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ProFile 3 (M. Tulip, K. Stannett) Teacher's Book

Teacher's Book
Mark Tulip
Katherine Stannett
with additional material by Rachel Appleby
Great Clarendon Street. Oxford OU 60p
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IS8N-13: 978 019457589 8
IS8N-lO: 0194575896
Printed in Spain by UnigrafS. L
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Introd uction
Target markets
Triumph and disaster
Company culture
Supply and demand
Staying competitive
International business
Human resources
Business start-up
Tests answer key
Test 1
Test 2
Test 3
Test 4
Photocopiable activities: teacher's notes
Photocopiable activities 1-12
Profile 3 is an upper-intermediate-Ievel integrated skills
course in business English for a variety of learners. It
provides students at the start of their career with the
specialist language knowledge and professional
communication skills they will need in their jobs. It is also
suitable for students who are studying towards a business
qualification and want a compatible and complementary
language course. ProFile 3 is also suitable for in-work
students wishing to follow a tightly structured course that
progresses at a measured pace and does not make
assumptions about their business knowledge.
ProFile 3 assumes that students will have a good basic
knowledge of general English, but that they need to be able
to express business concepts in English. The course aims to
introduce key business vocabulary, and revise important
grammatical structures and functional areas, while developing
the skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
The course is committed to a practical communicative
methodology. Tasks and questions are designed to help
students unlock the meaning and main points of listening
passages and reading texts. The guided discovery approach
to grammar leads students to a clearer understanding of the
forms and underlying concepts of English. Clear
communicative practice is provided in concrete speaking
and writing tasks, which employ appropriate functional
language and expressions. The consistent use of
information-gap activities and case studies aims to develop
practical use of English and develop fluency.
The book is organized into twelve wide-ranging topic-based
units. Earlier units focus on marketing and advertising,
situations. They can therefore be used to help students with
little knowledge of the business world or, alternatively, to
complement and draw responses from the more
experienced in-work students.
Regular Tip boxes in the Student's Book introduce or
remind students of key concepts in business management.
for example, approaches to advertising, consumer profiles,
or dealing with customers.
How a unit works
Each unit begins by introducing students to the core theme
of the urut. This is then reinforced as students work with
stimulating listening and reading texts containing key
vocabulary. Information-gap and discussion activities, roleplays and creative writing tasks provide students with the
opportunity to use the language they have learnt as well as
to test their understanding of the areas of business covered
in each unit. Case studies and activities relating to the topic
of each unit provide extended practice.
The units are designed to be worked through in sequence.
However, they are sufficiently discrete to allow for flexibility
in cases where unit topics may need to be covered in a
different order to that suggested.
The contents pages at the start of the Student's Book
contain details of what is covered in each unit. The twelve
units are organized in four two-page sections, plus a onepage writing section and a self study page for use with the
video CD-ROM (see below). Each two-page section
contains enough material for up to two hours' teaching,
although this will vary according to the ability and size of
your class.
business success and failure, time management,
globalization, company culture, and supply and demand. As
the course progresses, negotiations are dealt with, as well as
competition, international trade, recruitment, starting a
business, and brand reputations. The spoken business skills
focus on meetings, presentations, and telephoning.
The listening and reading texts are chosen to be
interesting and motivating, and are largely drawn from, or
based on, authentic sources such as newspaper and
magazine articles, books, websites, and real company
Course components
This CD contains recordings for the Listening and Speaking
sections as well as any pronunciation work. Students will
hear a variety of international accents on this CD which are
representative of the range of English speakers that they are
likely to encounter in the workplace. Native speakers are
used for all recordings intended as models for speaking
activities. A listening icon
indicates that a recording
is to be used, both in the Student's Book and in the
Teacher's Book.
Revision tests
There are photocopiable revision tests for every three units
of the Student's Book (pages 68-79) . The key for the tests
can be found on pages 65-67.
Photocopiable activities
The CD-ROM in the back of the Student's Book contains a
video interview for each unit. These are authentic interviews
with professionals from a variety of different organizations
and across a range of industries. You can encourage your
students to use the CD-ROM for further self study when
they get to the end of a unit. You may also use it in the
classroom, to review and extend the vocabulary and
language from a particular unit.
There are accompanying exercises at the end of each unit,
and an answer key (pages 159-163) at the back of the
Student's Book. The exercises have been graded, so that
students develop their listening skills and gain confidence in
listening to real English. They are divided into three
VIDEO CD-ROM INTERVIEW - focuses on the video
LANGUAGE REVIEW - looks at authentic use of the new
language from the unit
WORDBANK - reviews and extends the unit's key
vocabulary, and practises pronunciation.
The Workbook contains practice exercises and activities to
reinforce and extend language covered in the Student's
Book. All units have reading texts which are based on the
topic of the corresponding units in the Student's Book and
are drawn from authentic sources. The answer key is
included at the back of the book so that it can be used for
self study. The key contains sample answers for writing
Each unit begins with a brief introduction to what is
covered in the Student's Book unit. Suggested lesson
procedure notes contain the answer key: where possible,
sample answers have been given for some of the more open
activities such as discussion and writing tasks. Suggestions
for extended exploitation of the material are given at
appropriate stages in the lesson. The numbering of
instructions corresponds to the numbering of the exercises
in the Student's Book. Listening symbols are shown where
the CD or cassette needs to be used.
There are twelve additional photocopiable activities which
are included for extension work alongside a particular unit
or for general review and revision. These have separate
teaching notes.
Target markets
This unit looks at the work of marketing and advertising
with products and markets that are in constant evolution.
Present tenses are reviewed and students practise language
for giving opinions.
2 It helps to determine which media the agency
chooses to advertise in, and means that the
advertisement will be tailored to appeal to the target
1 Students work in groups to read the text and discuss a
possible advertising strategy. Encourage them to think
about who would buy the aGO product.
Lead-in (opt ional)
Before listening to part A, ask students to list the different roles
in an advertising agency. Write all students' suggestions on the
board. Then play the recording once and ask students to tick the
positions mentioned. (The following are mentioned: copywriter,
art director, media buyer, account manager.)
( GD) Students listen to part A and answer the
questions. Allow them to compare their ideas in pairs
before checking answers as a class.
1 Copywriters are creative - they come up with the
ideas and write the ads and slogans. Account
managers plan the campaign with the client and
make sure everything goes smoothly.
2 The actress booked to record a radio advertisement
has cancelled at very short notice, so Joan has to find
a replacement.
2 ( GD) Students work in pairs to answer the questions.
Play part B of the recording twice if necessary before
checking answers as a class.
1 Market segment, target audience. She mentions A-B
business travellers; this refers to a marketing
classification based on occupation, under which
social groups A and B are professional people with
high incomes who are likely to travel business class.
« GD) Before listening to part C, students should
predict the answers in pairs. Invite suggestions but don't
correct at this stage. Students listen for key information
to complete the notes. Allow them to compare their
answers before checking answers as a class.
1 who's seen the ad and how many times
2 and after studies
3 have been favourably influenced by the ads
4 Students work in groups of three, looking for nouns
(Student A), verbs (Student B) and adjectives (Student
C). The groups then exchange information on their
Draw the skeleton spidergram on the board. Offer the
pen to a student to conduct the class feedback. You could
then discuss spidergrams as a method of recording and
remembering vocabulary.
Nouns (excluding job titles): client, idea, ad, slogan,
campaign, radio spot, voiceover, instinct, segment,
market, product, media, image, magazine, customer,
programme, message, target audience, agency, tracking
studies, sample, commercial, service, before-and-after
studies, attitude.
Verbs: come up with (ideas), write, create, buy, plan,
endorse, appeal, determine, select, target, put across (a
message), tailor, prove, sell, interview, influence.
Adjectives: creative, interesting, stressfuJ, scientific,
upmarket, target, successful.
1 Ask students to work alone for this matching exercise.
Check the answers as a class.
I d
2 a
3 c
4 b
2 Check the tense names.
Target markets
a present simple
b present perfect
c present continuous
d present perfect continuous
3 Students work in groups of three or four to find the tenses
(one student could find both present continuous and
present perfect continuous). The group then exchange the
examples they've found. Check examples as a class.
1 The aim of this first exercise is for students to get the key
information. Students read the display text and the article
quickly. You could set a time limit (e.g. two minutes) to
ensure that students are skim-reading for general
meaning. Ask students which generation they belong to,
and if they think the analysis is true of themselves.
Generation Y is the 60 miUion children born in the West
between 1979 and 1994. New generations don't think or
behave in the same way as their parents so they may not
consume in the same way. Generation Y is potentially a
very big market.
Presellt simple: is a director, what are the different roles,
there's the creative side, this includes, the art directors
work alongside them, there are the people, we plan the
campaigns, and make sure that everything, there's a lot
of pressure.
Present perfect she has worked, have you had, we've
booked studio time.
Present continuous: she is currently working, I'm trying
to sort out a problem.
Present perfect continuous: we've been looking, we've
been playing.
3 a
4 a
= Tell me your thoughts. (a temporary situation)
= He is an unreasonable person.
= He is being unreasonable now.
= You are emphasizing a completed event.
= You are emphasizing a trend, an ongoing
situation .
Remind students that stative verbs, for example, know,
understand, are normally in the simple form. Students
choose the correct answer in pairs.
Children are not necessarily interested in the same
brands as their parents.
2 They are fighting falling sales in the teen market.
3 There are far more of them; they have a very practical
world view and are involved in family purchases.
4 They are cynical and show a lack of interest in Baby
Boomer brands.
Students should try to predict the answers to questions
a-f before reading the rest of the article. Ask them to
provide quotes from the text for the 'false' answers.
F: 'It doesn't matter to me that Michael lordan has
endorsed Nikes', 'Sprite has scored with ads that
make fun of celebrity endorsers .. .'
b T
F: 'Asked what brands are cool, these teens give a
list of names', 'Although stiU popular among teens,
the brand .. .', 'This doesn't mean that Generation
Yers aren't brand conscious.'
I sounds
2 cause
3 been interviewing
4 works, is working
Students read the first three paragraphs to find the
answers to questions 1-4.
4 Students discuss the question in pairs.
I a = What's your job?
b = What are you doing at this moment?
2 a = What's your opinion of this? (a general
been writing
don't know, mean
'm going
F: 'Most important is the rise of the Internet,
which has sped up the fashion life cycle .. .'
2 The companies are using teams of young people to
talk to them.
4 Students match the words from the text with their
Lead-in (optional)
The text is about how the popularity of brands can change
across generations. Begin by asking the class:
Who buys well·known brands of clothes? Why?
Who doesn't care which brands they buy? Why?
How obout your porents? What brands do they buy?
5 Students work in small groups and discuss the questions.
Target markets
page 11
This section looks at Adbusters, a Canadian pressure group
which lobbies against the existing balance of power in the
world and its effects on culture, economy, and ecology. Their
activities include attacking current advertising and branding.
1 Students discuss the advertising controls in their
country. You could ask them to think about controls on:
style and content of the advertisements, times of day that
advertisements are shown, the actual products
Students listen for the gist of the conversation,
without reading the transcript in 2. You could ask them
to say which speakers agree with each other (Martin and
Carol agree, Megan doesn't).
Play the recording again for students to fill in
the gaps. Students can check their answers with the
listening script on page 146.
1 whaCs your view on
absolutely ridiculous
As far as I'm concerned
in my opinion
Don't you agree
up to a point
I hear what you're saying
Come off it
3 Students work individually, or in pairs, to match the
expressions in 2 with their functions.
Introduce opinions: I think, as far as I'm concerned, in my
Invite other people's opinions: what's your view on, don't
you agree
Agree: I agree
Disagree: ... up to a point, Come off it!
Acknowledge what someone has said: I hear what you're
4 Students can work in pairs or small groups to
brainstorm as many other opinion-giving phrases as
possible. Set a time limit for this and collate all students'
suggestions onto the board.
Extra activities
Ask students to decide if the expressions they found in 3 and
4 are formal or informal, or both.
2 Ask students to imagine they are in an informal discussion
with friends or colleagues. Ask them to work in groups and
exchange opinions on a topical issue (prices/ inflation, traffic
in their town, an item from the news) or a well·known
personality (a politician, an actor, their principal or boss).
3 Now ask students to imagine they are in a more formal,
work·based meeting with people they don't know well. Ask
them to exchange opinions on similar issues.
As a follow·up, ask students which expressions they used in
which situations, and why.
2 Lead in with the description of Adbusters, then direct
the students to the 'uncommercial'. To explain the
meaning of turn offin this context, give a quick example
of when you were turned off by a particular food or
drink, or a subject at school. Elicit one or two similar
experiences from the students.
Students discuss questions 1-3 in pairs.
Possible answers
Adbusters will have estimated the number of hours of
TV per day children in the USA watch, calculated the
yearly figure and multiplied by 18 (age for graduating
from high school). Working backwards from 350,000
suggests an average of around 50 commercials per
day. It is not stated how scientific the calculation is.
2 Research shows wide differences of opinion on the
effects of TV advertising on children. Some suggest
that children as young as two absorb advertising,
while others minimize its importance compared with
the influence of family and friends. The market
shows that children certainly react to advertising
aimed at them and this is supported by huge
investment in advertising by manufacturers. Sweden
and Norway ban advertising directed at children
under twelve, although it could be argued that older
children are the group most affected since there are
more ways of influencing them.
3 Some would say advertising stimulates sales and
production and is therefore good for the economy. It
informs the public of new products on the market. It
can have some artistic value.
3 Give students enough time to think about the image and
caption, and elicit answers from the class.
Possible answer
The company represented in an advertisement pays the
advertiser who convinces us to spend money on the
product, so we have been 'bought'. Advertisers and the
multinationals behind them are manipulating us. They
can shape our attitudes and even our values in order to
make us buy.
Target markets
4 If you have a large class you may need more than one of
each group A and B. You could remind students that
they don't necessarily have to believe in what they're
arguing for. If the groups are short of ideas. suggest
some possible arguments.
Possible arguments for: The big corporations behind
advertising have too much power. too much political
influence. and too much authority over how we live and
think. They are only motivated by profits so they are
irresponsible. Brands are far too important in our
Possible arguments against: Advertising is a very
important part of business. It helps to sell products and
stimulate production so it creates jobs and wealth. We
aren't machines - we can decide for ourselves what to
The Boston Matrix is a marketing tool developed by The
Boston Consulting Group for classifying product. service. or
even company performance. It classifies these on the basis of
their market share relative to their competitors (horizontal
axis). and to the rate of growth of the whole market
(vertical axis). Products are positioned on the graph as
circles (the diameter is proportional to their sales revenue).
and fall into the four categories described in the
2 Students answer the question in pairs. You could ask
students to think of products that have been
relaunched recently and discuss how they were
A relaunch can involve repackaging a product. renaming
it. changing some of the product's features. rethinking its
target market. and developing a new marketing strategy
for the relaunched product.
2 Students read about the Boston Matrix and then look at
how the categories relate to a product's life cycle.
I Stars appear in the growth stage. Cash cows are
normally mature products. Question marks are
associated with the launch or growth stages. and Dogs
are products in decline.
2 Students work in groups to exchange their ideas on
products. If you have a single-nationality class you
could bring some well-established products to the
class or quickly present a variety of advertising
material, e.g. from newspapers, magazines, or even
recorded TV advertising. Groups can then choose
products for discussion. If you have students who are
in work or on work placements. ask them to place
their products (or services) on the matrix and
explain. in groups. their background. development.
and probable progress.
information box: stars, cash cows, question marks, or dogs.
In this case study. students use it to help them decide the
way forward for a games company.
With books closed, draw the two axes of a graph on the board (or
OHP) with the vertical axis representing sales volumes and the
horizontal - time. Ask students to copy the graph and draw what
they think is the typical life cycle of a product, then compare
their graphs with the one on page 12.
1 Students study the graph and answer the questions.
I Students label the graph and describe the progress of
a product in pairs.
3 Ask students to name some board games (e.g. Monopoly,
Scrabble) or computer games and place them on the
Lead-in (opt ional)
Students need time to read about the four categories
and look at the graph of the product life cycle again.
5 decline
6 relaunch
7 final decline and death
Students read the notes for background information.
.(e.) Students need time to read the questions.
Play the recording. Students check their answers in
Gangstaz: dog
Wordsters: question mark
Sherlock: cash cow
Sketchit: star
Give students time to read the questions
before playing the recording again.
Sketchit has won a large share of the market in its first
Gangstaz has been a big disappointment.
Sherlock should have a special edition.
Wordsters finds itself in a saturated market.
Target markets
4 Students read the information about the three games
and decide. Check answers with the class before going on
to the next exercise.
Who's there? - young children
Empire - teenagers
Bidders - adults I young adults
5 Students work in groups of three to read their Files and
prepare for a brainstorming session. Remind them to use
the language of the unit: present tenses, giving opinions,
advertising and marketing vocabulary.
Tell students that they should spend a few minutes
thinking about the three questions, then share their ideas
with the rest of the group. Nobody should criticize the
ideas at this stage. Groups appoint a note-taker I
chairperson who should keep the session going. Give a
time limit of ten minutes for the discussion. At the end,
ask the groups to choose their two best ideas for each
game. Each group then reports back to the class.
6 Students discuss ideas for other board games. Remind
them to think about their target audience, rival board
games, length of life of the product, cost of production,
and marketing strategy.
page 14
Model answers
A Business magazine for young urban professionals
In the background of a photograph, young city workers
are standing in the rain at a bus stop. The BMW is in
the foreground ridden by a smiling, well-dressed, young
office worker.
Tag line: Alex doesn't want to look smug, but he can't
help it.
Be on time, dry and comfortable this autumn with
the new BMW City Scooter.
Further information at the bottom of the ad: Riding
the stylish City Scooter, you will be the envy of all
your colleagues. Now you can avoid the traffic jams
and still look smart and cool when you arrive at the
Finding out more couldn't be easier - call free on
[telephone no.) or email us at [email address) and
we'll send you all the details - including how to
contact your nearest dealer, who'll be pleased to give
you a trial ride. Autumn starting to look a bit
B The motoring section of a Sunday newspaper
Photograph of gleaming BMW scooter under a
sunbeam with rainy background. Forty-to-fifty-year-old
middle-class woman / man on board.
Tag line: A Chinese proverb says there's nothing new
under the sun. How about under the rain?
Product information: BMW's latest scooter is all you
would expect from one of the world's most reliable
motor manufacturers. Our engineers have produced
a lightweight two-wheeled vehicle that can be ridden
easily and with the safety features of a small car: an
aluminium frame and seat belts. At this price, you
can feel safe whoever in the family is riding the BMW
1 Give students time to read about the AIDA principles
before focusing on the advertisement.
The correct order is: e, f, b, d,
3, C
2 Make sure students understand that Unique Selling
Points (USPs) are the features of a product which make
it different from other similar products.
The City Scooter's USPs are its safety (aluminium frame,
seat-belts), its convenience (weather protection, can cut
through city traffic) and its economy (low fuel
consumption, cheap tax).
3 Divide the class into three groups. If possible, give each
group some copies of the kind of publication they are
being asked to write for.
Students discuss their ideas in groups, then write up
their copy. If a group finishes early, you could ask them
to think about designing the page layout and art work.
But see for yourself, call freephone [telephone no.) or
write to us at [email address) and we'll be pleased to
arrange a demonstration with your local dealer.
C A magazine for students
Split photograph of Jill (left) with BMW scooter and
Jack right with racy secondhand car in poor condition
and exhaust cloud.
Top tag line: Do opposites attract?
Under Jack photo: jack enjoys life on the road in his
old wreck. So what if it keeps breaking down and
burns petrol and oil like there was no tomorrow?
Under Jill photo: jill's not so sure about this. Her
clean machine - the new BMW scooter, has low fuel
consumption and is cheap for tax and insurance and
the aluminium frame and seat-belts mean jill's not
heading for hospital in a hurry.
Get on the back, jack. Small photograph of Jill and
Jack riding off together.
Phone our free hot line now to find out more.
Lines are open 24 hours a day from now to 30th
Triumph and disaster
This unit looks at success and failure in the business world.
It raises the issues of debt, debt management, and
bankruptcy, and looks at vocabulary associated with
managing finances. Students read about one entrepreneur's
route to success. The unit also focuses on language for
Students compare individual and business debt,
thinking about differences and similarities. Students
can discuss in pairs or as a class.
apologies, criticism, and deduction.
Students need a few minutes to read
carefully through the three questions before listening
to the recording. Play the recording twice if necessary,
before checking answers with the whole class.
Lead-in (optional)
Ask students to think about the ways that debt can be built up.
Brainstorm ideas onto the board. Possible answers are: hire
purchase agreements, credit cards, store cards, car loans,
mortgages, utility bills.
Give students a few minutes to study the cartoons and
identify the different types of debt I financial
management I spending shown. Students then match the
cartoons to the statements.
pairs to discuss which ones they most or least agree with.
You could ask them to rank the statements from a-f,
where a is 'agree totally' and f is 'disagree totally'.
page 17
Students can try to match the words and the
definitions before listening to the recording, then listen
to check their answers. Go through the answers with the
whole class, checking that they understand all the
1 h
2 d
3 a
4 b
5 f
6 e
7 c
Not necessarily; they are the result of cash-flow
b When they start to grow.
c A CD shop which did not react quickly enough to a
change in the business environment.
3 ,{e.)
Students listen to a second interview dealing
with individual debt. Again, allow a couple of minutes to
read through the questions before playing the recording.
1 An unexpected event, like losing a job.
2 He helps them to prioritize their debts.
3 A builder whose work stopped when interest rates
4 This could be done in small groups or as a class. You
2 Students read through the statements again and work in
9 g
10 i
2 This interview with an accountant specializing in business
bankruptcy focuses on the key issues of managing cashflow and balancing groW1h and expenditure.
could lead on to a discussion of how far business people
are responsible for their business debts in students' own
countries. Can they think of any high-profile business
bankrupts in their country? Where are they now?
In the UK and the USA, sole traders are personally
responsible for their debts. Partners are jointly
responsible, so depending on the type of partnership,
you may be responsible for your partner's debts.
Company directors are not personally responsible unless
they are trading fraudulently.
Extra activity
Students work in groups to discuss their personal attitudes to
debt, which can vary greatly between individuals. Encourage
them to address questions such as: Is being in debt a fact of life?
Should young people be encouraged to avoid debt and save
their money? What is it acceptable to go into debt for (e.g. to
buy a house or car, to finance your studies)? Is it too easy to get
credit these days? Who is responsible when individuals get into
financial difficulty - the borrower or the lender?
Triumph and disaster
entrepreneur: individual who organizes and manages his
or her own business
Your Turn!
This activity encourages students to analyse the different ways
in which an individual or company can fall into debt and to find
solutions. The first exercise looks at individual debt and the
second looks at company debt.
Students read the information about Peter Forbes. Ask them
to list the different debts and outgoings mentioned in the
text. Students then work in pairs to think up solutions to
Peter's debt problems. Possible advice might include: sell the
car and use the money to payoff as many of the hire
purchase debts as possible, negotiate lower hire purchase
repayments, tear up the credit and store cards and set up a
direct debit to pay them off over the next couple of years,
investigate cheaper gym membership or take up iogging
instead, negotiate a salary rise, set a strict budget on clothes
spending and stick to it.
Students now work in pairs to discuss a situation involving
company debt, using the information in File 4 on page 126.
1 No, they are ordinary people.
2 Energy, passion, and belief.
3 He left his job before opening his shop and took out
a large bank loan.
4 Very big: failure would have meant bankruptcy and
massive debt. Success has meant a business with 46
stores and sales of £40 million.
Your Turn!
Encourage students to discuss the question, then share their
ideas with the class.
