoiced). • Parts orders only contain ordered parts. Parts invoices are issued for them (invoiced). 7 Invoices or orders which include both, parts and work items, are referred to as service orders and service invoices. Service orders and service invoices are divided into four different types according to the work performed: • • • • Standard orders Warranty orders Goodwill orders Internal orders These orders are principally customer orders, meaning they are always issued by customers. For standard orders and internal orders, the customers receive the invoice directly, for warranty and goodwill orders, the dealership or the manufacturer is responsible for settling a share, or all, of the invoice. No order is made when the Service department renders a service for itself. 8 This covers, on the one hand, the repair of vehicles which were classed as the commercial responsibility of the Service department (workshop replacement vehicle, towing vehicles, company car for the service manager) and, on the other hand, job items such as sorting the tool wall, labelling special tools, cleaning of the floor and similar tasks. These activities may not be described as orders, as the jobs have not been ordered. However, time taken to complete them must be recorded. (For more information, see Chapter 5 – Workshop hours) 3 Productive workers, partly productive workers, the number of productive workers Employees are referred to as productive employees if they are available for rendering services on vehicles for at least 10% of their working hours. Completely productive employees are exclusively available for working on vehicles. Partly productive employees are, along with immediate services on vehicles, also regularly assigned to other tasks. This distinction is decisive for counting the number of productive employees or productive workers. The number of productive workers is equal to the sum of the proportions of partly productive and completely productive employees in service. 9 Employees who are available for performing work on vehicles for less than 10% of their working hours are referred to as administrative employees in the Service department. 4 Productive hours for apprentices and trainees A lower level of output is expected from productive apprentices, new productive workers in training, and productive workers who can prove physical limitations as compared to experienced employees whose productivity is not limited. The reduced work capacity of the corresponding employees is factored in using an appropriate allocation factor (see example 1) and by a set number of reduced potential productive hours (see example 2). Examples: In Germany, work in the 1st year of training is never invoiced. For the 2nd year of training the invoicing factor is 0.31 and for the 3rd and 4th year of training 10 the factor is 0.75. 1. An apprentice or trainee productive worker in his 3rd year of training is responsible for completing job items within a specified time of 100 time units. The worker is credited with 100 time units. These 100 time units are also included on the invoice. However, the apprentice or trainee is actually given 133 time units for completing the work for which these 100 time units were credited (100/75 x 100 = 133.33). 2. For open job items, these being job items without an allotted time (so-called AZ times) the following applies: if an apprentice or trainee in the 3rd or 4th year of training works on open job items on their own , the productive time is multiplied with the invoicing factor 0.75 (100 x 0.75 = 75). Of the 100 time units worked, only 75 time units can be invoiced. These reductions must be given close consideration in warranty cases in particular. The target productive hours for apprentices and trainees are defined on the basis of a realistic, country-specific estimation and apply uniformly across the country. In Germany, the training period totals 3.5 years. In the 1st and 2nd year of training, no target productive hours are specified. In the 3rd year of training, 480 productive hours are expected, and in the last half year of training, 240 productive hours. Information box Your importer can inform you about which reduction factors apply to you and the level of the reduced number of productive hours. 11 5 Time tracking Information box Productive employees work through the service orders. The time taken for all An uninterrupted record of all the times from starting work to finishing work, as well as recording absences, is important. term used for this, “stamp”, refers to the mechanical time stamp clocks which activities is recorded. The time is recorded electronically or in writing. The were once used. Every working day starts when the employee stamps in the time after which he's available to work on orders or other activities at the company (in practice, this is referred to as “time in”) and ends when the employees stamp the time from which he's no longer available for activities at the company (“time out”). The time at which work was started and finished is recorded for every order. 12 The time at which work finishes is recorded automatically by many electronic systems when the next starting time is stamped. The time which has been stamped is the productive time (or to be more precise, the actual productive time) for the order. Regardless of whether there are customer orders or not, the work day must always start by recording attendance at the company (time-in stamp). If no other tasks need to be performed, workers are not productive. Even if there are no customer orders, any other tasks which are carried out must be recorded with the corresponding hours for attendance and non-attendance. In the following, practical distinctions are illustrated in regard to the minimum workplace attendance and absence which must be recorded. The “W” in the terms W1 to W8 is based on the term “workshop hours” or “workshop time”. W times for attendance (at the workplace) W1 “Work for own workshop” - must be recorded for the times in which maintenance work on company vehicles belonging to the Service department, larger tidying up tasks, maintenance work on the business premises or when similar work is performed. W2 “Non-productive time” - must be recorded for the time in which productive employees are at work but have not been assigned an activity. W3 “Apprentice time” - only needs to be recorded by trainees or apprentices for the time in which they receive technical instruction at their workplace. The productive worker who is instructing the trainee records this time as W6 (training) 13 W4 “Rework” - must be recorded for the time in which a productive worker is busy completing rework for which he himself is responsible. If the rework is completed by someone other than the productive worker responsible for causing it, then a new order is created and the time needed is recorded the same way it would be for a normal order. The management of the workshop must, in this case, ensure that the times for work items needing rework do not remain recorded twice with the Service department, for example by cancelling or updating the failed repair attempt. W times for absence (from the workplace) W5 “Holidays” - must be recorded for the time in which a productive worker does not have to work due to a public holiday or annual holidays. W6 “Training” - must be recorded for the time in which a productive worker attends training which is held within (internal) or outside (external) the dealership. If the productive worker is supporting a trainee or apprentice, then W6 is also recorded for this productive worker. The apprentice or trainee records all time needed for instruction under W3. W7 “Illness” - must be recorded for the time in which the productive worker was unable to be assigned any tasks at the workplace due to disability for work. W7 does not 14 have to be recorded when the productive worker causes no longer personnel costs due to a long-term illness (no continuation of payments in case of illness). Once the continuation of payments is stopped, then the employee must be deleted from the time record. W8 “Substitution and miscellaneous” - must be recorded for the time in which the productive worker assumes the work responsibilities of a colleague active in administration for which Service has commercial responsibility. This includes: advisor substitution of the service, helping to explain works and invoices, pick-up and drop-off services for customers and vehicles, works council and union activities. All circumstances which resulted in a justified absence from the workplace and are recorded under W8 must be able to be substantiated to the workshop management. W8 times should only be approved with the specific permission of the workshop management. Other periods of absence can also be recorded within the Service department. It is important to distinguish between different reasons for an absence from the workplace. Information box Attention: the orders are stamped in immediately following order receipt. This is before collecting the vehicle and before any technical information about the order. Stamping out is done after the work is complete but before the final inspection. Productive workers only ever clean vehicles if this appears as a work item on the order and the activity has been evaluated with a realistic time. Otherwise casual workers are responsible. In exceptional cases the productive worker records a W8 time. The same applies to test drives taken by productive workers. 15 6 Paid hours and total hours The terms „paid hours” and „total hours” are used synonymously. The number of hours paid per productive worker is equivalent to the number of hours which the employer (Volkswagen dealership) must pay the employee (employee of a Volkswagen dealership) on the basis of the legal regulations and/or the employment contract. It is normal to specify the hours paid or the total hours per productive worker by month or by year, and to specify the total hours for the workshop in terms of the sum of productive workers per month or year. Calculating the paid hours/total hours 16 Number of calendar days per year - Regular, unpaid days per year (e.g. Saturdays and Sundays) = Paid days per year x Paid hours per day = Paid hours or total hours per year 7 Productive hours and their calculation Productive hours are calculated using the productive times recorded (see Chapter 5 – Workshop