Remind students during the exercises that follow, that they
can refer to the Grammar guide starting on page 135 for
extra help.
page 18
1 Ask students to identify the verb tenses in sentences 1-4.
They should have encountered the forms before, but
may not be familiar with the names of the tenses. If they
are having difficulties, write the names of the tenses on
the board to make this a straightforward matching
Lead-in (optional)
With books closed, elicit from the class the names of any
business people from their country who created very successful
businesses with very little money to start with and how the
student thinks they managed to do this.
1 The activities in questions I and 2 encourage students to
use all available clues, not just textual ones, to help them
predict and understand the content of a piece of text.
Give students a time limit for question 3, to ensure that
they read the article carefully and not in detail.
minutes, to ensure that students are skim-reading the
article, not stopping to read it in detail.
2 Students read the article in detail and answer the
3 past continuous
4 past perfect continuous
2 Students match the tenses with the descriptions.
1,2 Students work in pairs and make predictions about
the type of shop from the objects shown in the
3 Students read the text quickly. Set a time limit of two
past simple
past perfect
past perfect
past continuous
past simple
past perfect continuous
Encourage students to read the whole text first before
they ftll the gaps. This should give them a clearer sense
of the sequence of events. Students do the exercise
individually, and could compare answers in pairs before
checking answers with the whole class.
If necessary, check that students understand the
following vocabulary before they read the article in
detail. You could divide the words and definitions for
students to do as a matching exercise.
innovative: introducing new ideas, methods
retailer: a business selling to the general public
stocked: stored
gap in the marker. an unsatisfied market demand
was working
5 travelled
6 built up
7 were becoming
8 realized
9 was still working
was approached
had been looking for
had always been
Triumph and disaster
Your Turn!
This activity gives students more practice in using different
narrative past tenses. Refer students to their files. They should
not show each other their pictures until they've finished
ordering them.
4 Students read through the situations, help each other
with vocabulary where possible, then decide on their
roles before each dialogue. Remind them to use the
language of Language for. It should not be necessary to
write the dialogues.
Possible answers:
Fred Smith left the air force in 1985 and went to work in an
office. He had been dreaming of flying again when he inherited
£20,000. Fred went to an auction, bought himself a light aircraft,
and set up a business. At first, Fred started ferrying business
people to Holland and Germany, but then had the idea of
transporting parcels and formed the company ABC parcels.
Within ten years Fred had built up the business to twenty
planes, but he still wanted to expand. In order to raise the cash
to do this, he created a public company. ABC's shares rose, Fred
became a public figure, and his company was winning awards.
However, an American rival, XYZ, entered the European market.
ABC's profits began to fall. Fred was beginning to think that his
business was finished, when a merger between ABC and XYZ
saved the day.
Extra activity
Ask students to prepare one or two dialogues (depending on
class size) in more detail and with any extensions they like. They
could then perform these while you audio- or video-record
them. In the subsequent feedback session, students should be
encouraged to comment on each other's performances.
1 Students do the ranking exercise alone.
1 Ask students to think of different examples of things
2 Students do the matching exercise alone, then check
answers with the class. For more information on past
modal forms see the Grammar guide page 139.
a 2,5,6
b 4,7,8
c 1,3
Students discuss the answers in pairs before feedback to
the class. Answers will vary; encourage explanation of
differences of opinion, for example, The guide is most
responsible because he / she should not have taken the
group anywhere near the chemical storage area. The
manager is least responsible because he / she was not on the
scene at the time.
which could go wrong in a business context. For
example: mistakes in a letter sent out to clients, incorrect
figures presented at a meeting, an order not being
supplied in time, a wrong order being sent out. You
could then ask students to think about when it is
appropriate to make a formal apology (for example, from
a supplier to a client), and when an informal apology
might be better (for example, between colleagues).
page 21
Divide students into groups of the same role, i.e. one
group of managers, one group of guides, and one group
of fork-lift truck drivers.
Ask each group to read only their role description and
prepare together what they are going to say in the
meeting with the others.
Students now meet in groups of the three different roles:
manager, guide, driver. They could have their role title
on folded card in front of them so the others can
identify them. Assign the manager as chairperson in each
Allow some time for class feedback on the outcome of
the meetings and the groups' performance.
Do this quickly as a class exercise.
With books closed, tell the students about an important
decision you have to make, or had to make in the past. Wbat
would their advice be on how to solve this problem? Do
they take different approaches to finding a solution? Elicit
from the class any decisions they have made which they
subsequently regretted. Do they think they made a mistake
in the decision-making process?
continue a complaint or criticism: a, f
politely refuse responsibility: b, e, g
accept an apology: c, d
Triumph and disaster
Tell students they are now going to make some business
decisions. Divide the class into pairs. Students read the case
study instructions and begin their discussions. Note that
depending on their choice at each stage, the point they need
to go to next will either be on pages 22 and 23 or in File 29
on page 134 of the Student's Book.
Extra activity
Put students into new pairs and ask them to outline the route
they took through the maze. and why they made the decisions
they did. Their partner should then sympathize. criticize. or
Model answer
Can I have an address list for all my main customers
ASAP. Pis contact Sergio Albero, the sales manager, and
send him the agenda for next week's meeting (encl).
BTW, I'm leaving 10 minutes early today for a dentist's
(Note: appt is the abb reviation for appointment.)
page 24
This section looks at abbreviations, a common feature of
emails. Remind students that emails often use less formal
language than letters, and are frequently written in a seminate style.
1 Students match the abbreviations to the definitions.
They could compare their answers in pairs before
checking with the whole class.
2 Ask students to tell you what other abbreviations they
use, particularly in em ails and memos. Write students'
suggestions on the board and then ask them to look at
the email on page 24 and see if their ideas are included.
Point out that the email on page 24 is an example of a
'forwarded' email. Gary (G) has received an email from
Ludmilla and he has forwarded this, with his own
message added, to John. Students give the meanings of
the abbreviations in the email.
FYI: for your information
G: this is an abbreviation for Gary, the sender of the
email. Students cannot know this in advance, but they
can deduce it from reading the original forwarded email
from Ludmilla.
ASAP: as soon as possible
pis: please
BTW: by the way
3 Students now write their own email.using the
information given.
Prioritizi ng
This unit looks at the theme of time management. Students
are asked to think about the division between work and
leisure hours and study ways of prioritizing and scheduling
their time. Future tenses are revised and students practise
language for requests and offers.
page 26
l ead-i n (optional)
Check the relevance of the unit title - i.e., having an
understanding of the relative importance of things to be done.
Before students open their books, you could draw a pie chart on
the board of your typical weekday showing sleep, work, travel, etc.
Ask students to do the same and compare their pie charts with
a partner. Are they happy with the way their time is divided up?
1 Lead a brief class discussion on working hours now and
in the future.
Statistics seem to show that employees in the west,
particularly graduates, are spending more and more time
at work. Mobiles, laptops, and faxes mean people can
continue to work after their office closes. Many
companies prefer to have a low number of full-time
workers who do overtime rather than increase the
number of these contracted employees and all the
payment of benefits this involves.
2 Students discuss these points in small groups or pairs.
During feedback to the class they should explain the
reasoning behind their choices.
3 Students work alone, allocating numbers of hours to the
different categories in the box. They can then compare
their answers in pairs or small groups, seeing who
wanted the most free time and who wanted the longest
working hours.
page 26
«$ ) Ask students to suggest the kinds of
international projects that Franco Ardovini might be
involved in. Then give them a few minutes to read
through the questions before playing part A. Be prepared
to play the recording twice if necessary.
1 Big civil engineering projects, for example, dams,
power stations, and airports.
2 A realistic time scale.
3 Promising to deliver on an unrealistic schedule,
particularly if they don't have any previous
experience of that type of project.
4 Some contracts contain targets linked with penalty
clauses. This means that some of the company's fee
will be withheld or forfeited if they don't complete
the project on time.
S An airport project.
2 «$)) Go through the eight difficulties listed, and ask
students to suggest an example situation for each one.
Play part B once for students to tick the problems
mentioned and then again for them to note down the
details in each case.
Archaeological problems: A port-building project has been
held up because they have discovered an archaeological
site and now have to wait until the archaeologists have
finished .
Environmental problems: The team is abo ut to dynamite
a hill but they don't know if they will hit rock or water.
Technical problems: things take longer than anticipated.
Political problems: The price of raw materials goes up.
Strikes: There are rumours that the electricians' union is
going to go on strike.
1 Students work in pairs to match the different tenses with
their future meanings.
2 Students do this exercise alone, then compare answers
with a partner. Check the answers with a show of hands,
which should give you an idea of how comfortable they
are with these tenses.
I are going to
2 will give
3 is meeting
3 Draw three columns on the board, one for each of the
types. Elicit an example of what 'Tomorrows' should do.
Then put students into small groups or pairs to discuss
the practical advice that could be given to the three
types. During feedback collect their ideas on the board.
4 does
5 will have left
6 will be working
Tomorrows: should break down big tasks into small tasks,
set a deadline for the whole task, draw up a to-do list for
the short term, medium term, and long term, make a
work schedule, handle each piece of paper only once.
Disorganized types: should prioritize work with colour
coding and a year planner chart, stick to one task and
finish it, record messages in one place, group together
less important tasks and treat them as a single task.
Poor delegators: should renegotiate unrealistic deadlines
or delegate the task; if delegating a task, explain what
needs to be done and leave the person to get on with it;
learn to say 'no'.
3 This exercise focuses on adjectives which can have a
future meaning.
Do this as a class exercise.
a arranged
b quite possible
c certain
2 Students work in pairs to find the other examples of
these words.
4 Ask students to turn their books over. Read out the
sentences one by one, eliciting which of the three types is
We are due to meet the union leaders on Thursday.
I think it's likely that we'll be able to stop the strike.
We don't know if we are going to hit rock or water but
we're bound to meet at least one or the other.
poor delegator
2 disorganized type
3 tomorrow
4 tomorrow
5 disorganized type
6 poor delegator
Your Turn!
This activity encourages students to think about their own plans
for the future and discuss them using different forms of the
1 You could write a list of your own life and career milestones
on the board, using some of the ideas given and some of
your own ideas, as a model for the students. Encourage
students to think up their own personal goals as well as
those listed in the book.
Students work in pairs to discuss their answers to 1. Go
round, monitoring the activity and checking that they are
using the different future forms correctly.
Students discuss the questions with a partner and give
reasons for their answers.
6 Give students time to do this alone or in pairs. Check
answers quickly with the whole class.
2 delegate
anticipates any problems
waste time
7 Students work in pairs. When you've checked the
1 Discuss the questions with the whole class.
2 Before reading, elicit from students what they think the
answers to I and 2 might be. Students then read the first
paragraph to confirm their ideas.
I stress-related problems
2 ourselves
exercise you could ask why fall behind and get on with
are different from the other verbs in the list. (They
belong to a category of phrasal verbs that cannot be split
- see Grammar guide page 142).
taken on
fallen behind
put (it) off
catch up
make up
drawn up
broken (it) down
get on with
8 Students work in pairs.
Possible answers
Then we'll have to adjust the plans.
Would you like me to contact them?
I don't think that will be very popular.
That's fine.
Could I have a copy of that, please?
Which is the most serious?
Sorry, but I have just come back from holiday.
9 Students work in small groups to plan and prepare for
the seminar. Encourage them to use the information
from the reading passage, but present it in a different
way. Brainstorm some useful tips from the whole class
onto the board. Finally, ask one representative from each
group to take it in turns to make a short three-minute
presentation on time management. Encourage the other
students to make useful suggestions and ask questions.
lead-in (optional)
Focus students' attention on the cartoon, and ask them to
discuss in pairs why they think it is funny. (The boss is using
inappropriately over-polite language towards his employee.) Ask
students to suggest more appropriate language for the boss to use.
1 Students work alone to match the expressions with the
sentences. then compare answers with a partner.
I was wondering
Do you think you could
Can yo u ring
Would you mind
I'd like you to I So if you'd like to
So if you'd like to I I'd like you to I Do you think you
Do you think you could post these letters?
Would you mind filing these documents?
I'd like you to tidy up the office.
Could you I Do you think you could answer this fax?
So if you'd like to book your own taxi and we will
reimburse you.
I was wondering if you could take me to the airport.
5 Students match the responses to the requests from
request 1
request 3
request 4
request 5 (or possibly request 2)
6(C.~ Students read the replies from 5 again, and
predict how the words in bold will be pronounced before
listening to the recording. Then play the recording for
them to check their predictions. Go over each sentence,
pointing out how the stress changes the pronunciation
of the word. In sentence I, am is usually pronounced
/, ~mI, but when stressed, it is pronounced /'reml. In
sentence 2, could is usually pronounced Ik~, but when
stressed, it is pronounced Ikud/. In sentence 3, would is
usually pronounced /w~, but when stressed, it is
pronounced /wud/. In sentence 4, will is stressed, and is
pronounced /wJl/.
I The words in bold are stressed because they are
effectively short answers.
2 They are stressed because they are being used to
emphasize that the speaker is either agreeing to or
refusing the request made.
7 Students work in pairs to read the questions and
answers, and underline the words which they think
should be stressed. Check the answers with the whole
class before students go on to read out the dialogues. Go
round, monitoring the activity and ensuring that
students are stressing the correct words.
2 (C4J))) Play the recording, pausing after each sentence
to check students' answers and possible alternatives.
3 This question highlights a very common mistake made
by learners of English. The answer is No because it
means No, J wouldn't mind, J will do what you're asking.
Would you mind .. .
4 Students work alone to rephrase the orders using more
polite language, then compare answers with a partner.
page 31
1 Check students understand petty cash (money for small
items or services) and brochure (a short publication
providing information).
Students read Jude James's notes, then work in small
groups or pairs to prioritize the tasks. Draw up a list on
the board according to the general opinion of the class
and leave it on the board for exercise 2.
Possible answer
Possible answer
To be dealt with immediately: Book restaurant for dinner,
confirm flights for Astrid Winter, write a memo to staff
about recent thefts, send brochure to printers.
To be dealt with soon: Talk to Stuart about job ad .
Less important. Order samples for new carpet,
questionnaire for Christmas, get card signed for
Catherine Moore and buy present, ask for brochures for
new office photocopiers.
If we say each month has four complete weeks and the
event is at the end of December, then one arrangement
could be as follows.
End February: visit venues.
First week April: shortlist venues.
Last week April: select venue.
Start May: book venue and contact TV.
Mid-June: print invitations for celebrities.
Start July: invite celebrities.
Start August: advertise event.
First week October: print tickets.
Mid-October: decide menu.
Start November: send requests fo r prize nominations;
send tickets, and approach caterers.
Mid-December: deadline for nominations.
Third week December: decorate venue.
2 Assign roles and remind students to use the language of
requests and offers from the Language for section .
Explain that in this section students are going to be
planning a project. Ask if anybody has ever organized an
event with a large number of people - a business event, a
holiday, a wedding, a party, etc. Did they plan it carefully?
Did anything go wrong? Would they plan it differently now?
1 Students read the tip on critical path analysis.
Note that critical path analysis, or CPA, is about finding
the best path through a maze. With its origins in
mathematics, today it is widely used in activities such as
routing telephone calls, the production of printed circuit
boards, and project planning. It's especially effective for
prioritizing in complex projects with deadlines. The
essential concept is that some planned activities depend on
others being completed first . These are 'sequential tasks'.
The 'critical path' is the shortest sequence of dependent
activities leading to the completion of the task.
2 Students read the text and brainstorm, as a class, things
that could go wrong.
5 Groups present and compare their CPAs. Encourage
comments and questions from the other groups.
6 Under Murphy's Law, if something bad can go wrong, it
will go wrong. So if you put jam on a piece of bread and
accidentally drop it, it will land with the jam side down.
Murphy's identity is not known.
(e.) Students should stay in groups for this exercise.
I Students listen for the main ideas of the problems
and complete the chart, then take it in turns to
summarize the problems to each other. Check
answers as a class.
I FOllr months before: Sammy Webb cancels.
2 Two months before: There's a spelling mistake in the
3 Six weeks before: There are 800 guests but the fire
officer says the maximum is 600, for safety reasons.
4 One week before: The caterers might be going out of
Possible answer
You can't find a venue, Sammy Webb doesn't turn up,
the food doesn't arrive, the tickets aren't printed, the
guests don't confirm, the guests don't pay, there's no
publicity, etc.
3 & 4 Divide the class into groups of three or four and
give them enough time (approximately fifteen minutes)
to complete the task. Explain that the event is to be held
on 31 December, that all of the stages are critical to the
awards ceremony, and that the schedule should last as
short a time as possible. This is free practice and answers
will vary.
2 Students continue to work in their groups to discuss
and suggest solutions to the problems. Check answers
as a class.
Suggested answers
I Get somebody else, quickly, though four months
should be easily enough time. Invite Webb's agent to
find a replacement.
2 There's time to reprint it or leave it as it is.
3 Ring to find out how many are coming. If there are
more than 600, don't panic! Consider hiring a
Contact caterers for assurances. Arrange a back-up
for cold food at short notice.
1 Check the meanings of debtor and creditor with the class.
A debtor owes money and a creditor is owed money.
2 Elicit ideas from the class on the reasons for slow
Possible answers
Many businesses follow the practice of collecting
receivables, or credit, as quickly as possible while settling
payables, or debts, as slowly as possible. This is good for
the cash flow situation in a company, meaning they have
enough cash to keep the business running smoothly. Any
spare cash can earn interest.
3 Give students a couple of minutes to read the letter
quickly and assess its general tone.
The letter is supportive.
4 Students work alone to find these words in the letter,
then compare their answers with a partner
fell due
a simple oversight
on condition that
are in receipt of payment
be obliged to
5 Elicit ideas from the class. Encourage the use of the past
modal forms : might've, could've, and may've.
Possible answer
Reasons for non-payment include cash flow problems,
bankruptcy, obtaining goods fraudulently. The supplier
could have insured itself against such an event or
obtained a negative credit rating on the customer and, as
a result, not entered into business with them .
6 Students work in pairs or small groups of three, where
possible, for this exercise. Ask them to discuss the tone of
the letter: will it be aggressive or supportive? (Since
Skunkx records is a long-term customer, who has never
delayed payment previously, the letter should be
supportive.) Students draft a rough version of the letter,
deciding what information to include in each paragraph,
and using the ex1ract in 3 as their model. They then
write a final version of the letter. Ask groups to exchange
letters and check each other's letters for spelling,
grammar, vocabulary, and punctuation.
Model answer
Dear Sirs
I am writing to you concerning your order for 200,000
blank CDs. As agreed, we supplied these CDs to you
immediately, on the understanding that the invoice
would be paid within ten working days. The invoice,
which fell due two weeks ago, is still outstanding. If you
are experiencing difficulty in paying this account, please
contact me so that we may discuss alternative ways of
settling it.
We have always enjoyed an excellent relationship with
you in the past, and would deeply regret having to take
any further action. However, unless we are in receipt of
payment within three working days, we shall have to
consider taking legal action to recover the debt.
We look forward to hearing from you.
Yours faithfully
This unit looks at the international expansion of business
and communications. Students study different views on and
approaches to globalization. The unit reviews language for
describing habits and routines, and allows students to
practise speaking effectively and with conviction in a debate.
1 People in the West I in developed countries have
most to fear from globalization.
2 Parents are worried that their children's lives will be
harder than their own. There are also people who
have become unemployed because their jobs have
gone abroad.
3 Labour-saving efficiencies, not companies moving
1 Students discuss the two quotes in small groups or pairs
and decide which opinion they agree with. Explain that
for peanuts means for very little money. You could then
hold a class vote to see which opinion is more popular.
page 36
1 Students work in pairs to brainstorm predictions about
the speaker's views before listening to the recording.
Making predictions about a listening or reading text can
be a very effective way of focusing students' attention on
the key information. For a brainstorming session, it is
important to accept all students' suggestions and write
them on the board, without criticism or evaluation.
Feedback should not be given until after students have
listened to check their predictions.
,CC. )
1 She does not agree that globalization is the new face
of colonialism. On the contrary, she thinks that it is
the best way of fighting poverty.
2 Workers will eventually demand social reforms and
conditions will improve. Poor working conditions are
the effect of poverty in the country itself, not of
3 Multinationals take advantage of commodityproducing countries and dictate low prices which do
not reflect the value of the products.
Allow students time to read the questions fo r
part C before playing the recording.
1 If poorer countries gain knowledge, they can overtake
rich countries because they will have both the knowhow and cheaper labour and production costs.
2 She thinks that the service sector will not be enough
to support a developed economy; it needs
manufacturing as well.
3 They can maintain their world position by
continuing to invest in innovation.
5 Direct students' attention back to the predictions they
made for 1, and discuss how close they were to Indira's
actual views. Draw a scale of 1-5 on the board; 1
representing 'totally agree' and 5 representing 'totally
disagree'. In pairs or small groups, students discuss
Indira's views and mark the scale according to how
closely they agree or disagree with her.
Students listen to check their predictions in 1.
<CC. )
Allow students time to read the questions and
think about the answers Indira might give, before
playing the recording. Be prepared to play the recording
again, if necessary.
1 Students read the adverbs and adverbial phrases in
context and deduce their meaning. At this level students
should have encountered at least some of these adverbs I
adverbial phrases before, so treat this as a review and
extension of their knowledge. The chart they complete in
2 will help to clarify the differences in frequency.
Possible answer
hardly ever - almost never
as a rule - nearly always
most of the time - about 60 to 75% of the time
rarely - very infrequently
generally - usually
seldom - not often
from time to time - infrequently, occasionally
2 Students compare their answers, then check them on a
board diagram.
Possible answer
as a rule, most of the time, generally, now and again,
from time to time, seldom, rarely, hardly ever
3 Students match as a whole class. Note that sentence a
demonstrates quite a coUoquial way of making a
suggestion in which always is usually preceded by could
or can.
4 Students work alone on these exercises, then check
answers with a partner before reporting back to the class.
2 Check students understand:
fertile: fruitful, productive
to strive for: to try hard to achieve (something)
prudent very careful to avoid undesired consequences
turnover: total annual gross sales
GDP: Gross Domestic Product, a nation's total annual
product (compare GNP - Gross National Product =
GOP + total income from abroad)
distribution channels: aU the methods of making your
products available to the market
hurdles: obstacles, difficulties to be cleared before you
can proceed
Students read the text quickly. Check if these companies
are aU present in the students' country. Then students
scan the text to find the significance of certain numbers.
L'Oreal, Giorgio Armani, Maybelline, Lanc6me,
Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Kentucky Fried Chicken,
Hyatt, Glaxo WeUcome, Siemens
2 600: the number of women the L'Oreal researchers
watched taking a shower
$995 bn: GOP of China
£2.7 bn: the value of the Chinese cosmetics market
50 miles: the distance from Shanghai to the new
economic development zone
365 m: the urban population of China
235: the number of McDonald's in Chinese cities
80 million: the number of purchasers of L'Oreal
products in China
200: the number of products L'Oreal tested
2 a
3 a
a past habit or state that no longer happens
become familiar
be familiar with something
-ing form
-ing form
Everyone used to wear jackets and ties to work.
When Markus first lived in the UK, he used to
find driving on the left difficult I he wasn't used to
driving on the left.
c I am not used to dealing with computers.
d I found it hard to get used to the new computer
e Isn't that the house where you used to live?
4 Students discuss the question in groups. If possible,
give the groups some pictures from books,
magazines, postcards, the [ntemet, etc. to help with
ideas for the discussion.
3 Students read the text again to find the information.
They could divide the questions with a partner and
exchange answers before reporting back to the class.
1 Students should already be familiar with the meaning of
'globalization' from the Talking Business and Listening
sections. They can work in small groups to write a clear
definition of the term. Ask each group to write their
definition on the board and then, as a class, decide on
the most accurate one.
It intends to discover how Chinese women use the
products L'Oreal is promoting.
The company is interested in using pharmacies as
points of sale.
It is a very large market with a growing spending
It has opened a new economic development zone.
Before the early 1990s it thought that the average
incomes were too low and the distribution channels
It tested about 200 products, launched a joint venture
with a medical college, and started an extensive
R&D programme.
It helped them to reformulate their products for the
Chinese market.
They are aimed at different target markets, who will
make their purchases from different sales outlets.
The difficulty is in finding the right personnel since
marketing is new to the country. Gasparini thinks
having the right staff is the key to becoming market
4 Students work alone, then compare answers with a
partner. Alternatively, you could do this as a game: caU
out the words from box A and ask students to give you
an immediate match from box B.
1 Students discuss the questions as a class.
Possible answer
Email has had a marked effect on business behaviour,
speeding up communication at all levels from sale
traders to multinational corporations. Commerce can
now be conducted over the Internet, and it has become
an integral part of marketing and logistics and a new
medium for advertising. Apart from improving
efficiency, speed, and cost, the Internet has provided
another channel to the consumer. However, a lot of the
information on the Internet is not verified, and may be
setting up a division between the relatively few people in
the world who have computers and those who can't
afford them. In terms of effect on the environment,
figures show that it has so far not had much effect on
reducing the amount of paper being consumed. There
are some hopes that road traffic may be reduced since
the chain of distribution can be much shorter with the
Internet but this could be offset by an increase in air
traffic emissions as global e-commerce increases.
outstanding potential
economic outlook
production facility
distribution channel
development zone
consumer base
joint venture
disposable income
5 Students complete the sentences alone, then compare
answers with a partner.
1 development zone
consumer base
3 production facility
4 economic outlook
5 disposable income
6 joint venture
7 distribution channel
8 outstanding potential
Your Turn!
Students read the quotation and answer the questions. You
could do this exercise as a class, or ask students to discuss in
small groups before feeding back to a class discussion.
Suggested answers
Idiosyncratic differences: the particular features of a country's
market that differentiates it from others. Universal drive:
something that attracts or interests all of us.
Levitt says global companies should concentrate on the
similarities not the differences between countries and
cultures. The big companies in the article are certainly doing
this, in many cases simply transferring already winning
formulae for 'universal drive' products to the Chinese
market. L'Oreal believes that when economic conditions
permit, luxury goods are in universal demand too. They
have, however, also paid attention to 'idiosyncratic
differences', such as Asian and European hair types.
3 L'Oreal: luxury goods, McDonald's: food, Coca-Cola: drink
.«(1))) You could ask the students if they've ever taken
part in, or been in the audience, at a debate. What was
the subject? Check students understand the title of the
debate (from religion - a blessing is something good, a
curse is the opposite) . Students listen carefully and
decide which side of the debate Andrew is on. Play the
recording once and check their ideas. Students then read
the questions and try to answer them from memory. If
necessary, play the recording again.
Andrew is arguing that the Internet is a curse.
1 It wastes time with junk email and overwhelms us
with information.
2 It's risky getting into business with people you don't
know weU enough. It's difficult to know what's behind
a business website. There is a security problem.
3 It's true that there is an impressive amount of
information available on the web but it's open to
corruption and difficult to control. It's just a medium
for information with the emphasis on quantity rather
than quality.
3 «(I))) Students work in small groups or pairs.
what does the Internet, It means, loss of
I strongly believe, face-to-face, virtual
This is surely
It's true that, who knows what is lurking
susceptible to
fall into the wrong hands
ourselves, the Internet actually
giant filing cabinet
4 Students read the tip on rhetoric, then work in small
groups or pairs to find the examples. They could divide
this work amongst themselves, then exchange
information before checking with the whole class.
lists of three: hours wasted by junk email, the loss of
human contact, and drowning in a sea of information
rhetorical questions: what does the lnternet really mean;
who knows what is lurking; What does the Internet
actually produce?
contrasting pairs of ideas: face-to-face, not virtual; there
are millions of impressive websites which provide useful
information, but who knows what is lurking behind
metaphors: drowning in a sea of information; fall into
the wrong hands
similes: like a giant filing cabinet
page 41
1 Brainstorm further arguments in support of the Internet
from the class and write them on the board.
Possible answers
It can be used to: advertise products and services,
advertise jobs, bring down prices, allow customers to
interact automatically with the company, operate
twenty-four hours a day, and to transmit data between
2 Students should aim to answer Andrew's speech using at
least one example of rhetoric.
3 Students can work in pairs, looking through the listening
script and writing questions about the arguments using
the phrases provided . Go round the class, asking
different pairs of students to read out their questions.
Encourage them to think about their tone of voice as
they speak; they should try to sound assertive and
self-assured, but not aggressive.
4 Ensure that the students choose topics on which there is
some disagreement. There should be one person to argue
in favour of the topic, one person to argue against, and
one person to listen as a member of the audience and
ask questions. The fourth person should be the
chairperson, who will invite the others to speak and
ensure that everyone gets a chance to express their
opinion. When they have finished, groups can reorganize
to start debates on the other topics.
page 42
1 Students read the information about Greenglade and
look at its current advertisement.
2 Students work in small groups. If there are any
marketing specialists in the class, you could distribute
them amongst the groups.
Possible answer
The product has a natural, country, traditional image.
As a provider of a testimonial, the Robin Hood character
is known by everybody in the market, costs nothing to
hire, and has a positive image.
'Bitter-sweet' combines the two sides of Robin Hood:
stealing from the rich and giving to the poor.
Both men and women are seen consuming the product.
It is shown to go well with food.
It's great for drinking in large quantities to quench the
thirst of hard-working, deserving people <as most of us
like to think of ourselves) .
3 Before students read the information on Caronesia, ask
them to predict what kind of factors might affect
Greenglade's marketing of Three Feathers there. Accept
all suggestions for now, before asking students to turn to
the next page and check their ideas.
Students read the statistics on Caronesia. Before thinking
of a marketing strategy, they should try to predict the
problems that might arise if they used the UK
advertisement for Three Feathers.
Possible answers
1 The number three in 'Three Feathers' has negative
2 There are dogs in the advertisement.
3 Maid Marion is wearing blue.
4 Robin Hood and his men are in green and
Greenglade is the company name.
S 'Thirst' is in the tag-line.
6 A traditional image is not attractive.
7 The 'thumbs-up' sign is used in the ad.
Students work in small groups to read through the
statistics on Caronesia and draw up a marketing plan for
Possible answers
What changes will Greenglade need to make to the
The number 'three' in 'Three Feathers' has negative
associations, so this should change. Apples may be
considered an exotic fruit and be unfamiliar, so perhaps
the drink should be made from a local tropical fruit.
Consumers prefer bottles to cans, so the drink should be
bottled, not sold in cans.
Where should it be sold and how should it be priced?
It could be sold first to smaller outlets such as hotels. to
test the market. then to the modern trade. e.g.
supermarkets. The price should be relatively low for a
cost-sensitive market.
How can shopkeepers be encouraged to adopt the product?
Co-operative advertising (money paid to a dealer as part
of an agreement to stock your product). quantity discounts.
How should it be promoted?
In-store demos, competitions, free gifts, vouchers, direct
marketing. three-for-two offers. sponsorships.
How can Greenglade test the market before making an
important financial commitment?
Sell the product to smaller outlets. such as hotels. first.
Other considerations: Unless this is against company
policy. they should enter into a joint venture with a copacker to reduce costs; distribution should be outsourced to a distribution company. as company lorries
are too expensive.
page 44
1 In this exercise. students read an email concerning the
possible expansion of a market into South Africa. which
presents both sides of an argument. Write two headings
on the board: For and Against. Ask students to come up
to the board and write the information from the email
under the correct heading.
For. a very large market with great potential. can use
Dutch reps to help enter the Afrikaans market. the paints
for the European market will transfer to Africa without
problem. totally feasible financially.
Against no local knowledge or experience of any African
venture. Afrikaans and Dutch languages are quite
different. hotter conditions will lead to problems with
the paint. there will be problems with the local tax
2 Students now study the language for presenting different
sides of an argument in more detail. Students work alone
to answer the questions before checking answers with
the whole class.
1 while. yet. though
2 in his view, according to
3 no
4 no
3 Students write their own email. using all of the italicized
phrases from the email in 1. You could ask students to
exchange their emails and check each other's work for
appropriacy of language. grammar. spelling. and
Model answer
Dear Cristiano
Regarding the possible development of a new brand of
cashew nuts for sale in cocktail bars: on the one hand.
sales of existing nut products are falling; on the other.
existing nut products do have a good brand awareness.
I've contacted the different European offices; in the
British office's view there is a market for a new snack,
though according to the Danish office. we should
promote the existing product and not produce a new
range. while the French office also feels that there is no
need for a new snack.
Looking at the target market. Marco Costinha believes
that the snack should appeal to wealthy customers aged
30+. yet George Freehouse thinks that the snack should
be marketed at the 18-25 age group.
Regarding packaging: there are two options. foil or
paper. The paper option is cheap. though it is not
popular in certain markets like the UK and the Republic
of Ireland.
On the financial side. cashews are cheap to buy from
suppliers in South America and they sell at a high price
in Europe.
This is just a quick summary. Please refer to the attached
document with deals with these arguments in more
Company culture
This unit looks at company culture - the personality of a
company. Students look at mission statements and learn
about different organizational cultures. The unit reviews the
modal auxiliary verbs could, should, and would, and
practises language for expressing obligation and necessity.
page 47
1 Students read the organizational culture types, then
match the descriptions with a partner. If your students
work for an organization at the moment, does it fit one
of these culture types? Why do they think so?
lead-in (optional)
You could ask students if their own company has a mission
statement. Do they feel that this statement is a good refl ection
of their company's way of working? Could they write a mission
statement for their English class?
1 Students work in small groups or pairs to identify the
logos and emblems, and match the mission statements to
the companies and organizations.
Red Cross and Red Crescent to prevent and alleviate
human suffering wherever it may be found, to protect
life and health and to ensure respect for the human
Intel: do a great job for our customers, employees and
stockholders, by being the preeminent building block
supplier to the worldwide digital economy.
BMW: to promote brand values and customer service
above all else.
Greenpeace: to further public understanding in world
ecology and the natural environment.
2 Students discuss the question in small groups, before
leading on to a class discussion.
3 Ask students to think about the qualities and values that
might be associated with the WWF and how this might
benefit the licensing companies.
Possible answer
The WWF will benefit financially from licensing its logo.
If it chooses the companies carefully, it will benefit from
the brand awareness globally of the companies that carry
its logo. The licensing company will benefit by
associating itself with a charity and thus gaining a
reputation as a caring company which is not interested
in profits alone.
Eiffel Tower
Guided missile
2 {e.
) Students will hear four people talking about the
kind of organization they work for. Check students
line manager: the manager an employee is directly
responsible to
don't bother: don't make the effort
stock options: the right to buy a number of shares in the
company at a fixed price within a certain time period
stiff. rigid
dare: have the courage (to).
1 Play the recording all the way through once. Students
should justify their choice of cultures.
Guided Missile
Eiffel Tower
(e. ) Play the recording again, pausing after each
section to give students time to underline key words
and phrases in the listening script.
A I work in teams on specific projects I we're all pretty
much on the same level I you don't bother to get to
know each other
Bit's " . a way of life I I can't really teU you where my
working life ends and my social life begins I the rest
of us have bought into her dream I we certainly don't
coun t the hours I we've all got stock options
C organizational chart I everybody knows exactly what
they have to do and where their responsibilities begin
and end I stiff and formal
D Mr Jones ... keeps everyone together I paternalistic I
authoritarian I people here reaUy do care about each
other I intense I suffocating
Company culture
3 Students work in pairs. Check answers to the matching
3 Because Merck's development and free distribution of
the drug Mectizan has helped to prevent river
blindness, thus ensuring that young people like the
boy in the statue will not go blind.
exercise before they move on to discuss the adjectives.
3 Students read the first paragraph alone. Check answers
with the whole class.
4 Students remain in their pairs to discuss the adjectives.
hierarchiC11l: Eiffel Tower, Family
familiar. Family, [ncubator
informal: Guided Missile, [ncubator
egalitarian: Guided Missile, [ncubator
cOllservative: Family, Eiffel Tower
paternalistic: Family
impersonal: Eiffel Tower, Guided Missile
unfriendly. Eiffel Tower
authoritarian: Family, Eiffel Tower
Research on microbes from soil samples revealed a
molecule which was effective against parasites in
animals. It was later found that by adapting it, it
could be used to treat river blindness in humans.
Note: River blindness is found mainly in Africa but
also in the Americas. The blackfly carrying the
disease lives near rivers.
2 It shows that companies should be prepared to adapt
their research criteria to take into account
unexpected discoveries. Research generally begins
without a specific aim. [t may take many years to find
a practical application for a discovery.
Your Turn!
1 If you have a mixed nationality class, divide the class into
small groups to discuss the questions. If you have a single
nationality class, lead a class discussion.
2 Ask students why they would personally prefer a particular
culture. This could lead to a discussion of which culture they
think produces the best results. Would it depend on what
kind of business the company was in?
4 Before students go on to read the rest of the text, check
they understand:
benefit from: to get an advantage from
donate: to give without charge
philanthropic: helping those in need
disincentive: something that discourages you from an
action .
3 Students discuss the questions in small groups. If your
students are in work, ask them to talk about their personal
Allow students time to read the questions. They then
read the text and answer the questions in pairs.
[ The people who needed Mectizan couldn't afford to
pay for it.
2 Whether to donate the drug or charge for it; a
possible expectation that all drugs for the developing
world would be donated; what risks the company
would face if people reacted badly to the drug.
3 It might be expected that other new drugs would also
be donated and this could slow research.
4 Other organizations were unable or unwilling to
finance the project since they either didn't have the
money or had other priorities.
5 The company's philosophy is to prioritize the benefits
of medicine for people, out of which will come profit.
6 The decision had far-reaching consequences; historic
in this context means significant and very unusual.
page 48
1 Allow students time to read the introductory text.
Students work in pairs to think of a definition for
sabbatiC111. You could ask students if they have felt the
same way as described in the text.
sabbatical: A period of time, usually a year, spent away
from one's employer doing other things. The time is
unpaid, but the employer guarantees to take the
employee back in the same job at the end of the
Your Turn!
2 Students discuss the questions in pairs.
Students work in small groups or pairs to discuss the questions.
Possible answers
I The statue shows a young boy leading a blind man
along a path in an African village.
2 Because it demonstrates, by showing the reliance of
the man on the young boy, the importance of sight. [t
highlights the fact that the young boy can see,
whereas the older man cannot.
For Friedman's argument
Only people have social responsibilities, not business, as long
as it acts within the rules.
It's the government's job to look after other matters - that's
one of the reasons why business pays taxes.
• A company has duties to its shareholders; spending their
money on good social causes would amount to taxing them
- a company has no right to do this, only a sole owner.
Against Friedman's argument
• Business is part of the local community and greater society;
its staff should have a social conscience like everybody else.
Company culture
Extra activity
Ask students to write three real questions to ask another
student using could, would, and should in one of the uses
described in this section. They can then use these for a 'mill
drill' - asking and answering several other students in the class.
• It assumes shareholders are not socially responsible.
Other points
How Merck's shareholders felt would depend on their
attitude to Friedman's argument.
• A strong sense of mission could be motivating, stimulating,
and encourage teamwork.
• The pharmaceutical industry is directly involved with
people's welfare. Most would agree that welfare should not
be subject to market forces so it is reasonable to expect that
pharmaceutical companies can be expected to behave
differently to others. However, in a market economy where
they are not assisted by government, it is important for these
companies to make a profit to fund future research.
Lead-in (optional)
With books closed, elicit from the students what they think it's
important to do when you start a new job, e.g. be on time, be
elear about your responsibilities, learn who's who in the new
workplace, where the various departments are.
Students read the different categories before
listening, then compare their notes in pairs before
checking with the whole class.
dress: don't have to wear jacket and tie
name tags: must wear 10 tag
the R&D section: must not bring anyone in without
smoking; no smoking on the premises or outside the
1 Students work in pairs and check answers with the class.
I b 2a
telephoning; should use pay phone for calls, shouldn't
make personal phone calls from workstations
2 Students work in pairs and check answers with the class.
Students do the same with should.
2 Students work alone, then compare answers with a
partner. Note: the present forms of needn't have (needn't)
and didn't need to (don't need to) can be used
Extra activity
If you have a monolingual class you could ask students to
translate the example sentences. Do could, would, and should
translate in the same way in all the examples?
4 Students stay in pairs for this exercise. When you check
the answers, ask them to justify their choices.
5 could
7 Could
3 Set a time limit for this activity to encourage students to
scan the listening script, rather than read it through in
don't have to: needn't
mustn't: not allowed to
Company culture
4 (G))) Aim to get students responding to the recording
at a natural speed. Pause the recording after each
I You didn't need to send your CV.
2 You've really got to wear boots and hard hats.
3 You're not supposed to smoke in the canteen.
4 You have to I You're supposed to wear a tie.
S You mustn't ever take home confidential documents.
6 You needn't wear your 10 tag all the time.
If you have students who are in work, ask them if their
organization has undergone recent changes. What kind of
changes? Have they been well accepted by the staff? Why I
why not?
Extra activity
Ask students to look at the advertisement, and say what this
company deals in exactly (offices for people's homes).
Brainstorm with the class ways of selling home offices, e.g.
permanent sales force, via the company website, advertising
in the press, agents, mail order catalogues, direct selling (in
customer's house), cold calling.
Ask students to discuss in pairs the rules of the place where they
work or study. Are some rules more strictly enforced than others?
1 Allow students time to read the introductory text before
they look at the table. Ask them to predict what kind of
changes Malcolm Frost might have made before his
page 51
1 Allow students time to read through the intranet
rulebook before they think about the questions. They
can then discuss the questions in pairs. Go round the
class, asking different pairs for their opinions about the
Extra activity
Ask students to read through the rulebook again and underline
all the verbs of obligation and necessity used.
have to, are expected to, is not permitted, should
2 Students work in small groups of three or four. They can
choose one of the two options. Ask them to think about
the kinds of people that might be working for their
fictional company and the types of staff management
problems that the company might experience. Remind
them to use language from the rulebook on this page as
well as from the Language for section to write their rules.
Students read the information in the chart and think
about how these changes would affect the staff
specifically and the company as a whole.
2 ,( GO) Students listen to five employees talking about
the new system and summarize their opinions. Check
students understand:
morale: enthusiastic and confident mental attitude
staff turnover. the number of people entering or leaving
intimidating: making you feel small and frightened
absenteeism: members of staff frequently being away
from work, often for no good reason.
Play the recording twice if necessary. Students compare
their answers with a partner before checking answers
with the class.
I the team spirit has gone, people just want to meet
sales targets, there is too much paperwork, the money
is better
2 other staff are unapproachable, feels isolated, office is
impersonal, doesn't think she'll stay long
3 doesn't want to hear complaints from salespeople,
thinks they are paid far more than the factory
4 finds it difficult to cope financially without a basic
salary, preferred the old system which gave better
rapport with customers, finds it more difficult to
close a sale now
S ratio of sales per leads is falling, sickness and
absenteeism is up, and morale is very low
3 Students work in small groups. Each group should
appoint a chairperson to run the meeting. They should
study the agenda and prepare a presentation to give to
the class, using the following framework.
Company cu lture
Identification of the problems
2 Possible solutions
3 Recommended action
Questions and discussion during the presen tation should
be encouraged. Other groups can also offer comments in
this respect. With a large class, groups could present to
other groups. If you have the facilities, students could be
video-recorded for feedbac k.
Alternatively, students could write a report in groups,
using the following framewo rk
Summary of background to cha nges
2 Problems identified
3 Conclusions and recommendations
In class, students agree an outline o f what they are each
going to write. They write the reports at home and exchange
their work with each other for reading and comments in
the following lesson, before handing in the complete report.
page 54
1 El icit answers from the class.
t<. )
Students read the questions before listening.
Play the recording more than once if necessary. Students
check thei r answers wit h a partner befo re doing so with
the class.
1 Most of the staff wan ted a total ban on smoking.
Some employees have been smoking in the building
even though the parking lot is the o nly place where
smoking is allowed.
2 75%
3 Employees who have recently been hired.
4 They might allocate a room to smokers. A letter will
be put up on the notice boards and emails sent to
everyone informing them in strong terms of the new
S They'll have to leave.
3 Students work in pa irs to match the spoken and written
a I am writing to express my concern about.
b There are a number of em ployees smoking on the
premises despite the no-smoking ban.
c It has recently come to our notice that ...
d Failure to comply with the new regulations will lead
to serious action.
e This has implications for our insurance.
f .. . state that smoking is not permitted.
4 Refer students to the text box on page 54 containing
phrases they can use in writing the email. Note that
students will probably not be able to use all the phrases
in their letter.
Model answer
I am writing to everyone to express my concern that the
rules regard ing visitors are not being followed. I must
state aga in that visitors must be accompanied at all
times, and must wear guest ID at all times. There have
been a number of occasions recently when visitors failed
both to sign in and sign out on arrival and departure
despite the company's clear policy. Note also that visitors
must sign an agreement not to reveal any confidential
info rmation they learn whilst o n company premises.
Failure to comply with this regulation wiJl lead to serious
Supply and demand
This unit addresses la rge-scale business issues on pricing
and commodity trading. Students learn about the elasticity
of demand, price-fixing, loss leaders, and the importance of
commodity prices. The unit also looks at the use of
conjunctions, and language for participating in meetings
and discussions.
Allow students time to read the q uestions before they
listen to part A of the recording. Play the recording morc
than once if necessary. Students compare their answers
with a partner before checking answers with the class.
page 56
1 As an ordinary citizen, she was furious. She hasn't
been back there since. As an economist, she adm ired
hi m. By raisin g his price he controlled demand,
otherwise he wo uld have run out of stock in a couple
of hours.
2 The law of supply a nd demand. Changing the nature
of the supply changed the demand. Generally, the
higher the price of a product, the lower the demand.
In this case, the demand did not decrease because
customers considered it essential.
3 The short-term benefits were an increase in profits
and not running out of stock. The long-term
conseq uence was a loss of customers.
lead-in (optional)
You could start this lesson with books closed, offering to sell
something quite substantial of yours to the class, e.g. a bike, a
car, or a computer. Describe the object for sale and ask students
to write down a price on a piece of paper. Collect the papers
and put the lowest and highest offers on the board. Discuss why
these are or are not reasonable offers from both the seller's and
buyer's point of view.
Refer students to the t itle of the unit and invite
suggestions for a definition of the law of supply and
demand. Tell students that there is an expression in
English: Everytl,illg has its price. Are there sim ilar
expressions in students' own languages?
Students answer the questionnaire alone before
comparing their answers with a partner. You could then
ask for a show of hands on the responses and briefly
discuss reasons fo r disagreement.
«. )
Check students understand:
admire: to look up to, to respect
rational: logical, sensible.
page 56
1 Students read the tip about elasticity of demand and
answer the question as a class.
Examples of highly elastic goods include foreign travel,
meals in restaurants, or a particular brand of car. Goods
with low elasticity include petrol, salt, coffee, and cars in
If you have students in work, are any of their products or
services sensitive to elasticity of demand?
Ask students what pricing policy is and what might
influence a business in its decision to set prices. Possible
answers include: current demand, target market,
company image, a new product.
«. »
Play part B of the recording, more than once if
necessary. Studen ts compare their answers with a part ner
before checking answers with the class.