hours). The recorded hours (actual productive hours) of all productive workers in Service are compared with the sum of the potential productive hours (target productive hours) in order to evaluate the service and to plan capacities. Calculating the target productive hours: Paid days per year - Public holidays (W5) - Working days off for holiday (W5) - Working days off for training (W6) - Working days off for illness (W7) = Days of attendance per year x Hours of attendance per day = Hours of attendance per year - Percentage of unproductive hours (W1 to W4)* = Target productive hours per year * A maximum of 10% of the hours of attendance may be unproductive hours. (example: German market) 17 Attention: This calculation deliberately excludes the W8 hours, because their unexpected occurrence leads to a reduction of the actual productive hours compared to the target productive hours. Where applicable, the differences between the target and actual productive hours must be examined. Planned and permanent substitutions lead to a reduced number of productive workers being included in the calculation. Note: The target productive hours per month refer to a full productive employee in this model. When the productive workers are counted, they are weighted with a numerical factor of 1. A mechanic who always spends half a day working on service orders and half a day helping in the service reception must be calculated as half a productive worker and would therefore have a numerical factor of 0.5. These reduced numerical factors are usual for partly productive workers, as they are only available for processing customer orders for the reduced number of working hours, or for productive workers who work more slowly due to valid personal circumstances. This applies to apprentices 18 and trainees, handicapped productive workers, workshop managers or similar. The importer can specify the numerical factors for apprentices and trainees, and these may differ considerably from the values named as an example for Germany. The numerical factor for a productive worker may never be reduced due to the difficulty of the tasks assigned. The criterion for a reduction is the result of having less time for processing customer orders or an objective incapacity to process the work orders within the specified time, as in the case of workshop managers, apprentices, handicapped workers or similar groups. Conclusion: The number of productive workers in the Service department is the product of the sum of the numerical factors for all employees. If this is multiplied by the number of calculated target productive hours for a completely productive employee, this produces the total target productive hours for the Service department in the specified period, which is called service capacity. 8 Hours worked and hours sold Hours worked Hours worked are counted when a productive employee has finalised a service order with job items which are evaluated with a time (specified time or AZ time). The sum of hours worked is treated as a total for each productive worker or for the Service department, and is usually evaluated on a monthly or yearly basis. Depending on the month, the W times fluctuate, causing the hours worked to vary over the course of a year. In Germany, for example, the summer months are a popular time for taking holidays, and there are many public holidays in December. 19 Hours sold The hours sold are counted using the sum of time units which have been invoiced. The price for the individual job items and time units is irrelevant. Working time which is invoiced without charge is therefore also counted in the hours sold. 9 Distribution of hours Ideally, the target productive hours should equal the actual productive hours, meaning the hours worked should equal the hours sold. The ideal is never attained, and the deviations must be able to be justified by the hours recorded. If deviations are too large, the causes must be found and eliminated. Fig. 2: Distribution of hours (the percentage values refer to the following example) . "CTFODFBQQSPY PGUIFUPUBMIPVST /POQSPEVDUJWFIPVST BQQSPYPGUIFUPUBM IPVST 20 QBJEIPVST PSUPUBMIPVST "UUFOEBODFIPVST PGUIFUPUBMIPVST 5BSHFUQSPEVDUJWF IPVSTPGUIF UPUBMIPVST Example (German market): Number of calendar days per year (365) - Regular, unpaid days per year (e.g. Saturdays and Sundays) (104) = Paid days per year (261) x Paid hours per day (8) = Paid hours or total hours per year (2088*) * 2088 total hours is equal to 100%. Of these, a maximum of 21%, or approx. 55 days, may be distributed among the absence times covered under W5 to W8, for example: - Holidays (28 days) Public holidays (10 days) Illness (5 days) Training (10 days) Substitution or miscellaneous (2 days) Furthermore, of the 2088 hours, 8%, or approx. 21 days of non-productive time, can be distributed among the attendance hours covered under W1, W2, W3 and W4. Conclusion: Paid hours 100% 21 - Absence hours 21% - Non-productive attendance hours 8% = Target productive hours 71% Should this 71% of the paid hours not be able to be converted into billable time, then the causes must be investigated immediately. The key time input figures described in the following will help with this. If the key figures do not reveal the causes, then the error might be found in the invoicing of the time worked for the customer. 