1 He bought a new computer and six months later the
market price was abou t half what he had paid for it.
2 Ta ra says that when Jay bought his computer the
company was 'skimming' the m arkel, in other words,
targeting customers who value new prod ucts
precisely because they a re new and scarce.
3 Many companies charge high prices for a new
product to skim the market, to help to break even on
manufacturin g costs, and to recover development
costs. After this level of demand has been filled, the
price can be d ropped to penetrate the market further.
4 :(C. )
Allow st udents time to read questions 1-6. Play
the recording aU the way through, pa using to allow
students to check and explain fa lse a nswers.
F: Depart ment stores can be made to respect the
price lists and guidelines.
2 T
Supply and demand
some products than others. People will tend to buy the usual
quantity of more essential products, such as bread, despite
price changes. This would not be true of perfume, for
3 F: Supermarkets buy luxury brands on the grey
market" .
4 F: No, but they'll work at a much lower margin than
a department store.
6 F: No, they may even take the su permarket to court.
• The grey market is also known as 'parallel imports'.
When there are wide price differences across coun try
borders, some products are bought in one country and
sold in another without the authorization of the
manufacturers. Typical products of this kind are cars,
motorbikes, computers, chemicals. and CDs. Legally,
manufacturers have some protection over the first sale
but not so much on resale.
4 A loss leader: A product sold at a loss in order to attract
customers to buy other products. For example a large
furn iture retailer may advertise an extremely cheap chair in
its catalogue in order to get customers into the store.
S Predatory pricing: This is asking a very high price for an
essential product, knowing that customers can't buy it
elsewhere. For example, if you were the only supplier of
aspirin to a market, you could charge a very high price.
5 Students work alone, then check their answers with a
raisi ng
charged me
5 dictate
6 fetched
7 fix
page 58
1 Write commodities in large letters in the middle of the
boa rd, and brainstorm ideas from students to create a
wordweb. Students scan the text quickly to find out which
of the words on the board are mentioned in the text.
2 Allow students time to read the q uestions and predict
Students work in pairs or small groups. Alternatively,
run this as a whole class exercise with st udents racing to
fi nd the matching expressions.
what the answers might be. Students read the text
carefully and answer the questions. They compare answers
with a partner before checking answers with the class.
1 cut price
1 Because paper was an expensive commodity at the
time and as the book was very long. they wa nted to
spread out the cost and risk over three volumes.
2 If a cheaper supply is found elsewhere, o r a synthetic
substitute is found , this will reduce demand fo r the
original product. The producers of the prod uct will
then be forced to drop their prices to maintain their
3 The competing forces of the petroleum
multinationals against the OPEC oil-producing
nations. When OPEC nations decided to limit the
output of oil in their countries, oil prices rosc. This
affected the cost of other manufactured goods and
led to price increases throughout (inf1ation ). The
increased prices meant that demand fell (because
people could not afford to buy goods) and that
t riggered a global recession.
4 The growth of the Chinese economy.
2 asking price
3 price war
4 price range
5 retail price
Your Turn!
Students work in pairs to define the concepts, then take it in
turns to read out their definitions to the ctass.
Possible answers
The grey market: On the black market it is simply illegal to
buy or sell. On the grey market. however, the key word is
unauthorized rather than illegal; it's about the unauthorized
sale of new products to other countries. For example,
someone could buy a thousand models of a camera in a
country where they're low-priced and sell them in another
where the retail price is much higher.
Skimming the market: If you have a good new product, it
makes marketing sense to ask a high price for it in the period
followin g the launch in order to attract buyers who like the
fact that it is new and that not many people have them, e.g.
early mobile phones.
3 Elasticity af demand: The higher the price you charge for a
product. the less people want to buy it. This is truer for
Students read the text again to extract vocabulary
meaning a lot and a little.
a lot: high, soar, glut, massive, vastly, jump. plentiful
a little: low, fall , drop, scarce, low
Supply and demand
4 Students work in pairs o r smaU groups to write their
definitions. They should refer back to the text to help
them with the meaning.
Possible answers
commodity. something that can be bought or sold
cartel: a group of countries, producers, o r manufacturers
who joi n together to fix prices
recession: a time of economic slowdown, where very little
although - followed by subject and verb
despite / in spite of- followed by gerund
4 Students rewrite their sentences and compare their
answers with a partner before checking answers with the
is bought or sold
monopoly: exclusive control of the supply of a product
inflntiorl: a progressive increase in prices
Your Turn!
2 a
Students discuss the questions in groups. These could then feed
2 b
back to a class discussion. A nswers will vary; t he notes below
could be used to help the discussion along.
2 c
Possible answers
It's necessary to define 'essential commodity'. Certainty both
producers and buyers of essential commodities have the
right not t o be exploited . If you agree wi th the Darwinian
3 a
'survival of the fittest' applied to the free market. producing
3 b
countries have as much right to control the supply of
essent ial commodities as manufacturing countries have to
supply essential fin ished goods.
2 This depends on your political point of view. If you believe in
Plastic is not a commodity in the usual sense.
Nevertheless. people have started to treat it as one.
Although plastic is not a commodity in the usual
sense, people have started to treat it as one.
Although there are oil reserves in the North Sea, it
is too expensive to drill for them.
Despite the presence of I Despite there being oil
reserves in the North Sea. it is too expensive to
drill for them.
There are oil reserves in the North Sea. However.
it is too expensive to drill for them.
Even tho ugh anyone is able to speculate on
commodity prices. we should leave this to the
Despite the ability of anyone I Despite anyone
being able to speculate on commodity prices, we
should leave this to the experts.
Anyone is able to speculate on commodity prices.
Nevertheless, we should leave this to the experts.
a free market economy then government intervention is seen
as something which influences the laws of supply and
demand and d istorts the market. It could be argued,
however. that even in the free market. there are occasions
when governments should intervene. for example, on such
issues as monopolistic pricing in the public service sector.
1 &:G)) Students listen to identify the problem.
3 Students' own answers.
They are discussing the problem of rising costs of paper,
ink, and printing, and the effect that this will have on
staff bonuses.
1 Give students time to find and underline the extracts in
the reading text. These are not given in the order in
which they appear in the text.
2 Students focus o n the conjunctions used in the extracts
and categorize them according to function.
Even though and ;'1 spite ofshow a contrast between two
ideas in the nYo parts of the sentence.
Nevertheless and 110wever modify something thai has
been slated.
3 Refer students to the Grammar Guide. page 144.
Students work in pairs to match the expressions with
their functions.
3 Students work in the same pai rs to complete the table.
Making a contribution: Can I just say that ... , I'd like to
come in here
Asking for clarification: Sorry. I don't quite follow what
you're saying, If I understand correctly ...
Clarifying: I'm sorry, let me run through it again, The
point I'm trying to make is ...
4 Students discuss the situations in pairs, then report back
to the class.
I Sorry, I don', quite follow what you're saying.
2 So, 10 recap. the cost of distribution in Canada is ... I
Does anyone have a nything further 10 add about the
cost of distribution in Canada?
3 I'd just like to say I Can I just say that I don't think
we should make a decision yet? We should wait and
see what happens.
page 61
lead-in (optional)
Supply and demand
4 Students decide on their roles and turn to their
information fi les. Befo re they hold the meeting, check
students understand their roles and explain to the class
and the team leaders in particular, some procedures: the
chairperson I team leader will open the meeting. run
through the agenda, make sure everybody participates.
summarize, and close the meeting.
You could begin with a brief class d iscussion o n state-ofthe-art ha ndheld computer devices: palmtop computers,
electronic notebooks, palmtops combined with mo biles, etc.
What can they do? Do any of your students have these? Do
they recommend them?
If you have students in work, ask them what part t eamwork
plays in their organization. Wou ld they like more or less of this?
Do they consider themselves good 'team players'?
1 Stude nts read the description of Virfen's Caxton Reader
and answer the questions as a class.
Possible answers
1 Elicit a description from the class of somebody who is
not a team player. Possible characteristics: individualistic.
likes to work alone, likes to set his I her own goals,
doesn't appreciate suggestions from others, competitive
rather then co-operative. doesn't trust other people's
judgement, thinks he I she is always right. Focus
st udents' attention on the question about the importance
of being a team player.
Possible answer
Teamwork in business is generally considered the best
way to work wherever it can be implemented, and its
supporters claim benefits ranging from increased
productivity and im proved quality to reducin g stress in
the workforce.
2 Students read the key roles, and write down which one
best suits thei r character, and which one they think suits
their partner. They then compare and discuss their
assessm ents in pairs.
3 Students read the extract and discuss the questions in
pairs. Check students understand shoehorn: force
somebody I something into an inadequate space.
Possible answers
It's important to understand and adapt to the new
cuhure. You should make an effort to be o pen to
change, to meet new people in the organization, and
to understand clearly what is expected of you in your
new role.
2 Students' own answers.
3 Co-ordinator I implementer; team leader I external
contact; critic I inspector all share similar
People who: like to buy the latest technology, are
will ing to change their habits, have the disposable
income to afford o ne, use the Inte rnet , spend a lot of
time travelling, or reading.
2 Relies on downloading from the Internet, unlike its
competi tor Paston Voyager; similar products due to
come o ut soon which will bring prices down; need to
price high to cover high development costs.
2 Allow students time to read the tip on costs. Students
work in pairs to explain the four co ncepts. Allow·
students more time to read through the information
about target customer g ro ups and projected first year's
sales before moving o n to 3.
Studen ts work in three g roups, A, B, and C. Gro up A
discuss the first point in the agenda, What markets shall
we target?, Group B d iscuss the second point in the
agenda, SolllhlarJd, and Group C discuss the third point
in the agenda, Promotioll. The groups then rearrange
themselves with o ne student fro m each original group
for the meeting simulation. Each group should appoint a
chairperson to present the agenda and manage the
meeting. At the end, groups can report back to the class
o n the decisions they came to.
Supply and demand
.«. ) Students look at the graph. Ask a couple of
quick questions to check that they understa nd the
information it represents: How many monitors were sold
in December? ( 1(0) Mill( month sllOwed the Ilighest sales?
(November). Students listen and study the g raph . Allow
them a few minutes to answer the questions. before
playing thc recording agai n to check their answers.
I remained steady
2 crept up
3 to fluctuat e
4 slump
5 soared
6 peaki ng at
7 plummeted
8 levelled off
2 a peak, soar, creep up
b plummet, slump
c remain steady, level off
3 crept
4 peak, slump
Model answer
City analysts are predicting a period of firm recovery for
GFV after the dramatic market flu ctuations of recent
years. The appointmen t of Cheri Carbone as CEO on the
departure of Wilfred O' Leary was received well by the
market. Ms Carbone, aged 38, of American-Italian origin
is a keen tenn is player and was previously head of research
at JKL Chemicals. recently acquired by GFV. Her
appointment and the launch of a new anti -ageing cream
prompted sha re prices to creep up. Poor publicity as a
result of animal rights protests at the G FV laboratories
caused shares to plummet. but this was followed by the
announcement of the HTY acq uisition and sha res then
soared to an aU-time high. The market reacted badly to
news of the withdrawal of the anti-ageing product due
to allergic reactions and share prices began to slump
again, but Carbone's instant withdrawal of the product
and the launch of a TV ad vert ising campaign restored
confid ence in GFV. Prices have now returned to their
previous high level and are remaining steady.
2 Students work alone to categorize the adjectives. They
then check their answers with a partner.
small ch(mge: slight, steady
large chmlge:. dramatic, sha rp, steep
Discuss the questions with the whole class.
In the first sentence, the subject is the rise in price. In the
second, the subject is the price. The diffe rence requires
the use of an adjective in the fi rst sen tence and an adverb
in the second.
4 Students work alo ne to complete the sentences. They
then check their answers with a partner before checking
answers with the class.
2 collapsed dramaticall y last year.
3 steep climb in fuel prices over the past six months.
4 have increased steadily since the introductjon of the
5 You could set this writing task for homework.
This unit looks at the theme of negotiation. Students are
asked to think about the qualities needed for a good
negotiator and read about different negotiating techniques.
Conditionals are reviewed, and students practise language
for dealing with customer complaints.
1 Students look at the cartoon and read abou t Barry and
Martha's situation. This is known as ' the prisoner's
dilemma', Ask differe nt students in the class to suggest
how Barry and Martha should act. There are no right or
wrong answers; Barry and Martha will each have to try
to predict what the other person will do in order to
decide whether or not to confess. The authori ties are
exploiting Barry and Martha's inability to commun icate
with each ot her as a powerful device in the negotiation .
«. )
In part A a negotiator describes the
characteristics of a successful negotiation. Can the
students predict what he might say about this? Introduce
Eric Perrol. Note: cllips in US English is crisps in British
English; chips in British English is Frellch fries in US
Check students understand:
compromise: the settlement of a disagreement by each
side making concessions
overcome an objection: satisfacto rily answer an expression
of opposition
cosy: comfortable and warm.
Play the recording more than once if necessary. Students
take notes, then compare answers wi th a partner before
checking answers with the whole class.
being prepared: understanding the buyer's expectations,
knowing what is negotiable and the most you can allow
the other side
lVilinillg or losing a l1egotiatiorl: you shouldn't aim to win
o r lose, but reach a deal which suits both sides
compal1ies' policy towards tlleir bllyers: most companies
rotate their buyers regularly so that they don't form too
strong a relationship with the supplier
«. )
In part B the negotiator discusses the skills
needed to be a good negotiator. What skills do the students
think are important? Check students understand:
take the initiative: to be the first to take action
aggressive: offensive, attacking
confromatiotl: an aggressive position against the other side.
Play the recordi ng twice if necessary. Students compare
answers with a partner.
1 Be a good listener, have some psychological awareness
and understand ' buy' signs.
2 Not very important: if they a re satisfied by the overall
contract, they will accept it.
3 The quiet ones, because it's difficult to build a
rapport with them. He deals with them by leaving
gaps in his presentation to get them to communicate
by questioning.
4 Very controlled - he never loses his temper.
3 ;~« .)) Play part C. Students compare answers with a
Financial assistance with an ad campaign. Eric
provided €20.000 in exchange for a larger order.
2 The other side can take advantage of your positio n.
3 The price of potatoes suddenly rosc. Eric did not try
to re-negotiate the contract.
4 Give students a few minutes to read the listening script
and find the words from the box. They work in pairs to
com plete the sente nces, then compare their answers with
another pair.
a confrontation
b persuasive
c concessio n
d negotiable
e comprom ise
f proposal
Negotiat ions
5 Students remain in their pairs for this task. Check
answers with the whole class.
out of
out of
Art icle B
envy: feeling of discontent caused by somebody else's
better fortune
locked iI/to the logic: mentally trapped by somebody's line
of argumen t
work alit: arrange
territory: area of land ruled by a person, a state, elC.
The two groups complete their columns. Encourage
students to help each other to find the information.
Article A
Your Turn!
Give students a few minutes to read the quotation. The language
is a little confusing because of the use of the double negative.
You can explain it more Simply by wri ting: unprofitable business
arrangement for A = unprofitable business arrangement (or 8 on
the board. Students discuss the two points in pairs or ~all groups.
Lead-in (optional)
With books closed you CQuid introduce the concept of
negotiations by proposing a sharp increase in the amount of
homework the class does. Will they all accept it? Why not? find
out what they will accept. Are you both happy with the deal?
1 Discuss the questions with the whole class.
Possible answer
This is a 'win-wi n' situation. If what you're getting is
worth more to each of you than what you're giving, then
you've both won. A simple barter of goods is an
example: I have a fridge J don't need, but I want a cooker;
you have a cooker YOIl don't need, bllt yOIl want a fridge. A
good range of techniques can be useful in order to apply
the most suitable one to a specific situation.
2 Divide the class in hvO groups to read either article A or
B. You may prefer to check the following vocabulary with
each group in turn. Alternatively. you could divide the
vocabulary items and defini tions below and give them to
pairs of students to do as a matching exercise.
Article A
deadlocked: a situation where no progress can be made
to bond: to tie two things together
sOllnd bite: a short memorable comment
cOl/gellial: agreeable, pleasant
to haggle: to persistently dispute a deal
testament: evidence or proof of something
People involved: The writer, Swiss entrepreneur (writer's
friend), French government official, golf client.
Object of negotiation: To sell merchandise to the French
governmen t.
Obstacle: They can't move on some major issues.
Formal /informal: Informal.
Level of experience: They handled it well and seemed
Techniques used: Getting the person to relax out of his
office, introduci ng people he would like to know, subtle
Direct / indirect style of negotiation: Indirect.
How an agreement was reached: At the end of a round of
golf, in the club house, written on a napkin.
Willller / loser of the negotiatiOfI: unclear, although the
Swiss entrepreneur was certainly a winner.
Article B
People iI/valved: The writer, young tennis professional,
used-car dealer.
Object of negotiation: To buy a camper va n at a good
Obstacle: The price of the camper.
Formal/informal: Informal.
Level of experience: He was experienced, she wasn't.
Techniques used: Threatening to sell to another buyer,
leading the customer to think she's getting a bargain,
negotiating with the salesman off his territory.
Direct / iudirect style of negotiation: Direct.
How an agreemelll was reached: By phone, the next day.
Wi,mer / loser of the lIegotiatioll: The tennis player was the
winner - she got the camper van at a lower price.
3 A and B students exchange information, then answer the
questions and check answers with the whole class.
Possible answers
A: Getting away from the negotiating table can be
valuable since it enables people to achieve their main
aim more easily, i.e. reach an agreement.
B: It's important to stay calm but determined and, if
possible, get the other side off his or her own territory.
2 A: The setting was very important in getting the
government official to relax.
B: The setting was essential to achieving the aim of
the tcnn is player, as the dealer would have referred
her 10 other models if she'd offered a lower price on
his territory.
•• •
Your Turn!
Negot iations
The correct order is: c, a, d, f, e, b.
Ask students to think of a successful negotiation that they have
made. Remind them that this could be outside the area of work:
Other questions may be acceptable but the recorded
questions are (note that some are prompts rather than
direct questions):
1 Hello, G reat Outdoors.
2 Custo me r Services, can I help you?
3 And what seems to be the problem ?
4 How long have you had it?
5 Well, you'll need to bring it in to the bra nch so that
we can have a look at it, and give you a credit note or
a refund.
6 Yes, that's no problem at all, just as long as you've
kept the receipt.
a negotiation about domestic chores with a fam ily member, the
purchase of a holiday or a car, or a negotiation about deadlines
on homework. Students copy the chart from 2 and fill in details
about their own negotiation. They then work in pairs and
exchange information about their successful negotiations.
deciding together whether the other person involved in the
negotiation was happy or not.
1 Swdents match the cond itio nal sentences to the
defin itions, then compare answers wit h a partne r.
I d 2e
Students discuss this question with a partner, then report
to the whole class.
Could you put me through ...
Can I return it to m y local branch?
4 Studen ts study the use of diplomatic language in dealing
2 Students match the sentences in I to the different
conditional forms . Check answers with the whole class.
1 b 2a
with customer complaints.
Students make complete sentences in pairs.
3 Students work alone, then compare their answers with a
partner before checking with the whole class. Remind
students to use contracted forms where possible.
(CC. )
Students listen and check their answers.
3 Check answers with the whole class.
would you have paid, 'd been
sign, 'II give
would you say, paid
agree, ,,,on't go ahead
pay, have to
' 11 accept, replace
would've renewed, hadn't been
hadn't agreed, wouldn't be
I'll enter your deta ils straightaway.
I'm just accessing your details on my screen.
Do you happen to have a reference number?
I do apologize fo r any inconvenience you've suffered,
Mr M iller.
You' ll need to bring it into the branch.
I can fully appreciate your frustration, Mr Miller.
1 You could begin by leading a brief class discussion on
how often the students complain about goods and
services. Elicit a few examples of complaints they've
made. Did they have any success?
Students work in pairs to o rder the d ialogue and think of
the questions. Invite pairs to re-enact the dialogue.
eCCe »
Students listen and check their answers.
page 71
lead-in (optional)
If you have students in work, ask the m what procedures they
have for dealing with complaints. How does the business try to
keep the custome rs satisfied?
1 Students read the tip o n dealing with customers'
co mplaints and discuss the questio ns as a class.
Allow students time to read the role-play si tuation.
Students work in pairs to do the ro le-play. Stude nts
could sit back-to-back for these telephone situations.
3 Students work in different pairs, seated back-Io-back.
You could follow this up with cross-class examples of the
Extra activity
Another 'customer' expression is 'The customer is always right'.
Do the students have a similar expression in their own
language? Is this a concept they agree with?
Students are going to negotiate a solution to an industrial
relations problem at a manufacturing company. You could
slart by asking the class if they can think of any high profile
industrial disputes in their countries. What caused them?
What was the outcome?
1 AJlow students time to read the descriptions of red stylists
and blue styl ists. Ask them to think if there are any
people they know - a t work or in a more social situation
- who are clearly either red or blue stylists. Which kind
of negotiator do they think they themselves are? Ask
them to think back to Eric Perrot from t he Listening on
page 66. Wh ich kind of negotiator was he? (blue)
2 Students work in pairs or small groups, reading the
statements and matching them to either blue or red
negotiating styles.
1 red
2 blue
3 red
4 blue
5 blue
3 Allow students one minute to read the three passages in
order to identify the grievances.
1 The blue-collar workers complain that they have to
study in their free time - during lu nch breaks or in
the evening.
2 The management has decided 10 cut the financial
support to the factory's sports and social club.
3 The workers don't appreciate the way the technical
manager treats them. They say she's aggressive and
undervalues their skills and experience.
4 Divide the class into four groups of: senior managers
(A), senior managers (8 ), union reps (C), and union
reps (D ). All the As read their relevant information file
section together and help each other to understand and
formulate their arguments. Similarly, all the Bs, all the
Cs, and all the Ds read their respective files together and
discuss the information. Go round the four groups,
helping with any queries as necessary.
5 Students work in new groups of A, B, C, and D. Remind
them to use the language of negotiation from the unit in
their discussions and to think about which style of
negotiating they will use. For fu ture feedback, video
recording is recommended.
1 Check students understand:
discourteously: impolitely
voucher: a document you exchange for goods or services.
Students read the letter to decide the cause of complaint.
The customer was treated with discourtesy, making her
visit 10 the store difficult and unpleasant.
2 Students read the letter again in more detail and discuss
the questions in pairs.
I Yes, there is an unconditional apology.
extremely concerned,fully share your displeasure, hope
YOIl will accept my sincerest apologies
3 Ask for suggestions from the whole class fo r spoken
English versions of the phrases in bold.
Possible answers
1 was extremely concerned to receive: I was very unhappy
to hear about
looked into tile matter very closely: found out as much as
possible about this
1 1I0pe yOIl will accept my sincerest apologies: I really am
very sorry
1 would like to assure YOIl that: I can assure you that
assist: help
ensure: be sure
4 Students discuss the questions as a whole class.
By offering the customer a £100 voucher and ensuring
that someone will be available to assist her personally
next time, the Customer Services Manager is entici ng the
customer back into the shop and creating an
opportunity fo r her to spend morc money there.
" in
5 Students write a draft lctter first using the letter o n page
74 as a modeL Give feedback on individual letters.
Students then write a final version, checking it carefull y
for errors.
Model letter
Dear Mr Ball
I was extremely concerned to receive your Ictter and have
looked into this matter very carefully. I fully share your
displeasure and dissatisfaction with the treatment YO ll
received. I hope you will accept my sincere apologies on
behalf of Minty's nightclub. I have d iscussed this matter
with the individuals concerned. While this is no excuse,
the door staff who dealt with you that evening had only
recently joined our company and had not yet completed
their training. While we are legally obliged to ask you ng
people for ID as proof of age, I accept that you were not
treated with the courtesy and respect that we would
expect our staff to show towards all our customers. I
would like to assure you that we take customer care very
seriously and will be reviewing our door staffing policy
in the light of your complai nt.