10 Key figures of work performance An important prerequisite for determining the key figures for hours worked correctly is comprehensive documentation of all productive hours, attendance hours and absence hours. This documentation is to be kept by every productive worker, including the trainees and apprentices, by using the daily work card (time stamp card) or by recording it electronically. The start and end of work at the company must be recorded, as well as every change of work or order. A change of work also occurs when there is no new customer order at the workplace but a W time begins. The hours worked can be described using five key figures: 22 • • • • • attendance rate utilisation rate efficiency rate productivity annual overall performance The following information reveals more about what the key figures are based on, how they are calculated and what they indicate. 10.1 Attendance rate The attendance rate indicates the level of workplace attendance by the productive workers in relation to the total hours. It is a figure which is calculated on a monthly basis, and is treated as an average over the course of the year. Workplace attendance does not refer to a mere physical presence at the company, but instead refers only to the hours which a productive employee spends at his specific workplace. For this, the employee must be stamped on the service order or one of the W1 to W4 times. A daily work card used in practice by one of the productive workers may look like this: Fig. 3: Example of a daily work card from the German market. 23 Calculation: Exercise box Use the specific figures at your dealership to do the calculations. You can immediately see how close the attendance rate of your productive workers is to the specified target. Attendance hours attendance rate = x 100 Total hours Influencing factors: The attendance rate is influenced by the employees' level of motivation, the working conditions, the general environment at the company, the wages paid and the company organisation. If the causes of a low attendance rate are, for example, a lack of punctuality or a high rate of sickness, then an analysis related to the individual is recommended. 24 Information box The attendance rate should be calculated on a monthly basis and should be compared with the specified annual target. Monthly fluctuations due to public holidays and holidays must be factored in. The number of working days can vary from year to year. 10.2 Utilisation rate The utilisation rate indicates whether the productive workers are pursuing a productive activity during their attendance at the workplace. It is a figure which is calculated on a monthly basis and is treated as an average over the course of the year. The target value for utilisation rate can not be set at 100%, as W1 to W4 times will occur, even if work is optimally organised . Calculation: Exercise box Actual productive hours Utilisation rate = x 100 Attendance hours Actual productive hours are only counted when a productive employee finalises customer orders and records these hours accordingly while doing so. Influencing factors: The utilisation rate is influenced by the time recorded, the market, the cyclical and seasonal environment, scheduling, company organisation, as well as the attendance W hours (W1 to W4). Even when the company is organised optimally, employees present at their workplace require around 10% of their hours for work for own workshop(W1), for their own needs, non-productive activities (W2) and rework (W4). Instruction of trainees and apprentices at their workplaces is also added to this, whereby they are the only ones to stamp the time as W3. The utilisation rate is always increased by the actual productive hours. Above all, good workshop planning allows capacity utilisation to be managed. Use the specific figures at your dealership to do the calculations. You can immediately see how close the utilisation rate of your productive workers is to the specified target. Then do a calculation with different actual productive hours. This reveals the significance of the actual productive hours for the utilisation rate. 25 10.3 Efficiency rate The efficiency rate combines the actual productive hours of a productive worker with the time he works on work orders. It is a figure which is calculated on a monthly basis, and is treated as an average over the course of the year. This also reveals whether the productive worker can adhere to the times specified for the job items. The specified times for the job items were identified and verified in time and motion studies by the manufacturer, and apply worldwide. Time worked can also be accrued by working through AZ times. These times are defined by the Volkswagen dealership itself. It should ensure the hours are suited to the individual, can be invoiced and can be achieved by the productive workers. Also observe the specific regulations for AZ times in warranty cases! Calculation: Hours worked 26 Efficiency rate = x 100 Actual productive hours Ideally, productive employees should adhere to the specified times. The