To be absol utely certain of avoiding any future difficulty
at our nightclub, I have enclosed my personal card. Do
not hesitate to ring me the next time you are planning a
visit to our club so that 1 can ensure that there will be
someone available to greet you at the door and show YOli
into the club.
1 hope you will accept as a token of our goodwill, the
enclosed voucher enti tling you and a guest to free entry
to o ur nightclub and a free drink each. Once again, I
hope you will accept my most sincere apologies for this
unfortunate incident.
1 look forward to meeting you in person the next time
you visit us.
With very best wishes
Yours sincerely
Derek Fletcher
Staying competitive
This unit examines how companies must adapt to a changing
business environment. Students hear a management
consultant talking about his work, discuss mergers and
acquisitions. and look al ways of revitalizing flaggin g
brands. They also study verbs followed by gerunds or
infinitives, and practise language for making presentations.
1 Their competitiveness has suffered, thei r market
position is being challenged.
2 Students' own answers.
3 Advice on acquiring or merging with another
com pany o r moving into a different market.
page 76
,«. )) Students read the questio ns. Play the recording
more than once if necessary before students check their
answers together.
1 Students read the passage and discuss the different
inven tions as a class. There arc no r ight o r wrong
answers, but the most likely ' killer' invention here is
probably the digital camera, c.
I Quite intimidated.
2 In his late twenties.
3 With suspicion - ' like a man from Mars'.
4 Because he was trained in techniques that were often
unknown in Britain and because they were experts in
management theories and gathering market
S Very closely, in o rder to gain their confidence in the
2 Brainsto rm students' ideas o nto the board. Once you
have about fifteen or twenty inventions written on Ihe
board, you could hold a vote to find out which one is the
most im portant, in the class's opinion.
page 76
1 Put the first question to the class before students discuss
Play part C while students take notes.
the other points in pairs and report back.
Possibl e answers
A consultant is an expert in a professional fi eld who is
generally not an employee of an organization and who
can therefore offer impartial advice. A management
consultant will offer high-level advice to companies.
1 Companies generally call in management consulta nts
when they are in difficulty, possibly to advise o n
organizational I process planning, headhunting.
mergers and acquisitions. downsizing. starting up
o rganizations. running training sessions.
2 Management consultants are oflen qualified
accountants, they need excellent academic results and
should be analytical, objective, sensitive, and able to
\«_ )) Students guess the mea ning of up-or-out. This is
explained in part C. Check st udents understand:
brutal: cruel, savage
conventional: according to usual practice.
«_ )) Check students understand the fo llowing
vocabulary from part A:
objective: able to view matters witho ut being affected by
feelings or opinions
strategy plan, policy.
If you aren't asked to become a partner then you're
told to leave.
2 a They will either become a partner at McKinsey or
they will be headhunted or join a business they have
already advised.
2 b Long hours, lots of travel, enormous amounts of
2 c As well as gaining a fascinating insight into all sorts
of organiza tions, it's stimulating, challenging, pays
well . and you become known by top companies.
5 Ask students to give reasons for their answers. If you
have students at work, you could ask if they have any
experience of consultants at work. Why were they there?
What effect did they have? Were they generally
considered worth the fee?
6 Students can work in pairs to complete this vocabulary
exercise. They then check their answers on page 154.
An swers
Play part A while student's take notes and compare
answers with a partner.
2 competitiveness
3 rivalry
• •
4 professionalism
5 strategic
6 recruitment
7 recommendations
8 intelligence
Your Turn!
If the students agree with the quotation, you could discuss why
it is true for organizations. (People become anxious about the
future. people who have power are afraid to lose it, some
people are naturally conservative, older people tend to become
more resistant to change, if change is necessary then you must
be doing something wrong, mistrust of outsiders, etc.), Students
Stayin g competitive
I tried doing something means" experimented', e.g. J
tried speaking to the boss but she couldn't help me either.
4 We meant to means 'we intended to', e.g. We meant to
tell yOIl not to go to the meeting but we forgot.
Mean + -ing involves adding an extra complication,
e.g. The meeting meant i"forming her she'd lost her job.
S Slle went on to means 'She moved from o ne situation
to another', e.g. After leaving the consultancy slle went
on to work for One of tlleir competitors.
She went on doing means 'she continued doing an
action', e.g. She went 011 workirlgfor tile same company
for the next thirty years.
4 Students work in pairs. Student A should identify
can then discuss the two questions in pairs or small groups.
examples of the gerund and say why they're used.
Student 8 should do the same with infinitives.
as a no un form:
the day-to-day rmltliflg
after prepositions:
things like moving into new markets
by confirming what it already knows
experts in gatllering
the stress of preparing and giving presentations
a great way of getting noticed
they had been involved in formulating
after certain verbs:
How did it feel going in to a company and advisirlg
I'll never forget going ... and being
it means working closely
Why don't we try doing it
after certain verbs:
started to suffer
needs to be done
tries to introduce
they are told to leave
after certain adjectives:
are happy to have
after too + adjective:
too bllSy .. . to stop to think
as an abbreviated form of in o,.de,. to:
will give management the courage to diversify or
develop different plans to meet challenging
1 Students answer the question as a class.
An swer
tries is followed by an infinitive
mealls is followed by the gerund
2 Check the verbs in the box with the whole class.
infinitive: agree, plan, hope, manage, refuse. tend, finish,
gerund: avoid. finish. look forward to, enjoy. suggest, be
interested in, tend
1 Students work in pairs to answer the question.
2 Students work alone to write sentences, then compare
their sentences in pairs.
3 Students work in pairs to discuss the differences in
meaning. Check answers as a class.
1 stop to do something means you're stopping one
activity to start another, e.g. We stopped to think abOl1t
stop doillg means you're ending that activity, e.g. We
stopped thinking about strategy at the end of the
plamlillg phase.
2 I didn't remember to do something means 'I made a
mistake, I forgot', e.g. J didn't remember to bring the
report (I left it at home, I don't have it here).
I don't remember doing something means', don't have
a memory of something in the past', e.g. J don't
remember bringing the report (therefore' am
su rprised to find it).
3 I tried to do something means ' made an effort to do
something with difficulty', e.g. J tried to speak to the
boss bllt her PA wouldn't lei me ill.
1 If your students are all from one country. discuss the
questions as a class. If your students a re from different
coun tries, ask them to work in small groups to exchange
information about the biggest drinks manufacturers and
their promotion techniques in their respective coun tries.
Staying com petit ive
2 AJlow students time to read the lext and answer the
quest ions in pairs. Students Ihen compare answers with
other pairs.
specific reason, to sell a particular product, for example, and
is not intended to be a permanent situation.
Reasons for mergers include: competition, economies of
scale. to increase the number of markets. fear of being taken
over. to avoid losing customers, over-optimism. over·
Students' own answers. This will probably depend on the
answer they gave for 5.
Government control is usually currently limited to ensuring
that the company post-merger will not have a monopoly of
the market. (This is usually considered to be over 40% of a
market.) Other legal restrictions apply to insider trading: this
is when people within the company know that a merger or
acquisition is about to take place, and buy or sell shares
based on this restricted knowledge.
I Because it makes
Budweise ~, which is the world's
biggest-sell ing beer.
2 It merged with Brazil's AmBev, Latin America's
largest brewer.
Brmuls: Budweiser". Tsinglaoill
Strengths: dominance of US market; products sell in 80
markets; Budweiser® brand; strong balance sheet; clear
lines of management
Weaknesses: stuck in the US market (which is
stagnating), overseas ventures have been tentative,
overrelia nce on Budweiser brand
Geograpllicnl i"flilence: US, Mexico, China
Interb rewAmBev
8"mds: Stella Artois*, Beck'soll, Brahma®
Strengths: world's largest brewer by volume; has global
influence; fas t growth
Weaknesses: may be growing too fast; hasn't integrated
previous acquisitions well
Geograpllical influence: Belgium, Brazil (and the rest of
Latin America), the Netherlands, Canada, the UK,
Studen ts discuss the question in small groups. Ask them
to think of reasons to justify thei r answer.
Possible answer
Probably InterbrewAmBev, as it is not stuck in a
stagnating market, and has spread its influence over a
greater number of markets globally. It doesn't rely on
just one strong brand, but has several well-known
4 Students work alone, then compare answers with a partner.
1 Studen ts look at the three presentation stages and
predict possible phrases, then read the text to check their
I A.5 you know, I'm here today to
2 First of all, Next, Finally
3 I'd like to thank you all
2 Students work in pairs.
9 flOe
3 (C.))
Students listen to check their answers.
Students read the text about types of merger. Discuss the
two questions as a class. Ask students to think of
examples from their own country or industry.
The merger described in the text is a horizontal merger.
You r Turn !
Students discuss the questions as a class. Encourage any
students with personal experience of mergers or joint ventures
to talk about them.
Possible answers
A merger is a long·term jOining together of two companies.
A joint venture is set up between two companies for a
page 81
1 Discuss the questions as a class. If you have a mixed
nationality class, you could quickly discuss differences in
coffee-making between different countries.
The range of products available seems 10 have
expanded and the machines have become more
sophisticated. The greater choice of models reflects
the different ways of preparing coffee (though this mar
be morc truc of the UK than students' own cou ntries).
2 This would depend on what you are used to buying.
Price and quality have probably stayed more or less
constant for standard models but there are now more
luxury models on the market with high price tags.
Staying competitive
2 The modern book market has been affected by the
entry of large new onli ne sellers and the bargaining
power o f the consumers may mean they will go for
the cheapest option, i.e. that of the biggest online
retailers. T here is also rivalry among existing
booksellers to stay in the market. Michael Porter's
comments o n competition here do no t mention the
importance of being able to invest, in this case, in
new technology. In the case of Bibliofile, as they
reacted too late to the th reat of the Inte rnet, their
competitors would have benefited ( rival ry among
existing firms ) and they face growing pressure from
online booksellers (threat of new entran ts).
2 Students work in groups to i:J.bel the graphs. Check that
students know which kind of graph I chart is used fo r
which purpose. They then go on to st udy the
abbreviations used in the notes.
Possible answ ers
1 Graph a: sales
Graph b: production costs
Graph c: share of income from Caetano's prod ucts
2 v. = very
imp!. = important
wI = with
3 Students work in small groups to prepare the
presentation. Tell students they can take notes or write
cards to help them du ring the presentation, but they
shouldn't write the whole text and read it o ut. They
could use the fo llowing presentation structure:
• Introduce yourself. your position, and subject.
• Explain how you've organized your presentatio n, say
how long it sho uld last, and welcome questions.
• Background information to the problem a nd research.
• Explai n the optio ns an d recommendatio ns.
• Close the presentation and invite questions.
2 Allow students time to read the employees' comments,
then ma rk each comment '0' for optimistic, 'N' fo r
neutral, or 'P' fo r pessimistic. What is the balance of
feeling at Bibliofile? (Probably neutral, bordering o n
pessimistic.) Students vote on how tlley feel about
Bibliofile's fut ure, ra ting th eir feelings from 1 (very
pessimistic) to 5 (very optimistic). Ask fo r a show of
hands for each number and write the results on the
boa rd. Studen ts calculate the genera l feel ing of the class.
Groups make their presentations. Students in the
audience should be encouraged to ask q uestions and
pa rticipate in feedback about language use.
Students wo rk in small groups to create a stra tegy fo r
Bibliofile. Different members of the group can present
the various parts of the strategy.
page 84
1 Students work in pairs.
In this case study, studen ts take on the role of management
consultants to analyse a company's business and suggest
ways in which it can im prove. The case study involves a
magazine publisher and mail-order book com pany which is
being overtaken by its online com petitors. Introduce the
topic by asking students if they buy books online or in
booksto res. Why might they prefer to buy online? Why
might they prefer to buy in a bookstore?
2 Students read the tip about the language of reports.
1 Students read the background information on
Bibliofile and look at the tip, then discuss their answers
as a class.
Possible answe rs
Bibliofile has fa iled to respond qu ickly enough to
the changing pricing strategies now operat ing in the
UK. It has also failed to foresee the importance of
onli ne sales and has not invested enough money o r
expertise in setting up its own websi te.
options: b, e.
recommelldatiollS atld conclusions: d , g
background: f. a
results: c, h
Students work in pairs to find examples of the language
mentioned in the tip.
all adverbial phrase: Clearly (a)
passive voice: action must be taken (a). we were invited to
evaluate (f)
tile illfillitive used to illtroduce new optiotls: o ne
possibility is to design (b), one possibility is to find (e)
4 Studen ts read the sentences again to match the forma l
and informal vocabulary.
asked: invited
Staying competitive
make slIre: guarantee
bought: purchased
give a job to: hi re
t"ink about: consider
do (research): conduct
5 Students work together to produce the reports in class or
for ho mework. Small groups decide who will write
which sections. Studen ts could then pass their written
work to the others in their group to comment on in
terms of content and accuracy.
Model report
Confidential Report: the way ahead for Althrops
Althrops has long been a household name fo r its high
quality cookware. However. at the extraordinary general
meeting of 15 January the board accepted the
resignations of five senior managers. FoUowing the
resignation of the old management team, we were
invited to evaluate the company's position.
We cond ucted research among consumers of a wide age
range. Some had purchased Althrops' products. Others
had purchased cookware from o ther manufacturers
within the past year. Please see Appendix I for details of
research methodology.
The cha rts and g raphs below illustrate our principal
• production costs a re 12% higher than the industry
• net income has fallen by 38% in the last three years
• A1lhrops cookware is perceived as old-fashioned and
expensive by 75% of consumers between the ages of
twenty-five and fi fty
• the top purchasing priorities for today's consumers
are: price, design, and durabili ty
In our consideration, the above find ings should be cause
for alarm to the board. The options available to us then,
necessarily reflect the urgency of this si tuation and are
listed below:
• to find a buyer for the Althrops name and trade
m ark, or a company to manufacture under licence
• to enter into a merger with one of our major
• to consolidate the positive aspects of our position by
reducing o ur overall operation and concentrating on
our up-market ra nge
• to create a strategy which will ultimately enable
Althrops to re-establish itself as market leader
Recommendations and conclusions
Once a n innovative and pionee ring company, A1thro ps
has relied too heavily on its established range of
products. O ur team has seen no reason why the trend of
d ecline in sales outl ined above should stop, if no action
is taken to halt it. However, we have been impressed with
the commitm enl and enthusiasm shown by the new
management team and recommend the latter of the
options above to the board.
T he new management should be in no doubt that
immediate action must be taken in order to guarantee
short-term survival, we therefore recommend:
• a totally new Research and Development programme
should be set up without d elay.
• A1throps sho uld immediately recruit a world class
designer to produce a new range of products to be
backed up by an advertising cam paign fea turing a
celeb rity chef.
• Current costs are unacceptable. Head office and
p roduction fac ility costs must be cut - see Appendix
In the longer term , we believe the company should:
• be read y to launch a new product within three years.
• launch an economy range o nce the new p roduct has
established itself in the market.
This report was submhted to Ms Penn y Althrop. Chief
Executive Officer of A1throps Cookware on 4th April.
International busi ness
This unit addresses international trade. Students lo ok at
export and import documentation and read about container
Trust. The exporter wants to be paid im mediately for
the goods they have sent.
2 Trust. The im porter wants to be sure of receiving the
goods before paying fo r them.
3 A letter of credit is used.
shipping. Passive forms are reviewed and stu dents practise
language for welcoming visitors to their company. They also
practise describing processes and analyse poster presentations.
«. )
Students listen and check their a nswers in pairs.
The letter of credit is a promise from the importer's
bank that the exporter will be paid.
2 The bill of lading is a document which accompanies
the goods from their sta rting point to their
destination. It entitles the buyer to collect the goods.
1 Allow students lime to read th e text, then discuss as a
Possible answer
If sectors of public services and the economy are being
seriously depleted by the brain drai n, thcn there would
seem to be good rcason for the govern ment to be
concerned. In New Zealand there is a part icular problem
with IT professionals leaving. There is, however, such a
thing as ' brain circulation' between countries, where
highly ed ucated workers leave their country of origin for
a period before returning. New Zealand might have to
attract the kind of businesses that can pay these people
the salaries they expect in order to keep them there, o r
persuade them to come back.
2 Ask students what 'the brain drain' is (the loss of skilled
personnel and academics through emigration). Students
then work in small groups to talk about their own
country's experience of the brain drain. Ask each gro u p
to feed back to the whole class.
c(. » Students work in pairs to order the stages
An swers
1 Stu del1(s work alone to m atch the definitions. then check
answers as a class.
2 Students find the phrases in listening script 9. 1 on page
3 Students discuss their personal experiences in pai rs.
Your Turn!
Students study the businessman's comments and discuss the m.
This provides an opportunity for them to think about the
possible problems involved in sell ing to overseas markets and is
a good introduction to the listening activity. Students can
discuss their ideas in small groups or pairs before leading on to a
whole class discussion.
I SS. then analyse the use of the passive. T hey can look
back at the definitions in I to help them.
We are more interested in what bo th sides have to d o,
tha n who makes them do it.
2 The agent is assumed .
3 We are interested in what happens to the letter rather
than who uses it.
3 Students work in pairs to find present, future. perfect. o r
modal examples.
( (I))) Students work in small groups to read the
questions and predict the a nswers. Students then listen
to check their predictions.
Present passive
when tile goods are sellt by the exporter; the letter of
credit is set IIp by the buyer; the documents are presented
Future passive
you can never be sure that YOIl will be paid
Perfect passive
International business
after the order lias been agreed
Modal passive
they \Valli to be paid immediately; which documents lleet!
to be preseme(/
40: The length, in feet , of a container that would today
cost $2,200 to ship from North America 10 Europe. 40
feet = approximately 13 metres.
7,000: The number of standard containers that ships can
2,500: The cost in dollars of transporting a 40 ft
container from North America 10 Eu rope in 1980.
4 Students work alone, then compare answers in pairs.
2 Everything is being done to speed up your o rder.
3 Your request for a leiter of cred it has been processed.
4 The goods were stolen while they were in transit.
5 My exports are dealt with by a freight forwarder.
6 The cargo was lifted from the hold with a crane.
7 A way should be fou nd of making it more efficient.
5 St udents work alone, then compare answers in pairs.
Students read the text again and answer the questions,
then compare answers with a partner.
1 by
3 on
4 with
5 with
6 by
7 of
1 Draw a table on the board with three rows, road, silip,
and air, and two column headings, benefits and risks.
Brainstorm ideas from the students to complete the table.
Possible answers
slow, traffic delays
a lot o f space
slow, weather dependent
expensive. limited space
Set a clea r time limit to encourage students to scan the
text and not to read every word. Check answers with the
whole class.
8 tlr: A si mple box is the 8 th wonder of the world.
100.000,000,000: The value in dollars of the shipping
1960s: The time when containers transformed seaborne
freight .
8-JO: The annual expansion in percentage of goods
shipped in conta iners.
3: the percentage by which expansion of container
shipping outstrips growth in world economy per year.
10: The number of hours it can take for a ship to be in
and out of a port.
Because it has massively reduced the cost of shipping
goods in the last thir ty yea rs.
In the 1960s.
It has allowed operators to reduce their paperwork
and cut out the middleman and enables customers to
track their consignments mo re closely.
By about eight to ten per cent a year.
It didn't protect the goods against theft or bad
By using a specially built crane to lift the co ntainer
out of the ship.
No, they have fa llen.
It has enabled manufacturers to site their production
in countries where labour is cheaper, and it has
enabled foreign traders to compete with local traders.
4 St udents work alone, then compare answers with a
I docks
2 cranes
3 paperwork
4 consignment
5 cargo
6 freight
7 vessel
5 Allow students time to find the words in the article.
shrunk (paragraph I )
vibrant (paragraph 2)
3 knot (paragraph 2)
4 track (paragraph 2)
5 boo ming (paragraph 3)
6 fe tch (paragraph 6)
Your Turn!
Students should enjoy this opportunity to think about other
wonders of the modern and business world. They can discuss
their ideas in groups before making a presentation to the rest of
the class to explain the reasons for their choice.
International business
page 90
page 91
lead-in (optional)
lead-in (optional)
Ask students what t hey know about sil k production. Can they
You could start by eliciting from students what they already
know about chocolate production. without going into too much
detail. Where is it produced? What are the ingredients? How is
it priced in students' countries?
outline the main stages? Writ e up their ideas on the board, t hen
ask them to look at the illustrations in 2 on page 90. Are their
ideas represented in the illustrations?
1 Students work alone, then compare answers with a
«. ) Students listen to check their answers.
Ie 2d
3 Remind students to use the pictures as visual dues fo r
the ordering activity. Allow them a few minutes to put
the process into the correct order, then check their
answers with a partner before checking answers with the
whole class.
4 If st udents need morc help. you could ask these concept
questions: What hatches into silkworms? (eggs), What
creates a fille thread? (carefully undoing the cocoon).
In the fi rst sentence, wllich refers to a single word (eggs).
In the second sentence, which refers to a clause (Each
cocoon is carefully llndone.)
5 Before students begin , remind them of the different
relative pronouns: whidl, who, where. whell, fllat, etc.
Students work in pairs, analysing the sentences in 3, then
check answers with the whole class.
which refers to a clause
no relative pronouns
which refers to a clause
that refers to a word
which refers to a word
where refers to a word
that refers to a word
no relative pronouns
1 Students work in pairs to prepare their presentation.
Refer them to Mei's talk in Lallguage for and ask them to
prepare what they're going to say before starting.
Rem ind students to usc the passive fo rm to describe the
process, and to use relative pronouns where necessary.
& 2 Students read the backgro und information first.
Check that they understand the situation: Where are the
compollcllfs CIIrrelltly mallufactured? (abroad), Wllere are
the components currently assembled? (in Canada), Why
does it watlt to construct its own productioll facility
abroad? (because it has been having problems with the
suppliers of (he components).
Divide the class into three groups: A. B, an d C. The A
students read about the first potential market, Asia, the B
studen ts read about Latin America, and the C students
read about Europe. In their groups, students discuss the
information and draw up a list of the risks and benefits
attached to their potential market. Allow about ten
minutes for this preparatory work.
Reorganize into groups of mixed A, B, and C st udents.
The groups exchange information about the risks and
benefits of locating a pla nt in each of the three markets,
then decide where the factory should be built and
whether it should be a small or large fa cto ry. Each group
reports back to the class, giving reasons for their
Possible answers
As the chances of a growing ma rket are o nly assessed as
being 60%, students may reach the conclusion that
Kasada should start cautiously by building a small
fac tory. This would also e nable the company to staff the
facto ry at management and core level mainly with
expatriate Canadians initially, giving them a couple of
years to assess the success of th e factory before moving
on to employ local staff.
There are risks and benefits associated with each
potential market:
International business
A - risks
• possible political instability may lead to labour
• bad publicity at home if seen 10 use child labour
• unreliability of port facilities may affect shipping of
goods back to Canada
A - benefits
• cheap labour
• low initial financial outlay, with tax incentives
• well·educated, computer· literate local staff available
• opportunity to learn from other Canadian
companies' experience in this market
B - risks
• unstable economic situation will make production
costs difficult to predict
• possible political instability may make economic
si tuation worse
• earthquake
• difficulty in retaining IT staff
B - benefits
• low labour and production costs
• excellent transport infrastructure
• well·educated local staff ava ilable
C- risks
• high ini tial financial outlay required
• possibility of political change, affecting tax incentives
• high transportation costs
• large amounts of papenvork may reduce the
efficiency of the transportation links
• high wage costs
• strong unions and employment laws may limit
productivity of staff
C - benefits
• very stable government
• tax incentives
• excellent transport links
• well·educated local staff
putting a limit on the amount of cash that can be
demanding stricter banking laws and closely
mo nitoring staff
looking out fo r the involvement of unusual financial
institutions in transactions
keeping informed about client's business.
2 Before students turn to File 16 on page 130, ask them to
look again at the poster and analyse the way that the
information is presented. Draw their attention to the use
of humorous illustrations to enliven the poster. and the
'chunking' of information into short bullet points.
Students work in pa irs to discuss the information in File
16, think about how they can divide it into short bullet
points, and al so how it can be illustrated.
3 Students work in groups of three or four for this activity.
Hand out poster·size paper and colour pens to each
group. Allow groups about ten minutes to prepare a
draft o f their poster. Students can complete their final
version posters in class, o r for homework if you run oul
of time. Each group should present the information on
the poster to the rest of the class. Encourage the
audience to ask questions and participate in giving
Model answer
This is a How-diagram to show the passage of a web page
through the Internet.
How a web page is transferred over the Internet
CD It is broken up into many same-sized pieces, called
CD A header is added to each packet, explaining where
the packet comes from and where it should go.
page 94
Students look at ways to present information in a large
format. This is common in presentations and may use the
medium of an enlarged computer screen image, a
transparency projection, a flip chart. or a poster. At the end
of this section students will prepare a poster themselves so
you'll need poster·size paper and coloured pens.
Each packet makes its own route through a web of
computers until it reaches its destination.
If any packets a re missing or damaged, the
destination sends a message back to the original
location, asking for the packet to be resent.
1 Students discuss the questions as a class.
I To inform the banking sector about money
laundering and how they ca n fight it.
2 The poster mentions the followin g ways of
combating money laundering:
• making ID checks of all people depositing money in
their bank
The packets are then put back together to form a web
page again. using the information in the headers.
The software for receiving, sending, and checking these
packets is called TCPII P (Transmission Control
ProtocoUlnternet Protocol). Every computer connected
to the Internet has this software.
Human resources
This unit looks at recruitment fro m the points of view of
both employers and job applicants. Students discuss CV
fraud and interview techniques and read about employers'
methods for ensuring staff loyalty. They study phrasal verbs
and practise handling questions in job interviews.
1 If your class has little work experience. elicit answers
from the whole class. If they have work experience. they
can discuss the points in pairs. Do they have any
p refe rred method of job searching? Why?
tt:<. ))
on the walls of the classroom. The English language press can
provide plenty of these, often dedicating different days of the
Check students understand:
on tile grtlpevine: through word of mouth , the way
rumours a re communicated
brain drtlin: a country's loss of highly trained personnel
or academics abroad
work placement: a period of practical training in a
week to particular fields. If you have access to the Internet. you
page 96
lead·in (optional)
You could begin by putting up a vari ety of job advertisements
can find many other job positions, often listed on company
websites under Jobs or Vacancies.
1 Students read the text and discuss the questions as a
class. Check students understa nd:
embellishments: unreliable additions to create a better
Possible answers
I It's so common because of the desperation of
applicants to get shortlisted in an increasingly
competitive job market.
2 Businesses naturally don't want d isho nest staff.
3 This is a question of degree, and perhaps also what is
being exaggerated. It would be dishonest to lie about
qualifications, but understandable to exaggerate
interest in social activities which might be considered
desirable for a job - playing a team sport, for
\ 2 You could write up the fo llowing different examples of
'embellishments' on the board:
lying about qualifications
lying about 1I0bbies
exaggerating one's role in a company
making up details to jill embarrassing gaps in your CV
pretellding to be in cllarge of a larger team than you really
using a !rie"d I re/ative as a referee. but pretending tlley
are tI work connection.
Students work in pairs or small groups and discuss
which of these they would or would not use.
Students listen a nd complete the 'method' column.
2 Students listen again and complete the rest of the
table. then compare answers with a partner before
checking with the whole class.
Person a
method: 6 being headhunted
how he I she feels about the job: flatte red, pleased
how he I she is rewarded: golden hello, better prospects,
more money
Person b
method: 2 famil y contacts
how he I she feels about the job: it's OK. but would have
liked to work outside the family company first. can move
on if wants to
how he I she is rewarded: profit share
Person c
metllod: 3 networking a nd professional contacts
how he I slle feels about the job: pleased although job is
how lie I slle is rewarded: good company reputation,
amazing bonuses
Person d
method: 5 speculative application made by app roaching
organizations di rectly
how he I she feels about the job: it's OK, but the job's not
very exciting
how he / she is rewarded: good pay
Person e
method: I careers and placement services
how he / she feels tlbout the job: pleased - it's a cool
how he I she is rewarded: good training possibilities,
opportunities for promotion
Person f
method: 4 responding to advertisements
Human resources
how he / slle [eels about tile job: happy, although fi nancial
rewards aren't good
how he / slle is rewarded: a worthwhile career
If your students arc all from o ne country, discuss this
as a whole class. If they are from different countries.
they can discuss in small grou ps, exchanging
infor mation about their own country.
3 Students work alone, then compare answers with a
1 A demanding job requires a lot of effort from you; a
challerlging job is stimulating and invites you to make
a success of it.
2 A worthwhile job has a good p urpose, and a
rewardillgone provides satisfaction.
3 A person who is skilled has learnt a lot about the job,
while a Inlet/ted person shows natural ability.
4 A dead-end job is onc with no future, in o ther words,
no prospects.
5 The next nmg on a ladder is a move up in a career
structure, while a stepping stone is a means to reach
another goal.
6 To pull strings for someone is to use your influence in
an o rga nization to do them a favour; to head/llmt
them is to persuade them to take a new job.
7 Aptitude is a natural talent for something; an attitude
is a fixed way o f thinking or behaving.
8 A golden hello is a sum of m oney paid to a new
recruit when they join the com pany; golden handcuffs
is a high salary intended to stop the employee
looking for a new job.
Your Turn!
1 Students work in pairs to read and comment on the elevator
Groups appoint a timekeeper. Each student says which job
they're going to ask for. Students take t urns to pitch for the
job in sixty seconds. At the end, groups report to the class
on their winners and why they were chosen,
1 Students d iscuss the first text in pairs, Would they put
their own lives at risk to hel p a friend?
Note: Ke rry Packer, at the time of writing, is the r ichest
man in Australia. Surviving child hood polio, he greatly
increased the family wealth through his dealings in the
media industry. He owns Channel Nine 1V network a nd
publishes about 60% of all the magazines sold in
2 Check students understand: sectors of the economy,
Economies m ay be divided into three sectors:
primary- agriculture and the extraction of minerals
secondary- manufacturing, induding related services
tertiary- services, induding distribution, health, education.
Students discuss the questions in small groups.
Possible answers
In Britain, at least, most shortages are in the secon,j"ri
and tertiary sectors. A recent report daims that nearly
two-thirds of British firms are experiencing shortages
of skilled staff, 62% in services in general, 58% in
manufactu ring, 54% in dist ribu tion and 62% in Dubhel
services. The technology and engineering fields
been particularly seriously affected.
2 All kinds of organizations and businesses can have
staff turnover. These would typically have low pay
generall y, or low pay compared with the same work in
other organizations, low morale, no career structure,
minimal benefits, a poor work environmen t, long
hours, low company prestige, etc.
3 To encourage staff to stay, companies could increase
salaries and benefits such as health insurance and
pensions, as well as incentives such as bonus schemes;
they could offer in-house training, personal career
development consultation, and generally improve the
work ellvironment.
3 Check students understand:
a will: a document stating who your property passes to in
the event of your death
wise: sensible, knowledgeable
diversity of lifestyles: different ways of living
serf worker with low pay and few rights.
Allow studen ts time to read the questions and scan the
article for the information. Studen ts compare answers
with a partner.
I So they can payoff student loans more easily.
2 Because different people have different lifestyles and
will therefo re appreciate different benefits.
3 The answer to this question probably depends on how
badly the company needs its employees and how
difficult recruitment is. The more difficult recruitment
is, and the more a company relics on its employees, the
more that employee will have the advantage over the
employer and can expect to be treated like a customer
as weU as an employee.
4 They try to look after their staff as if they were
unive rsity students. It seems very successful if only 8%
turnover is a result of the policy.
5 They try to make the office more like home.
6 You may end up working longer and longer hours
without overtime payments.
7 The phrase More worryillg still indicates that he has
negative feelings about it.
4 Students discuss the questions in groups.
Human resources
Elicit the difference in meanings from the whole class.
1 Students read the explanation of phrasal verbs, then look
back at the Reading passage on page 98 to find the
ph rasal verbs in bold . Studen ts read the sentences
containing the phrasal verbs so they understand the
con text in which they are used. Students then do the
matching activity alone, before checking answers with a
6 St udents work in pairs. then check their ideas in a
d ictionary. Remind students that phrasal verbs are
ext remely commo n in English, and that their fl uency will
improve if they can learn and use a large bank of phrasal
I a picked up means learnt informally
b pick up means improve
2 a make out means read I understand
2 b made Ollt means pretended
3 a take off means to remove clothing
3 b took off means began to fly
4 a put up means increased
4 b put someone IIp means to offer them a room to
get on with: have a good relationshi p with someone
build up: develop
payoff. fin ish repaying a debt
hold onto: keep
/umditlg Ollt: giving I distributing
go for: choose
come lip with: have the idea of
stay on: remai n after normal leaving time
look after: take care of
sort out organi ze I solve a problem
end lip: eventually fin ish
laid Ollt: arrange
stay in
7 Students work in pairs or small groups to identify the
grammatical d ifferences.
2 Students complete the sentences alone. then check
answers with the whole class.
I a
2 a
2 b
3 a
3 b
4 a
4 b
I to pay it off
2 stay on
3 ended up
4 hold onto them
5 sort them out
6 go for
3 Students complete the sentences in pairs, then check
answers wi th the whole class. If necessary, find the first
phrasal verb with the whole class.
the ph rasal verb is used transitively
the phrasal verb is used intransitively
the object separates the phrasal verb
the phrasal verb is used intransitively
the object separates the phrasal verb
the phrasal verb is used intransitively
the object comes after the phrasal verb
the object separates the phrasal verb
a payoff, hold onto, sort out, go for
b stay on, end up
c hold onto, go for
page1 00
1 Students co mplete the questions in pairs.
4 The sentences highlight a va riety of different grammatical
errors: word order, wrong a uxiliary verb, and incorrect
verb fo rm. Give students time to identify and correct the
errors. Students compare their answers with a partner
before checking answers with the whole class.
Students listen to check their answers.
I Sentence b is wrong. It should be: The value of shares
has gone up.
2 Sentence a is wrong. It should be: The applicatio n
fo rm was sent back because he hadn't filled it in
3 Sentence b is wrong. It should be: If we increase our
sales fo rce, we'll be able to break illto the market.
4 Sentence b is wrong. It should be: I am looking
fo rward to hearillg fro m you next week.
What do you see yourself ...
How quickly do you learn
What was the most important thing you learnt ...
Would you rather be ...
Do you thi nk you could ...
Could you tell us ...
I'd like you to describe .. .
Would you mind telling us .
(C. ) Allow students time to read through the replies
and match them to the interview questions. Students
listen to check their answers.
Human resources
Ie 2c
4 Students work in small groups to comment on the
replies in 3 before checking answers with the whole class.
Possible answers
a This is a negative way of talking about office-based
work. It would be better for the interviewee to
comment on positive and negative aspects of both
office-based and non-office-based work.
b This sounds as if it might be rather deceitful. It's also
not really highlighting a skill. It would be better to
give an example that shows off a particular skill like
managing people, dealing with deadlines, sticking to
budgets, etc.
e OK. but the interviewer has asked about a skill, not a
specific example.
d OK.
e This answer may come across as rather arrogant. It
also shows that the candidate is not intending to stay
at the company long-term if they are thinking about
setting up their own business.
f This may come across as abrupt and rude. If the
candidate is unwilling to discuss salary, they can use a
more subtle avoidance technique, for example: 'Well,
rather than give an exact figure, let's say if's in the
region of 30-40 thousand euros:
g OK.
h This is not a bad answer. However, the ideal 'greatest
weaknesses' response will actually highlight a
strength. For example: 'I find it very difficult to deal
with people who are not as exacting in their
standards as I am', or ' I can sometimes overlook the
finer details of a job because I am dedicated to
achieving the deadlines:
5 Students might be able to use some of the ideas they
came up with in their groups when discussing the
questions in 4. Encourage students to role-play an
interview, with one student playing the part of the
interviewer and the other the part of the candidate. Ask
the interviewer to make notes about the candidate's
responses and then feed back to the candidate after the
interview is over.
«. )
Allow students one minute to read the
descriptions and identify the interview types. Students
listen and m atch.
Karl: panel interview
Eija: serial interview
Maria Alejandra: one-to-one interview
Brian: group interview
3 Students discuss the methods in pairs.
Possible answers
The most stressful for candidates: The panel interview is
probably the most stressful for the candidate as if's more
difficult to create a rapport with a panel than a single
interviewer. However, if the candidate is Jacking in
confidence, a serial interview may be more daunting.
Gives the most accurate impression of a candidate: If the
employer is looking for someone who will get on with
people and work well in a team, the serial interview may
be more appropriate. If they are looking for people to
play different roles in the company, a group interview
may be better. Panel interviews often demonstrate a
candidate's ability to perform weU under pressure.
Students work in groups, each preparing questions for
one of the jobs.
Students prepare the questions together with one
person writing them down.
2 Make sure students understand that they're going to
be interviewers for o ne job but cand idates for
another. The graphic designers and customer service
candidates should be interviewed by panels, while the
PA could be interviewed by the serial one-to-one
method. If possible use three different rooms. One
student from each group moves to another group to
be interviewed at the same time. When the interview
is over, the candidates return to their original group
and the next interview begins. At the end. each group
selects the strongest candidate, giving reasons for
their choice.
page 101
1 You could expand this into a general discussion of
interview experiences. Discuss what form the
interview(s) took (Was it one-to-one or were there more
people involved?). Do they think the interview reflected
how they perform in their current job. or would bave
performed if they had got the job? Why?
1 AJlow students time to read the information about
Drivers Sport. Students brainstorm the qualities of an
ideal candidate for the post. Accept all students'
suggestions and write them on the board. Students work
in pairs to rank the qualities in order of importance.
2 Students discuss the applicants' details and shortlist two
candidates. Encourage them to explain the reasons for
their choice.
3 In groups, students decide who will be the interviewers
and who will be the candidates. If possible, candidates
should prepare for their interview in another room while
interviewers prepa re their questions. Candidates wait
outside the 'interview room: Ask the interviewers to
begin with some small talk: the candidate's travel
arrangements, their hotel, etc. Specify a time limit for
each interview and try to ensure that each round of
interviews starts and fi nishes together. At the end, groups
report back on which candidate they selected. and why.
page 104
1 Students read the three definitions on the left-hand side
of the page before starting the task. Students work in
pairs to identify the three letters and put the sentences in
the correct order, then compare their answers with
another pair. When the correct order has been
established, students can write down the three extracts in
the correct order to use as models for the next activity.
An application letter
I am writing to express an interest in the post of website
analyst which was advertised in last week's edition of
Bizztalk. I am a twenty-fou r-year-old Computer Science
graduate with two years' work experience. r am currently
working in a computer start-up. r have been searching
for exactly this type of opportunity for a long time and r
believe that I could have the combination of the right
academic background and experience for this post.
An invitation to an interview day
Further to your application we would like to invite you
to attend an interview day at our assessment centre on
23 rd June. The day will begin at 9.45 with two one-hour
aptitude and psychometric tests. After lunch there will be
a group task which will be observed by members of our
team. At some point in the day you will have the
opportunity to discuss your application with a member
of the Human Resources department. We should have
finished by 17.45 at the latest.
Human resources
A;ob offer
r have pleasure in informing you that you r job
application fo r the above post has been successful. We
would like to make you a provisional job offer
depending on the reception of satisfactory references
and original copies of your qualifications. This
appointment will be at scale three of our general
management grade and the starting salary is currently
£23,000. reviewed after six months. This is a permanent
post subject to the completion of our standard threemonth trial period. If you still wish to take up this offer
please sign and return the letter of acceptance to us by
18 th September.
2 Students use the model texts from 1 to write thei r own
letters, based o n the information given. They can choose
o ne of the three letters described. Remind students of
the following rules for formal letter-writing.
• Correct layout: sender's address in the top right hand
corner, addressee's address below this on the left.
Use Dear Sir / Madam at the beginning of the letter
and Yours faithfully at the end, if you don't know the
addressee's name.
Use Dear Mr / Ms ... at the begi nnjng of the letter
and Yours sincerely at the end, if you do know the
addressee's name.
• Remember to include the date and any reference
number that might have been used in the original
• Divide the letter into topic paragraphs.
Students can write up their letters for homework and
then bring them into the next lesson to compare with a
partner and correct.
Human resources
Model letters
15th April
Dear Sir I Madam
International Summer Camps Manager s
I am writing to ap ply for the post o f summer camp
manager which was advertised in yesterday's edition
of The Swansea Herald.
I am a twe nty-one-year-old Bulgarian and am
currently completing the final year of my degree in
Sports Science at the University of Swansea in Wales. I
have previous teaching experience. having worked as a
teaching assistan t in a school in Burgas before I
started my degree.
Having lived in Wales for three years, my English is
excellent and I am an en thusiastic sportsperson,
playing football, tenn is, and basketball regularly. I am
very keen to work with people from all kinds of
different backgrounds and cuhures, and feel that my
own experience, as a teacher, a sports science student,
and as a foreign national working abroad will be very
relevant fo r this post.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours faithfully
Georgi Petrov
18th April
Dear Mr Petrov
lntemational Summer Camps Managers
Thank you fo r your letter of 15th April, applying for
the post of Summer Camp Manager.
Further to your application, we would like to invite
you 10 attend an interview d ay at our assessment
centre on 28 th April.
The day will begin al 8.45 with a o ne-hour fitness test.
Following a short break, there will then be a one and a
half hour aptitude test. After lunch there will be a
group task for which you will be required to
demonstrate your team work skills and show your
ability to interact with people of different
backgrounds, abilities, and cultures. At some point in
the day you will have the opportuni ty to d iscuss your
application with a member of the Personnel
Department. We a im to have finished by 17.00 at the
Please let me know if you will be available to attend
this interview d ay as soon as possible.
Yours sincerely
Helen Dunsmore
Helen Dunsmore
Personnel Manager
The Beacon Organization
PO Box 765
30th Apri l
Dear Mr Petrov
International Summer Camps Managers
I have pleasure in informing you that your job
application for the above post has been successful. We
would like to make you a provisional job offer
depending on the reception o f satisfactory references
and original copies of your qualifications. This
appointment will be at scale nYo of our general
management grade and the salary will be €2,400 per
month. This is a three· month post, running from July
27 th to October 27 th . If you still wish to take up this
offer please sign a nd return the letter o f acceptance to
us by 12th May.
We look forward to welco m ing you to the Beacon
Yours sincerely
Helen Dunsmore
Extra activity
Students individually choose a real English language job
advertisement that interests them and write a letter of application.
Business start-up
This unit looks at the challenge of running your own
business. Students learn about fran chises and read about
\~o rking in a famil y business. They study adjective and
adverb patterns and language for responding to requests
and suggestions, and also practise writing a letter applying
for financial backing.
I You're supported to a certain extent by the franchisor.
The business plan has been t ried and tested elsewhere
and it's worked, so you have a greater probability of
success. You can start the business operating in a
relatively short time.
2 a 33%
b 500,000
c £10 billion
3 Students could try to answer without listening to the
recording again. Ask them to explain their false
page 106
2 F: True entrepreneurs will not want to follow other
people's rules.
3 T
1 Allow students a few minutes to rcad the text.
2 Students work in pairs to discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of self-employment.
Possible answers
You are your own boss.
You can work the hours to suit yourself.
You will b e highly motivated.
You will benefit directly from pro fits made by you r
You won't have the security of a guaranteed month ly
Working from home can be disruptive to home life.
No other employment benefits: pension, sick pay,
holiday pay, etc.
Can be very stressful.
Will be competing with large, well-establ ished
Ask students to guess the initial min imum
investment for a McDonald 's franc hise in Great Britain.
This was £250,000 in 2002. Students read the questions
before listening to part B.
From a few hundred to hundreds of thousands of
2 The franchisor takes a cut of the turnover, not the
profi t.
3 She mentions: national advertising, competitive
buying power, management systems, a logo,
reputation. She also mentions that the franchisor will
help with training. know-how, and offer help and
advice on any problems Ihal may arise.
4 Wi th a fra nchise you gel the brand's repu(ation and
competitive sales power.
4 .«.
page 106
)) Students read the questions and prediCl the
answe rs befo re listening to part C.
1 Students read the tip about fran chises, then discuss the
questions with a part ner.
Possible answer
The franchisor is guaranteed a sum of money from the
franchisee without being reliant on the franchisee's
success. The franchisee is given control of an operation
which is already successful withou t having to risk a large
amount of money o n start-up costs.
,,«. ))
Student's read the questions and predict the
answers, then listen to part A. Students compare answers
with a partner, before checking answers with the whole
1 Look for a sector wh ich is growing and where there's
not too much com petition. Also go to exhibitions,
buy magazines, and talk to people.
2 Find o ut how long they've been operating and talk to
existing franchi sees.
3 Be suspicious.
1 Studen ts work alone to match the definitions, then check
answers as a class.
Business start-up
I a hardly;:;; adverb: amy just
I b hard::: adjective: difficult
2 a late:::: adjective: the opposite of 011 time
2 b lately = adverb: recently
3 a nearly =adverb: almost
3 b 1Iear =adjective: opposite of far (in this context it
means the exam wiU be soon)
2 Students work in groups of three to find examples in
parts A, B. and C of listening script 11 .1, then exchange
2 At first I thought that he was an excellent candidate,
but eventually I came to the conclusion that he lacks
3 The more roads we build, the more devastated the
countryside will become.
4 I've ha rdly noticed any improvement in my com~'ut''''
since the extra memory was installed. I The extra
memory has made hardly any difference to the
performance of my computer.
S Travelling by train has been far quicker than d riving
would have been.
information and create further sentences using the
adjectives and adverbs. Check answers with the whole
Students will have met these adjectives and adverbs
before but some can cause confusion as 'false friends'
(i.e. they are similar to words in the student's own
language but have a different meaning). Check students
actual: real, e.g. This is all actual / realls"'-cel1t11ry Queen
Anne chair.
actually: in fact (not at the mometrt), e.g. Actually, I've
1Iever seen her before in my life.
really: in reality, similar to actually but stronger, e.g. This
is really /lot slIch a difficult exercise; very, e.g. It's really
cold today, isn't it?
eventlltl/: coming in the end as a result, e.g. Their i1labi/ity
to cotltrol spe/ldi/lg led to their eventual ba/lkruptcy.
evetltually: in the end (not if tlecessary, possibly), e.g. They
evetltllally solved their problems by hiri1lg a matlagement
shortly: soon, e.g. Shortly after the meeting she was told to
look for a tlew job.
3 Students work alone, then compare answers in pairs.
1 Sentence b: hardly any (adverb + determiner) is
stronger than not mild, (adjective) and suggests
almost no difference.
2 Sentence d: The positive far less (ad\'erb + adjective)
is stronger than Ilot qllite as (adverb + preposition).