efficiency rate then totals 100%, because the number of hours worked is equal to the number of actual productive hours. Influencing factors: For the efficiency rate, speed and optimum organisation of the work processes are important. Therefore observe the Service Core Process and, in particular, the process steps 1 to 4 (arranging appointments, preparing appointments, vehicle check-in/order creation, repair/performance of service). Compare this with the Self-Study Programme Organisation, volumes 1 - 4. Fig. 4: Self-Study Programme Service Operations 1 “Service Core Process: Introduction” Self-Study Programme Service Operations 2 “Core Process 1: Arranging Appointments” Self-Study Programme Service Operations 3 “Core Process 2: Preparing Appointment ” Self-Study Programme Service Operations 4 “Core Process 3: Vehicle Check-In/Creation of Order” If work is done faster than the specified hours, an efficiency rate of more than 100% may result. However, it is essential that speed is always linked to good quality work, because repeat repairs and rework do not result in more hours worked, or actual productive hours. Rework only increases the attendance hours, while decreasing productivity, as no new hours worked accrue. The productivity figures must therefore always be considered together with the efficiency rate. You can improve the efficiency rate by increasing the level of qualification of productive workers, by shortening the waiting times for the supply of parts, by improving the clarity of the work orders, shortening the tooling times and by improving the quality of the time records. Also motivation and wages paid to the employee play a role. 27 10.4 Productivity Productivity indicates the proportion of hours worked compared to the hours of attendance at the workplace, thereby illustrating the effectiveness of the productive workers at their workplaces. It is a figure which is calculated on a monthly basis, and is treated as an average over the course of the year. Productivity is calculated by multiplying the utilisation rate with the efficiency rate and therefore answers the following questions: 1. Was work done while attending the workplace? 2. Was the work completed within the specified time? Calculation: Hours worked Productivity = x 100 Attendance hours 28 The target value is less than 100% because there are also tasks to complete during the hours attended at the workplace which do not result in hours worked, i.e. task which are recorded under the W1 to W4 hours. Influencing factors: Productivity depends on the utilisation rate and the efficiency rate, and can therefore only be influenced by these key figures. 10.4.1 Sales productivity The productivity described only refers to productive workers. To evaluate the service advisor, a comparative value which indicates the sales success of hours worked is required. Firstly, a time is required which is based on the sales performance by the service advisors. This time is determined by recalculating the labour revenue earned within a given period (month or year). Calculation: Total labour revenue Retrograde hours sold = Calculated labour rate per hour 29 Secondly, the calculated labour rate per hour describes the rate charged to cover the cost of service and also includes the target profit margin. The formula for the calculated labour rate per hour is calculated using the forecast figures for the coming business year. These figures must be defined shortly before the new business year starts. Calculation: Calculated = labour rate per hour Total costs in the Service department + profit x Target productive hours Forecast inflation in % Finally to identify the sales productivity of the service advisor, the retrograde hours sold are considered in relation to the time worked by the productive workers. The advantage of this key figure is that the sales productivity can be analysed separately from the productivity of the productive workers. The sales productivity is a figure which is calculated on a monthly basis, and is treated as an average over the course of the year. Calculation: Retrograde hours sold Sales productivity = x 100 Hours worked The specified target totals 100%. Influencing factors: 30 The service advisors can influence the sales productivity by selling all hours worked. This requires consistent invoicing of the orders. Furthermore, charging the highest possible rates for labour leads to an increase in sales productivity. 10.4.2 Service productivity Service productivity takes the entire Service department into consideration and includes the target achievement by both the productive workers and the service advisors. It can therefore be regarded as an overriding key figure in the Service department. It is a figure which is calculated on a monthly basis, and is treated as an average over the course of the year. The other productivity figures still remain crucial for achieving the specified targets and for finding potential for improvement. Calculation: Retrograde hours sold Service productivity = x 100 Target productive hours The target specification totals 100%. Influencing factors: The service advisors influence the key figure by selling all the hours worked at the highest possible price. The productive workers influence this key figure by a high number of hours worked, which equal, or even exceed, the target productive hours as far as possible. The factors influencing service productivity are the same ones which influence productivity (see Chapter 10.4). 