3 Sentence f: The negative 110 easier (comparati\'e
adjective) is stronger than the easiest (superlative
4 Sentence g: The lotlger (adverb) with the less
(adjective) is stronger than Every extra (determiner +
adjective) with less (adjective).
4 Students work in pairs, before comparing answers with
the whole class.
Possible answers
There is no better way of going into business than
word of mouth.
page 108
1 Students work in pairs to discuss the question.
2 Check A students understand:
illusions. false hopes
reap the rewards. gain the benefi ts
reserJtment: bitter feelings
surveyor. somebody who measures and maps land before
constructio n
policy: a line o f action followed by a company, e.g. not to
accept expensive gifts from clients.
Check B students understand:
feud: a prolonged and bitter dispute
trend: general d irection or tendency
offspri1lg: a person's children (for mal)
committee: a bod y of people who take decisions on a
particular matter
drift; move slowly without any particular direction
keep a lid 011 samet/ling: keep a potentially dangerous
situation under control.
Students read their questions, then scan the article and
note down the answers.
Text A
1 You don't get the recognition you deserve and can be
resented by other people in the business. You don't
have any experience of work outside the family
business. You don't have the opportunity to learn
how to fail and make mistakes.
2 They are resented by other people in the busi ness
who feel that they lack the experience fo r the job that
they're doing.
3 They should insist that their children gain work
experience outside the family firm first. They should
ensure that thei r children do every job in the business
to gain all-round experience, to get to know
everyone, and to earn respect from the other workers.
I There can be terrible fe uds between different family
members. Siblings can be very competitive. There can
be arguments when the company founder stays on
past retirement or when the owner manager cannot
decide on a successor.
2 They should start an early d iscussion about passing
on the business, involve someone who is not directly
involved in the firm, and think about the future of
the business before selecting a successor.
3 They may not leave a clear succession plan, leading to
conflict and power struggles.
3 Students work in A I B pairs and exchange information
about the texts they have read. Remind them that they
should not refer to the texts themselves, only to the notes
they have made.
4 Students' own answers.
5 Students complete the sentences with the correct phrasal
1 step down
2 go into
3 sort out
4 put {me} off
5 hand {the business} over
6 end up
6 Students analyse the phrasal verbs using the grammar
information on page 99. They need to see if the phrasal
verb is transitive f intransitive. separable f unseparable.
step down does not have an object
go into needs an object
sort Ollt needs an object and separates
pill off needs an object and separates
hand over needs an object and separates
end up does not have an object (in the example sentence)
7 Students find words in the two texts to match the
Text A
setbacks. problems that stop progress
reaped the rewards: to gain the advantages of something
recognition: public acknowledgement that you have done
something well
resentment negative feelings caused by unfair treatment
policy: an official and principled way of doing something
feud: a long· term. unpleasant and personal argument
pitfall: a bad situation you can easily get into
a business vacuum: a time in a company where there is
no leadership or direction
a successor: a person who is promoted into another o ne's
old position
Business start-up
1 You could give students the following adjectives and ask
which ones they think would best describe the
atmosphere of the meeting: forma~ light-Irearted, seriolls,
carefree, relaxed, tense. (Although James is asking for risk
capitaJ, the relationship between the two men is
collaborative and positive.) Students read the questions
and predict the answers.
2 t{<Q)>> Students listen to check their answers to 1.
1 By presenting him with a sound business model
based on similar hotels in the area, the tourist
numbers in the area, and the growth that has been
forecast. He also shows that his figures are based on
detailed research by the government.
2 He wants to keep some of the figures private for the
time being.
3 «<Q))) Students predict the missing phrases, then listen
to check their answers.
we need to be sure
assure you that, It's quite viable given
are based on detailed research
do believe, welcome the chance
not prepared to
afraid that, remain confidential
don't mind. put off, until later
the same thing myself
4 Students work in pairs to match the definitions, then
check answers as a class.
Express sometlring certain: I can assure you that. we do
believe that
Agree: I was going to suggest the same thing myself.
Soften a statement I'm afraid that, If you don't mind,
I should mention that
Business start-up
Note: galore comes after a noun to indicate more than
plenty of something, e.g. Flowers galore!
page 111
At the time of writing, 3.5 million yen is approximately
1 Discuss the questions as a class.
2 Students work in pairs and exchange opinions about
Possible answers
USPs: Top Hole is fo r excl usively long-range driving
Jubiolation .
practice in a restricted space, under cover, and so
protected from British weather. At presen t, the concept
would be unique in the UK, though not of course in
Japan where the idea originated. Puddings Galore offers
a n international choice o f desserts served in large
Potet/tial cllstomer groups: Top Hole would be mainly
targeting men and speci fically, male middle-class
com muters. The main target category for Puddings
Galo re would be younger women.
Suitability: Angela and Maurice's age, and their
experience as City executives, may mean that they will
have more in common with and therefore more
understanding of the Top Hole market. However, from
the info rmation so far provided, Puddings Galore Illay
be a safer opt ion as it already has good recognition.
Explain that students are going to role-playa meeting
between the founde rs of lubiolation and potential
investors, Gravesen Inc. Studen ts read the ext racts from
Jubiolation's business pla n.
4 Students work in A and B groups (two or three students
per group) to prepare what they're going to say in the
meeting. Allow about ten minutes for this stage. If
possible, split the Jubiolation and Gravesen groups into
separate rooms.
5 The lubiolation and Gravescn representatives meet a nd
discuss their plans. Remind students to use the words
a nd phrases fro m th e Language for section.
Extra activity
During monitoring you may like to look closely at the language
the two sides use when parting. Useful expressions include:
It's been a pleasure (meeting you), Mr Nailer.
Nice to have met you too, Ms Smith. / It's been very interesting to
hove met you too, Ms Smith.
Well, thonks (or coming and tolking to us. we'll contact you again
very soon / we'll get back to you soon an your proposal.
Ha ve a good journey.
You could begin by telling the students they have each just
been given an unexpected cheque for £100,000 (about
€140,OOO). Brainstorm ideas with groups or the who le class
to find out wha t they wo uld do to make this money work
for them.
1 Allow students time to read about the Butlers and check
that they understand the situation.
Students work in pai rs to read details of the franchise
offers and decide on their advice to Angela and Mau rice.
Tell students they will have to present their findings to
the class, so they should consider the best way of
communicating their ideas, e.g. if possible, they could
prepare their work on overhead transparencies.
Possible answers
Requires tire biggest investmem: Excl uding the 10% slice
of turnover from both businesses, Top Hole requires a
total investment of £226,000 while Puddings Galore,
assumi ng the hiring of two extra slafT, would need
Has the greatest potelltial: Students should consider the
followi ng positive and negative points:
Puddings Galore
Positive poinrs:
There's a chance of expa nding to another branch if
The position would be very accessible.
There may well be a lot of people trying it for the
Negative points:
There's a lot of fast food competition in London.
There's much less profit per customer than Top Hole.
Top Ho le
Positive points:
They have been made redundant and awarded £100,000
in redundancy payments. They can't find new jobs, so
have decided to invest in a franchise.
2 Students work in pairs to read the articles and discuss
the questions.
It should attract players who don't have the time for a
rou nd of golf.
People can play despite poor weather and darkness.
The combined bar should attract more customers.
Negative poillts:
There are a 101 of relatively inexpensive golf courses in
Britain. The market is saturated in many parts.
Players are practising only a few kinds of shots, which
makes it less likely that they will return regularly.
There's Htde chance of expansion.
There would be little o r no passing trade.
4 Students work in pai rs to find at least six synonym s or
It would be difficult to sell the business to anyone
wishing to convert the property.
Has more chalice of breaking even quickly: This, of cou.rse,
depends on how well the businesses perform. Without
taking variable costs such as lax, depreciation, elc. into
account, the break even points arc as follows.
Top Hole - after 22,600 customers (£226,000 divided by
Puddings Galore - after 31,212 customers (£ 103,000
divided by £3.30).
4 Pairs take turns to make a short presentation on thei r
recommendations to Angela and Maurice.
Do the students have any ideas on a franchise that might work
in their country or countries? Hand out or display details of
franchises for the students to skim through and choose one that
interests them. If you have access to the Internet there are
several sites which provide lists and information on available
franchises . There are also specialist magazines and directories.
When the groups have decided, ask them to prepare answers to
the following Questions:
Why did they choose their franchise?
Whot would they need to do to bring it into operation?
What risks are involved?
In a subseQuent lesson, the groups should meet to present their
plans and comment on those of other groups.
page 114
1 Students read the background informatio n and discuss
the questions as a class.
2 Allow students a few minutes to complete the exercise
alone before comparing their answers with a partner.
All of the following pronouns and phrases refer to the
boot: a prototype boot, it, this dream, a business
investment opportunity, a concept. the inventio n, a boot.
the device.
5 Remind students of Jubiolation in the Speaking section
of this unit. Students work in pairs or grou ps to
compose a written proposal for the juice bar. based on
the model from Rudi Jacobson in 3. You may wish to
give students this writing task for homework.
Model letter
Extra activit y
Busi ness start-up
3 Students work in pairs.
These words and phrases refer back to other phrases or
ideas in the text and consequently show us how the
different sentences are linked together.
Dear Sirs
We are a group of business people who are writing to
you with a business investment opportunity that we feel
sure will be of interest. I have a background in financial
services at a well-known bank and another of my
partners is a professional chef with an innovative
approach to modern food preparation. Together we
feel we have made a real breakthrough in the food
away-from-home market.
This enterprise initially resulted from our observations
of the success of juice bars in the USA. We decided it
could be a winning move to combine this with the sale
of sa ndwiches made exclusively from organically
produced ingredients. In this belief we opened
' Jubiolation' in the Covent Garden area of Lond on.
There is no clearer indication of the success of this outlet
than the long queues to be seen there on any weekday
and an inspection of our accounts would simply confirm
its excellent fina ncial health.
Having proved that this business can work, our ambition
is now to expand the number of branches to certain
European cities where we feel confident it will perform
well. However, we recognize that doing so will req uire
the financial backing of an organization such as yours,
which shares our vision and enthusiasm. We believe that
you r financial expertise together with our clear
understanding of what the market wants in this area can
bring this dream to fruition.
I enclose a preliminary business plan for your
consideration. We would welcome the opportunity to see
you in person and discuss our plans and requirements in
further detail. In the meantime, we trust you will respect
the confidentiality of all aspects of our discussion.
Yours faithfully
Enc. Business plan
This unit addresses the importance of building and
maintaining a good reputation in business. Students look at
exam ples of b usinesses like Skoda and Puma which have
turned their repu tations around, and learn about VA LS
classifications. The use of articles is reviewed. Students
practise language for clarifying and checking facts and
information, and work on a case study developing
arguments for a nd against compensation claims.
1 Students discuss the questions in pa irs. French producers
claim that only the sparkling wine produced in a
delimited region north and east of Par is and known as
Cham pagne, is en titled to bear the name. O ther
sparkling wines made in France may not use the name,
and the name Champagne is also protected by treaty
with other European (and many other) wine-producing
nations around the world.
Lead-in (optional)
Write the name Skoda in large letters on the board. Then ask
the class to think of words or phrases associated wi th Skoda
cars, now and in the past. Accept all suggestions and write them
The Skoda Superb was the original. legendary
prestigious car, which stopped production when Skoda
was brought under state control in the fo rmer
Czechoslovakia. It has now been resurrected by
Volkswagen a nd is being marketed as a luxury car,
competing with Jaguar and BMW. It is different fro m
other vehicles in the Skoda ra nge because it targets a
different market: the upper- middle market, as opposed
to the non-status-conscious 'ordina ry people' market.
3 Find out what students know about how businesses
classify different groups of consumers.
Students read the tip about VALS classifi cations and
try to th ink of at least one person they know fo r each
category. Do they think that the classifications are
useful for marketing purposes? Can they think of any
other types of people that could be added to the list?
2 &<. ))
Students work in pairs, then listen to part B
again to check their answers.
aclJievers: more luxurious cars such as Jaguars or BMWs
emulators: Jaguars or BMWs, possibly the Skoda Superb
survivors: the old pre-Volkswagen Skodas
4 St udents work in pairs, d ividing up the words between
them. Then they compare their answers wi th another
pair before checking as a whole class.
I notorious, maligned
2 unreliable, untrustworthy
on the board. Ask students to assess the words and phrases: are
they mainly negative. positive, or neutral?
)) Students read the questions a nd work in pairs
to pred ict the answers. Students listen to part A to check
their predictions.
1 It is possible. but it requi res time and commitment.
2 Very bad - it was known as ' the brand from hell' and
there were many jokes about Skoda cars.
3 It was taken over by Volkswagen in 1991.
4 It appealed to the buyer's rational side, emphasized
the reliabili ty. safety, and good value o f the car, and
used an ironic advertising campaign.
«. )
Students listen to part B and compare their
answers with a partner before checking answers with the
whole class.
Possible answers
3 renowned: well-known and respected
prestigious: of high status
notorious: fam ous fo r being bad
legendary. very famous and ad mired
maligned: something which is maligned has had
negative, sometimes unfair things said abou t it
eminent: well known and very highly thought of
reliable: something that won't break down, or a
person who won't let you down
tfllstworthy: honest (of a person), reliable, and
5 If your students are all fro m o ne country, you can do
this as a whole class activity. If you have students from
different countries. they can analyse the words in small
groups, work out d efinitions in English, and then
volunteer their own language versions of the exp ressio ns.
Remind students of the importance o f understanding
idiomatic expressions, but also that they can be difficult
to use in exactly the right con text and can sound odd if
personnet He reduced the workfo rce by nearly 50%,
getting rid of many of the top managerial staff.
marketing: He targeted consumer segments like
snowboarders, car-racing fans, and yoga enthusiastsi he
catered to the varying tastes of Asian, North American.
and European consu mers; he forced the company to
think m ore about the consumer.
production: He shifted production to contractors in
China, Vietnam, and Taiwan; he made the production
managers move away from expensive German
production methods.
used incorrectly.
lousy poor, bad
shake off: get rid of, remove
resurrected: literally this means brought back to life;
metaphorically it m eans brought back into use
status symbols. possessions that shows someone's high
rank or wealth
boils dowtl to: actually means
snob appeal: high status pretensions
Your Turn!
This activity focuses students' attention on the importance of
reputation. Students work alone to complete the sentences,
then compare answers with a partner. If your students are from
different countries, this activity would probably work better if
they focused on globally known manufacturers.
Ask students what they know about the Puma brand. What
kinds of clothes does Puma prod uce? What reputation d oes
the company have? Would the students want to wear Pum a
clothes? Refer students back to the VALS classifications on
page 11 7 and ask them to identify the type of consumers
they think would wear Puma clothes.
1 Students scan the text to find the numbers and work out
what they refer to. Set a time limit for this activity.
26: The percentage by which German shares of Adidas
Saloman have risen since 7 March 2003.
29: The age of Pum a's chief executive. Jochen Zeitz. when
he joined the company in March 1993.
60s. The average age of chief executives in Germany.
250,000,000: The amount , in dollars. by which Puma was
in debt ten years ago.
1993: The year that Jochen Zei tz becam e chief executive
of Puma.
168.71: The share price in euros of Puma's Frankfurttrad ed shares.
1,500,000: T he number of cheap sneakers in the Puma
warehouse ten years ago.
Studen ts work in grou ps of three. each student
summ arizing the changes in o ne of the key areas.
Studen ts exchange inform ation in their groups, then
compare answers with the whole class.
Allow students time to look through the text again a nd
fin d examples of Puma's changing philosophy. Students
compare their answers with a partner before checking
answers with the whole class.
Possible answer
The company no longer considers Germany to be the
centre of the universe, but accepts the need to focus on
the needs of different consumers around the world. It
has repositioned Puma clothing and footwea r from
being exclusively a sportswear brand thai o nly appealed
to athletes. to being a leisurewear brand that appeals to
many diffe rent consumer segm ents.
4 Students discuss the question in sm aU groups. You could
then ask students to suggest other business ' hero es' from
their own o r other countries.
5 Students work alone to match the definitio ns, then
compare their answers with a partner before checking
answers with the whole class.
on the brink o f bankruptcy
shifted production
a me-too brand
Your Turn!
Students discuss the questions in small groups. You could ask
each group to name at least five top brands for each of the
three categories given, then tell each other how many of these
brands they themselves own.
3 Students work in pairs to identify the expressions.
to show tlley dOIl't IlIIderstalld: Visitors?
to clarify somethillg: Parki ng specifically, When exactly
1 Students work alone to match the descriptions before
checking answers with the whole class.
are they available?
to c1leck I recap wlult has beell said: As I understood it,
I've understood correctly, What does 'a bit of work'
2 Students use the descriptions in I as guidelines to help
them decide whether to use the definite. indefinite. or
4 If necessary, students can fin d the ph rases in the
zero a rticle in these sentences. They can work in pairs
and then compare answers with another pair before
whole class feedback.
listening script on page 158 and study them in context.
Students work in pairs or small groups to match the
phrases to their funct ions.
The. a, 0
the, the, a, 0
0 .3., 0
The. the
the, a
6 The, a, the, a
7 an, the
8 The. a, The, the
9 The. the. the
10 a, a, a
page 121
1 Ask if any of the students had any uncomfortable
1 Check students understand that a landlord lets a premises
to a tenat/t, and the agreement between them is the lease.
Students discuss the questions as a class.
Possible answers
The rent may be too high, not paid on time, or not paid
at all.
The conditions of the lease might not be respected or
might be unfair towards the tenant.
The landlo rd may complain that the tenant doesn't keep
the premises clean, and there is often disagreement over
maintenance: Is a particular maintenance job necessary?
Who should pay for it? Is lhe cost too high?
«<. »
Allow students time to read the q uestions, then
students listen to parts A and B to check their answers.
She thinks they're qui te well situated. She likes the
reception area and the fact that the offi ces are well
b She's worried about the availability of parking
spaces fo r visitors.
c She thought there was unlimited parking. In fact,
there is only parking for 10 vehicles.
2 a It might not be ready by the agreed date of 7U1
April, because there is some building work,
including work on dam p and on the roof, to be
2 b It is unlikely that she will take the property. A
strong indicator of this is the fact that she has no
fu rther questions to ask: she has clearly losl
experiences either ren ting or letting a property. Allow
students time to read their information for Meeting
Students work in pa irs to enact Meet ing one.
them to use phrases from the umgllageforsection.
page 120
Allow students the time to reflect on their language use
in Meeting one and note any additional phrases they
would like to use. Students work in pairs to enact
Meeti ng two. This is a telephone call so studen ts could
si l back-to-back.
1 Introduce students to the idea of a court case between a
claimant and a defendant. Ask students if they know of
any recent court cases involving famous compan ies.
What were the court cases about? Who won? Copy the
table from page 122 onto the boa rd and fi ll in the first
row about Case A with the whole class. Students work
alone 10 complete the information about Cases Band C,
then check answers with the whole class.
Case A - Claimant: William Hinton; Defendant:
Fanshawe Engineering
Case B - Claimant: Farinelli Fashions; Defendant
Domus supermarkets
Case C - Claimant: Salvo's; Defendan t: Eventful Even ts
2 Students work in groups of three to complete columns
three and four of the table. Each student looks at one of
the cases in more depth and analyses the arguments for
and against the claimants and defendants. Groups then
share their informat ion.
Casc A
Possible arguments for tile claimant; Hinton should not
have been working on this mach ine because of his age.
He should have been removed from working on the
machine when he was found operating it without goggles.
Possible arguments for tile defendant: It would be
impossible to ensure that that a m achine operator was
wearing goggles all the lime. Hinton had been warned
several times.
Possible arguments for tlie claimant: T he goods were
purchased illegally because they WCTe acquired from
wholesalers who had broken their cont racts with
Farinelli, or from manufacturers who had made illegal
quantities of their products.
Possible arguments for the defel/dant: Domus had no
agreement with FarineJli to break, and is allowed to
purchase the products where and al what price it
Possible argllments for tile claimant: Wil kins agreed to the
new price and signed the new contract; she is therefore
in breach of contract.
Possible arguments for the defefldant: Salvo's had made a
mistake in the contract so it was invalid. They put
unreasonable pressure o n Wilkins to agree to the new
3 Students work in groups to discuss the three cases
together and decide which could possibly be settled out
of court.
Suggested answers
Fanshawe Engineering seem clearly gUilty of negligence
in allowi ng Hinton the possibility of operating the
machine without protective clothing. There would
appear to he little chance of a compromise agreement
ea", B
It would be difficult to come to a final decision without
all the contractual details but Farinelli seem to be
unlawfully attempting to restrain the trading r ights of
Domus. Farinelli might agree to fina ncially compensate
Domus if they withdraw the sale of their products.
Eventfu l Events made an agreement with an
understanding to pay £4,200, so it seems unreasonable to
ask them to pay more. The parties might arrive at a
compromise sum to be paid by the defendant, e.g.
Students form new groups with o ne representative from
each original group. They compare their decisions and
discuss differences of opinion.
4 Students work in the same groups to select o ne of the
cases and prepare the argume nt either for the defendant
or for the claimant in more detail.
5 Each group takes it in turn to act out the case in front of
the rest of the class. Encourage the rest of the class to ask
questions and th ink of opposing a rguments. Once the
case has been presented and the class has had an
opportunity to ask questions, put the final decision to a
class vote.
W Rill N G
1 Students work in pairs, then compare their answers with
another pair before checking answers with the whole
2 Students now go on to replace phrases with adverbs.
3 Allow students time to read the press release. Students
work in small g roups to answer the questions.
I Some of their o rganic tomatoes have been
contaminated by a chemical spray from a
neighbouring farm.
2 She apologizes profusely fo r the contamination and
stresses the fuct that immediate action was taken. She
finishes the press release by thanking the o rganization
that released the information, thus emphasizing that
FNF has no intention of trying to cover up its mistakes.
3 I Regrettably
2 Clearly
3 Hopefully
4 entirely I completely
5 immediately
6 wholeheartedly
4 Using the FNF press release as a model, students create
their own press release to defend Quayside Furniture.
Students work in two groups, A and B. Students read
their information files and work together to analyse the
criticisms and discuss any vocabulary problems. Allow
students about ten minutes to read the in fo rmation.
Students work in A I B pairs to exchange information
and prepare the press release. You could ask students to
do this for homework if they run out of time. Students
can then exchange press releases wi th another pair and
check each other's work for use of adverbs, accuracy,
spelling, punctuation, and appropriacy of language.
Model Answer
Press release
As you may be awa re from recent publicity, Quayside
Furniture has been the target of a highly critical
television documentary.
Understandably, many people have been d ismayed by the
apparent poor treatment of staff by Q uayside. We
therefore welcome this opportun ity to respond to our
critics and clarify some of the points made in the
Quayside is a small, fa mily-run business which is
competing with far larger companies. Admittedly, our
employees are only paid the minimum wage but, in
today's competitive market, regrettably, we cannot afford
to pay higher wages. We operate in an area of high
unemployment and are proud that we are able to
contribute towards the provision of job opportunities in
this area.
We wholeheartedly agree that our employees should be
given the standard benefits available to most staff
elsewhere in the industry, including sick pay and paid
publ ic holidays - indeed, we do offer these benefits to
our five full -time staff. Our casual workers, however. are
employed as needed and clea rly they appreciate the
advantages attached to this casual work: full y flexib le
hours suitable for part-time workers or students seeking
holiday employment.
We deeply regret the fact that contracts have not yet
been issued to all of our staff. This is due to the sudden
resignat ion of our secretary and we have prom ised all
our employees that we will issue everyone with a
contract as soon as we have found a replacement.
We at Quayside Furniture would like to assure the public
that, in these times of economic uncertainty, we are
doing everything possible to ensure that we provide the
best possible working conditio ns for our staff, and to
apologize if any of our employees feel that they have
been unfairly treated.