31 10.5 Annual overall performance Information box The annual overall performance compares the hours paid (total hours) with the hours worked by productive workers. It covers the key figures of The annual overall performance is the first point of reference for the service manager and represents a type of “profit calculation”. For a precise analysis, the service manager requires the key figures of attendance rate, utilisation rate and efficiency rate. attendance rate, utilisation rate and efficiency rate in one variable. Calculation: Annual overall = performance Attendance rate x utilisation rate x efficiency rate 100 x 100 or Annual overall = performance Hours worked x 100 Total hours 32 Influencing factors: The annual overall performance is a key figure aggregated from attendance rate, utilisation rate and efficiency rate. It is therefore important to analyse the influencing factors for these individual key figures and to make changes when required. Compare this with the section on attendance rate, utilisation rate and efficiency rate. If the annual overall performance is too low, action must be taken in time. 10.6 Target values for trainees and apprentices The target values for trainees and apprentices must always correspond to their individual capacity for work. Due to the different training systems, the importers are responsible for defining the target values for this group of productive workers in their markets. For example, the following target values apply in Germany: Key time input figures Target value in 3rd/4th year of training Attendance rate 60% Utilisation rate 55% Efficiency rate 75% Productivity 41% Annual overall performance 25% In the 1st and 2nd year of training no targets are defined because training is mainly theoretical and is held outside the Volkswagen dealership. 33 11 Evaluating spare capacity Multiplying the target productive hours (compare: Chapter 7) with the number of productive workers results in the target productive hours which can be achieved in the Service department overall. Multiplying the target productive hours with the calculated labour rate results in the target labour revenue. To evaluate the spare capacity in the dealership, the target labour revenue is compared with the actual labour revenue. The difference between the two indicates the sum of money which accrues due to the deviation in the annual overall performance or the deviation in the actual labour rate from the calculated labour rate. 34 The actual labour rate (including the rates achieved) is the quotient of the actual labour revenue (labour revenue achieved) and the hours worked within a given period. Calculation: Labour revenue achieved Actual labour rate = Hours worked A subsequent assumption is made that the actual labour rate is equal to the calculated labour rate. In the following German example, the spare capacity for a dealership is calculated: Number of mechanics 15 Hours paid/total hours 159 Months 12 Target Actual Attendance rate 79.0% 77.5% Utilisation rate 90.0% 87.2% Efficiency rate 100.0% 93.5% Labour rate per hour €61.06 €61.06 Target capacity for one year: 15 x 159 x 12 x 0.79 x 0.90 x 1.00 = 20,348.82 hours If the hours which can be worked are actually worked, then these hours should also be sold. In this case, the following target labour revenue can be expected. Target labour revenue for one year: 20,349 x €61.06 = €1,242,498.95 If the actual situation is regarded, this results in the following scenario: Actual capacity for one year: 15 x 159 x 12 x 0.775 x 0.872 x 0.935 = 18,084.2 hours Actual labour revenue for one year: 18,084.2 x €61.06 = €1,103,679.04 This results in a capacity which is not being fully utilised due to failure to meet specified values for the key figures of work performance: 20,348.82 hours – 18,084.2 hours = 2,264.62 hours This unutilised capacity leads to a loss of labour revenue which is evaluated using the labour rate per hour: 2,264.62 hours x €61.06/hour = €138,819.91 (labour revenue lost) Exercise box Calculate the example using the figures at your dealership. This will give you good arguments to motivate yourself and the responsible employees in the Service department to pay attention to the key figures of work performance. 35 Due to the low attendance, utilisation and efficiency rate the labour revenue is reduced by €138,819.91. In such case it is essential to identify the reasons for not achieving target values and to introduce appropriate measures. Good workshop planning ensures ideal utilisation of the workshop and shows the spare capacity. In the last example, the spare capacity for a dealership was calculated. Due to optimised workshop planning each productive worker is able to increase his hours worked by e. g. 20 minutes each day. If this time is also sold, then based on 185 working days per year the following additional labour revenue can be generated: 36 185 days x 0.33hours x 15 productive workers x €61.06/hour = €56,480.50 These additional time would also have allowed a similar level of turnover to be achieved with Volkswagen Genuine Parts, lubricants, oils and accessories. 12 Summary With the help of key figures it is possible to evaluate the economic situation of a dealership. The periods over which records are made differ for the individual key figures. Considered as they stand, the key figures primarily only provide information about certain areas of business administration processes in the dealership. They more or less represent a „snapshot” of the periods under examination. These values do, predictably, fluctuate over the course of the year. For example, the hours of absence accumulate together due to the seasonal concentration of holiday hours. However, the annual overall performance and the attendance rate over the entire year are always key. The key figures only really gain significance through an understanding of the processes and sequences they reflect, their analysis and the conclusions derived from them for the future work to be done by the service employees. The key figures examined here show the path to achieving the targets of a dealership, these being generating turnover and profit at the same time as high customer satisfaction. Their analysis has a significance for capacity utilisation and therefore reducing the waiting times and non-productive hours. To ensure a high degree of capacity utilisation, adherence to the Service Core Process must be checked regularly and improved using the key figures described here. It is important to clarify to every service employee the effect his work has on the key figures in line with the employee's role, and to get employees actively involved in making improvements. The qualification programme offered by the Volkswagen Academy Sales & Service in Wolfsburg provides support for both management as well as the service employees in Volkswagen dealerships, for example with its training course “Coaching service employees successfully”. 37 13 Test Your Knowledge Introductory question 1. What are key service figures important for? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 38 ______________________________________________________________ Questions on chapter 2 Types of customers, orders and invoices 2. Which types of orders allow revenue to be generated? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 3. Name the service orders. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 4. Which hours are included in the attendance W times? Questions on chapter 5 Time tracking ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 5. Which hours are included in the absence W times? ______________________________________________________________ 39 ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 6. How can paid hours be calculated? Questions on chapter 6 Paid hours and total hours ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 7. What does the attendance rate express? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Questions on chapter 10 Key figures of work performance Questions on chapter 10 Key figures of work performance 8. In which intervals should the utilisation rate be identified? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 9. Which relationship does the efficiency rate show? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 40 10. How is productivity calculated? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 11. How is the annual overall performance calculated? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 12. How is the spare capacity of a dealership identified? Questions on chapter 11 Evaluating spare capacity ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 41 Solutions 42 1. a) b) c) For a consistent and comparable evaluation of Service To identify potential for improvement in the company To verify the effectiveness of changes 2. Service orders and parts orders 3. a) b) c) d) Internal orders Standard orders Warranty orders Goodwill orders 4. a) b) c) d) Work for own workshop (W1) Non-productive time (W2) Apprentice time (W3) Rework (W4) 5. a) b) c) d) e) Holidays (W5) Training (W6) Illness (W7) Substitution and miscellaneous (W8) Others can be freely assigned 6. (Number of calender days per day minus regular unpaid days per year) multiplied by paid hours per day 7. It indicates the level of workplace attendance by the productive workers in relation to the total hours. 8. Monthly 9. The relationship between hours worked and actual productive hours 10. By multiplying the utilisation rate and efficiency rate or by the relationship between hours worked and hours of attendance at the workplace 11. By multiplying the attendance rate, utilisation rate and efficiency rate or by the relationship between hours worked and total hours 12. By comparing the target labour revenue with the actual labour revenue 43 12 © Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg All rights reserved. Article no. VW0.2890.12.20 Version 03.2013 Volkswagen AG After Sales Qualification Service Training VSQ-3 Brieffach 1995 38436 Wolfsburg ❀ This paper was manufactured using pulp bleached without the use of chlorine.