., ••
Tests Answer Key
3 b
The reading section has 15 marks. The
grammar section has 16 marks. The
vocabulary section has 15 marks. The
language for section has II marks. The
writing section has 18 marks. Each
answer receives I mark unless
otherwise stated. The total is out of 75.
9 bankruptcy
10 consider
2 I ,
2 d
Units 1- 3
otherwise stated. The lotal is out of 75.
(2 marks per correct answer)
I ,
Example a nswer
I grew
2 had been giving I had given
3 was happening I happened I
4 have increasingly been dictating I
have increasingly dictated
5 has shaken
6 are marketed
7 are becoming I have become
8 is being allocated I is allocated I
has been allocated
9 has been selling
10 is often making
II focus
12 have tcnded fie nd
J3 have been promoting
14 arc going to continue J will
15 will probably develop
16 will we simply be buying
I suppose so
sorry I'm late
5 that doesn't matter
6 would you mind
7 Of course not
8 As far as I'm concerned
9 view
10 agree
2 I I appreciate you're upset, but
it's nothing to do with me.
2 That's unacceptable!
3 Why weren't you there?
4 I didn't realize I was
supposed to be there.
paying off
fall behind
I was wondering if
2 In my opinion
The reading section has 12 marks. The
grammar section has 16 marks. The
vocabulary section has 15 marks. The
language for section has 14 marks. The
writing section has 18 marks. Each
answer receives 1 mark unless
5 ,
Marks should be allocated as
After two weeks:
I am writing to you regarding our
invoke 8765/84. (2 marks)
According to our records the
invoke, which fell due at the
beginning of this month, is still
outstanding (3 marks). We feel sure
that this is a simple oversight on
your part (2 marks).
As you will remember, we offered
you a 10% discount (2 marks) on
condition that you paid the invoice
within thirty days. (2 marks)
Therefore, unless we receive
payment within five working days,
we shall be obliged to issue a new
invoice for the full amount (4
marks). If, in the meantime, you
have already settled the original
invoke, please disregard this letter.
(3 marks)
Units 4-6
2 IT
You could always leave that bill
till next week.
2 In m y last job I would spend
most Saturdays at work.
I'm not used to working with
this program.
I couldn't contact him in time.
The HR manager decided he
would personally reorganize the
pay structure.
The delivery should arrive this
Although it will cost 520,000, we
want to t ry it.
He's always leaving meetings to
answer his mobile.
2 seldo m
3 turn down
5 raising
6 to
2 up
1 to
7 by
8 of
5 to
9 in
10 with
Tests Answer Key
I'd like to say
if we don't act now
strongly believe that
really need to
Can I say something here?
that's a good poin t
can I j ust finish off
Do you really think
really got to
if I could just come back to what
I was saying
The point I'm trying to make is
Example answer
Allocate I mark for correct layout. 5
marks for each bullet point
included, 2 marks for each of the
underlined forms included. Up to a
maximum of 18.
To: All Sales Representatives
Date: 15 May
Expense Claims
Despi te recent unremarkable sales
there has been a sharp
increase in Sales Representatives'
expense claims. I therefore ask you
10 Dote
that. while all travel
expenses remain claimable, ~
following regulations apply:
2nd class train travel only is
air tickets must be approved by a
Sales Manager prior to booking
three star hotel accommodation
only, in listed hotels where
aU expenses to be supported by
documen tation or they will not
be reimbursed
petrol rale remains at 16p per
kilometre for the current
fina ncial year.
Gifts to clients
It bas recently come to my attentjon
1hi1 in spite of the clear and widely
communicated company policy that
gifts can only be made to clients up
to a maximum value of € ISO,
several representatives have claimed
for the value of gifts well in excess of
this. As of today no such claims will
be approved. If you have any Queries
re£ardi ng this please refer the
~ to your Area Sales Manager.
Units 7-9
The reading section has 12 marks. The
grammar section has 16 marks. The
vocabulary sectio n has 16 marks. The
language for section has 13 marks. The
writing section has 18 marks. Each
answer receives I mark unless
otherwise stated. The total is o ut of 75.
1 b
2 f
5 d
1 to import
2 didn't know
3 contacting
4 contacting
5 are required
6 dealing
7 checking
8 is
9 has gone
10 to ship
II were
12 to get
13 shipping
14 made
15 have been
I ba rgaining
2 issue
3 regret
4 intimidating
5 give in
6 after all
7 running
8 negligible
recrui tment
1 I do apologize
2 As you can see
3 that will bring us to
4 I shall outJine
5 handing you over
6 we'll begin by
7 firs t of all
8 once
2 1 apologize
3 happen
4 guarantee
5 appreciate
Example answer
I Report
Marks should be allocated as
Report: Customer Complaints
Equ ipmen t
a Problems:
System crashes, screen freezes.
Loss of data.
b Causes:
Technicians report over 70% of
instances are caused by hard
(3 marks to include all the above
2 Latc delivery times
a Problems:
Serious delivery delays (ovcr 5
days) reported to 30% of
customers in the period
b Causes:
Delivery delays from our
(3 marks to include all the above
3 Installation problems
a Problems:
Equipment to be installed is either
incompatible with client's system
or wrongly installed. Clearly, the
former is the more serious of
these. In these cases the whole
order is jeopardized if the
equipment cannot be operated.
The latter is an infrequent but
annoying problem fo r the
b Causes:
Insufficient initial customer
consultation is the main cause of
equipment incompatibility while
wrong installation is due to a
lack of trained staff.
(6 marks to include all the above
Tests Answer Key
4 Poor after sales service
a Problems:
Inadequate telephone assistance
and long delays in receiving
assistance on-site.
h Causes:
Similarly to 3b, the problem of
telephone assistance lies in the
fact that many of our after-sales
slaff do not have the required
skill to deal with many calis,
while on-site assistance delays
arc simply caused by the small
number of technicians available.
(6 marks to include all the above
2 letter
Allocate 2 marks for layout, 4
marks for each of the points
mentioned from the notes.
Dear Sirs
Our company has been a
customer of yours for four years
and in thaI time we have
generally been happy with the
goods and services provided.
However, I now feel obl iged to
write and inform you of a recen t
alarm ing drop in standards.
As you know, we had some
problems with two printers
which were eventually solved by
your technicians, but I am now
referring specifically to the
installation of the four ZX towe r
processors o rdered last June.
They were delivered three weeks
late, and when they finally
arrived your technicians had
great difficulty installing and
programming them . Soon after
they left, the system crashed. As
advised, we called your help-line
where mo re time was wasted
while you r staff offered
unhelpful solutions. [t now
seems the processors do not have
the necessary power to handle
the size of data involved.
Last June your representatives
visited us and left wilh what we
tho ught was a clear
understand ing of o ur needs. This
was clearly not the case. While
you arc no doubt aware that
payment for these goods is still
outstanding, I must inform you
that we have no intention of
settling un til this m atter is
satisfactorily resolved.
Yours fai thfully
Units 10-12
The reading section has 12 marks. The
grammar section has 15 m arks. The
vocabulary section has 13 marks. The
language for section has 14 marks. The
writi ng section has 21 marks. Each
answer receives I mark unless
otherwise stated. The total is out of 75.
2 A
3 D
4 B
5 C
6 C
I 0
2 some
3 0
4 to relaxing
5 up with
6 eventually
7 turn up
8 actually
9 for it
10 ending u p
II shortly
12 down
13 hard
14 out
15 eventual
build up
on the grapevine
go for
redunda nt
perma nent post
pension plan
conscientious and reliable
2 Id
Exam ple a nswer
Allocate 2 marks for correct layout,
2 marks for each of the points
m entioned from the notes. Add 3
marks fo r beginning and end ing the
m emo in an appropriate way.
Since our conversation on Tuesday
I've done some research into Heath
and Brown and will outline some of
the benefits and drawbacks of these
two o ptions as I see them.
You are bound to be aware of
Brown's reputation as a worldwide
operator and it's true they do offer a
huge n umbe r o f warehouses.
Nevertheless, I imagine you know
how costly they are, and business
contacts tell me they've been having
a lot of problems w ith their new IT
system - I'd make doubly certain
they've got that right before you
think of e ntering into a ny deal with
them. I'd also urge you to consider
the speed of their operation; being
so big I'm sure their
communications can be a problem
In contrast, Heath are much cheaper
and have a good reputation for
reliability. They do however have a
relatively small operation and you
should bear in mind recent rumours
of warehouse security and hygiene
problems. I would n't let this
dissuade you though, an d personally
I'd recommend you look into the
Heath optio n more closely.
Hope this has been some help.
Test 1
Units 1-3
1 Read the text from a newspaper article. Complete each
gap 1-6 in the text with a sentence from a- g below.
There is onc extra sentence which does not fit into any
of the gaps.
(2 marks for each correct answer)
a Get punctual colleagues to explain their feelings to
late ones.
b Let people know that meetings will start promptly.
Don't keep people waiting as a way of suggesting you
are important.
d Never be lale if possible.
Work out the cost oflaten ess.
Interpret lateness.
g Decide your own attitude to lateness.
I How to cope with late colleagues
' ............... If you have twenty people attending a
meeting which starts ten minutes behind. you r
bu si ness has lost t he equiva lent of half a day's
work. If you institutionalize inefficiency in this way.
you are subco nsciously telling colleagues they ca n
do what they like about meeting deadlines.
2 ............... Either decide to be on time, or accept that
meetings and appointments will nearly always
drift. You cannot take a middle line, and you
cannot tackle anyone else if you are sometimes
3 ............... ' It is showing a strong contempt for
people: says Clare, who typically has five
meetings a day. 'It's rega rded increasing ly badly:
says Jo Bond of the Right management
consultancy. 'You should think of colleag ues as
internal customers. Would you keep exte rnal
customers waiting? No.' Bad time-keepers are
usually weak administrato rs - poor at m aking
decisions, unable to say no to people they are
with, incapable of critical p ath analysis, and bad
at setting priorities. You have a cho ice between
letting them set the tone of you r business or
tryi ng to establish a sha rper routine.
4 ............... If you let them begin late, you are
penalizing the people who arrive on time. Do this
more than once or twice, and you encourage
everyone to be late. Resist temptations to recap
for latecomers. You could, however, start your
meeting with the least important item.
5 ............... The early birds will almost certainly cooperate if, for instance, they arrived for an 8 a.m .
m eeti ng and were kept waiting for forty minutes.
.........In Louise Bagshawe's new novel A Kept
Woman, the anti-hero deliberately keeps the hero
waiting for th irty minutes but is left looking a
fool in f ron t of senior executives when the
hero walks out.
Test 1
1 Verb tenses.
1 Choose the word.
Complete the text using the correct form of the verbs
Read the text about attitudes to debt. Underline the
correct word in italics.
in brackets.
(I mark for each correct answer)
I---·.----.-'"---· ...- -___
(l mark for each correct answer)
- -_ _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _
! Private Labels - past, present, and future
It seems the younger generation worries less about
; It was nOI so long ago that the power was in the hands of the
getting into and
manufacturers in their relationship wi th the retailers; they
{ dictated prices, delivery terms, a nd product placement.
paying out I paying up I paying off I
much less so than t heir grandparents'. An increasing
During the 19805 and 19905 however, things changed.
number seriously fail to match their
I Retaile rs I ..... ......... ... ... ... ........ ... (grow) bigger and stronger, and
realized they 2•• ... •••. ... ••. .. ••• ... •••..••• ... •. (give) the brand
manufacturers too much say in what
paying into debt than their parents' generation and
outgoings I
savings I investments I expenses with their income, and
most of the 3 reason I blame I motive I sin for this lies
J .. •• ... ••. .••• ... •• ..••• ... •• ... ••. .
\ (happen) in their stores. Since then large chains
with their willingness to
falf out I falf behind' fall
through ' fall off on credit card repayment s. So now
.. ...................... (increasingly dictate) terms to the brands,
t hey're s broke I black I red I credit, what are they
doing about it? Rather than
aiming ' focusing I
targeting ' concentrating at paying back t heir debts
These products
6 .. ........................ .. .... .. ..
(market) in various
systematically, perhaps by
ways; they may be in a plain package or as a retailer's brand
and they may be produced by the big brand manufacturers
refinance their debts. Those with a great deal to repay
............................. _.... (become) mo re sophisticated and less
may choose to
brand-loyal with the result that more and more shelf space
(allocate) to private labels. They are
The private label is particularly well-established in
Britain. One department store, Marks & Spencer,
several decades, and as the big superma rket chains position
themselves in the market the c usto mer Ill ....................................
......•••• .... ••• ....••• ....
get out of control when rate s rise sharply.
(sell) o nly its own label products for
~:~;f:;:;L:, :hr:~~s.be~:;;:::!~~Sd~;:~:~::::hae:e
full of these products and, indeed,
labelling. In the US A, retailers
the biggest chains
private labels, and they are likely to go on doing so. The
marke t trend in Europe indicates tha t in the future they
morc., and that retailers
(tend) to
remain fa ithful to the big brands but over the last few years
14 ...•...... ..••... ...•• .... •.....•••
12 .•• ... ••. ... ••• .. ••• .. ••• .. ••• .. ••••
IJ ............... ..................
(promote) more
(continue) to grow and diversify still
IS •..••• ..••... •••. ..••.. .•••.. •••. ..
develop) up-market labels as well. In ten years' time
1 16 ......••......•••. ...••.... •.• (we simply buy) brands owned by
/', _
_ rather than manufacturers?
_ _ _ _ _ _- _ _-.J
Oxford University
Verb-noun collocations.
Match the phrasal verbs on the left with the nouns on
the right,
(I mark fo r each correct answer)
II . .
(focus) their assortment o n suitable products for own
look over' disregard I see over I consider t he
situations may seem manageable but t hey can Quickly
fact that interest rates change, then some debt
different .
buy I sell off I re-mortgage ' rent the ir
failure' bankruptcy ' debt I loans.
If you
diffic ult to persuade customers that your product is really any
homes with an increasing number simply declaring
especially strong in mature product markets where it is
credit card I cheque '
elsewhere to find low interest credit in order to
!hemselves. The fact of the matter is that they
I ..... .... .. ...... ..... .. ....... ....
instalments' a lump sum, many choose to go
I set up
2 go into
3 take on
a a list o f g uidelines
uch work
,b yotoourmwork
4 draw up
d politics
5 get on with
e yo ur own business
Test 1
Requests and offers and giving opinio ns.
Two colleagues working in different towns meet up
again. Underline the m ost appropriate expression in
italics to complete the dialogue.
( I mark for each correct answer)
Carl: Hello Alex, nice to see you again. Listen, this
meeting is due to finish about eleven and I don't
have my car today - it's broken down - I so if
you'd like to / J was wondering if you could drop
me off a t the station if it's on your way?
Alex: Yes, yes of course, no problem. 2 In my opiniotl / 1
agree you're better off without a car these days
with all the traffic around ...
Carl; Well, 3 1 suppose it / J suppose SO; anyway it'd take
me about half an hour to get there otherwise, so
thanks a lot ... Ah, here comes Julia, she works
with me. Have you met?
Alex: No, I don't think we have.
Julia: Hello Carl, 4 1 would like to apologize for the delay
/ sorry I'm late.
Carl: Oh, 5 tllat doesn't maNer / I don 't care. The o thers
haven't turned up yet anyway. Alex, I don't believe
you've met Julia Sammons. Julia, this is Alex
Alex: Pleased to meet you, Julia.
Julia: Nice to meet you too, Alex. Carl, 6 would yOIl
mind / are yOIl mind lending me your no tes o n the
Raglan deal? I couldn't print mine out.
Carl: 7 Of course / Of course tlot. Now, where are the
others? We were supposed to start at nine. 8 As far
as I'm concerned / On the otller hand every time
somebody's late they should be sent a memo
reminding them to be punctual the next time.
What's your 9 view / point, Julia?
Julia: Dh, I 10 agree / thitlk yes.
2 Apologies and criticisms.
Complete this conversation with the expressions in
( I mark for each correct answer)
I appreciate you're upset, but it's nothing to do with me.
I didn't realize I was
David: To m, I'm very unhappy about this customer's
complaint. He says that he has ordered this part
three times and still hasn't received it.
I ................................................................................... _. The
problem lies with the dispatch department.
They're two weeks behi nd schedule.
David: What? 2 ....
\-¥hat are we going to do about this?
Well, they had a meeting about it yesterday, but I
don't know what they decided.
David: 3
4 ..................................... _... __ ................. __................ __ __ My
department is' Purchase and Orders', not
David: Well. please make sure you go to the next one.
We need to get this sorted.
1 Write 200-250 words in answer to the following:
(18 marks in total )
Your com pany produces machine parts. You sent the
following invoice to a customer:
,---------INVOICE No. 6765/64
Fred Smith Engineering
Your order no.
Less 10% discount
Add VAT 17.5 %
Net total
Max Machines, Hove, Sussex
15 May 2002
GFT valves
Even though the discount allowed depended on prompt
payment. the customer hasn't paid. Write the first
reminder letter two weeks after non -payment.
'Qif,Ii BH6!M' © Oxford University Press
Test 2
in this
Units 4-6
In the first paragraph the writer says video
A is run simultaneously via the computer and
B ca nnot connect people over great distan ces.
1 Read the article about video confcrencing and choose the
correct answer for each of the questions 1-6 opposite.
(1 mark fo r each correct answer)
. The
Video conferencing is a way of holding meetings
without those attending being physically together in
the same room, or even in the same country.
Participants are connected via video cameras and
monitors which allow them to see each other and any
necessary data on screen. The systems run either on
IP (computer network based) or ISDN (telephone linebased) and may be designed for desktop, small
groups, or large groups.
The advantages of video conferencing are clear: no
travel expenses for the company to pay, increased
productivity as the employee is not absent from his I
her work, and meetings which tend to be highly
focused on the job in hand since the more time that is
spent online, the more expensive it is.
There are of course disadvantages too. Although
prices are coming down, buying a system can still be
very expensive in the shorttenn, especially those
designed for large groups; it is not surprising that they
are most often to be found in the meeting rooms of the
more well-off companies. Others who are unwilling, or
unable, to meet the cost simply hire the equipment on
the occasions they need it.
Whichever system you finally decide to employ,
you should go through a dry run before the actual
meeting as several things can go wrong, e.g. poor
sound and lor, picture quality, lighting problems,
echoes and so on. If you have a large group, you may
have problems fitting them in front of the camera and
if you do not have an appropriate stereo system
installed, can they hear? In fact, if you have the space
and are going to be using this medium more than
occasionally it would be advisable to have a room set
aside for the purpose with the equipment already in
place. Finally, if you happen to be participating in
meetings in a foreign language, you will find video
conferencing decidedly superior to telephone-only
conference calling. Understanding is easier, in spite
of the likelihood of encountering the disconcerting
difficulty on ISDN systems of a slight time lag
between sound and vision, sometimes making it
difficult to identify who is speaking.
,------------____- - - -__-4
© ,0 " ,." University Press
e nables users to view both data and people.
D is best used for one-to-one meetings.
2 The writer says the advan tages of video conferencing
A higher expense claims.
B longer. but more efficient. meetings.
a better use of human resources.
D the low cost of systems.
3 Accord ing to the w riter, some companies do not buy
a system because:
A they generally have meetings with large groups.
B they do not want to pay so much for it.
they prefer other means of communication.
D they arc waiting for the price to decrease.
4 The w riter recommends:
A preparing a room dedicated to video confe rencing.
B using small groups.
using an ISDN system.
D using any system as long as you are comfortable
with it.
5 The writer says:
A video conferencing is not as clear as telephone
conference calling.
B you will probably experience a time lag when
making a telephone confe rence call.
telephone co nference calls a re better than video
conferences for foreign language speakers.
video conferences can sometimes cause confusion.
6 On the whole the writer:
A sees advantages to video conferencing but warns
that using it can be problematic.
B does not think video co nfe renci ng will become
very popular.
recommends we buy a video co nferencing system.
D advises us against using video conferencing.
Test 2
2 True or false?
Read the article again and decide if these statements
are true (T) or false (F) according to the writer.
( 1.5 marks for each correct answer)
There are t\vo different systems for
running a video conference.
2 In meetings held by video conference, it
is easy to get distracted from the main subject.
3 Video conferencing equipment is
gradually getting less expensive.
4 Only the better-off companies can afford
to hire the necessary equipment.
5 It's a good idea to practise using the
equipment before ho lding a video conference.
6 Speaking in a fo reign language over the
telephone is difficult because of the time lag.
1 Rewrite the sentences below u sing the words in
brackets so that they have a similar meaning.
(2 marks for each correct answer)
Why don't you leave that billlill next week? (always)
1 Choose the word.
Read the text about pricing. Underline the correct word
in italics.
( I mark for each correct answer)
--------_ ....,----,,-.
In the past when a business wanted to I set / ask I put
/ loy a price for a product they tended to calculate the
costs of material, labour, and overheads, then add the
desired profit margin. This would hopefully give you
the right price to go to market. Unfortunate ly,
businesses 2 seldom / generally / hardly / nearly
addressed the problem of whether the customer will
simply 3 deny / give up I tum down / return your
product because it is too expensive.
Modern business practice suggests that we should
first decide on the correct price and then work
backwards from there. This means subtracti ng the
profit you wish to make in order to arrive at the
production cost you have to 4 bear / stand / hold /
lind. If the figure for the real cost you have previously
calculated is higher, it could be to time to rethink the
whole project rather than simply 5 raising / setting up
/ rising / going up the selling price.
2 Prepositions.
2 In my last job I spent most Saturdays at work.
Choose the correct preposition from the box to
complete these sentences.
(1 mark for each correct answer)
I've never worked with this program before so I'm
nol finding it very easy. (used to)
4 I wasn't able to contact him in time. (could)
5 The HR manager decided to personally reorganize
the pay structure. (would)
I'm not in the office tomorrow - I have a day
.................... in lieu.
2 We can't put .................... the price in today's market.
I used .................... work for Glaxo but I left last year.
He's always overruling my decisions - I'm fed up
.................... it!
5 Increased sales lead
.... greater profits.
6 The delivery is due to arrive this afternoon. (should)
6 According .................... Mary, the office is in Espoo,
7 It will cost $20,000. Nevertheless, we want to try it .
(allhough )
7 The company's sales have slumped .................... 80% to
€30,000 over the last five years.
8 It's annoying the way he leaves every meeling to
answer his mobile. (always)
8 We never recovered from the collapse ......
main supplier.
9 There's never been such an increase
number of sales.
.. .. our
........... the
10 I don't agree .................... that suggestion at all.
'A@!.lHIfIO.©Oxford University Press
_ _ .........
_~p-. · l'-T
Test 2
1 Speaking with conviction and participating in
1 Write 150-200 words o n the following.
Complete this conversation with the expressions in this
(I mark fo r each correct answer)
..ally need to
really IlOl to
if I coukt just come
The point I'm tryIna to'-Is
bade. to what I was saying Can I say"""""""",?
if we don't act now'
that's a ..... point
can I just finish off
I'd lib to say
~y believe that
Do ~ .... jy think
Carl: Righ t, so let's kick off with the main pomt o n the
agenda - the proposed move to the business park.
Before we go round the table on this
, ................................................................................... _ I think
it's a n excellent idea - the rents are getting far too
high in the middle o f town. and
2............................ ...................................................... _. we
could face another renl rise in the next year.
Julia: No, I disagree. Carl. Our clients are here, aren't
they? That's a good enough reason to start with. J
3 ......................... _.... _............... _.................... .............. _ in our
kind of business we
4 ... _................................................ ................. ............ _ project
a certain image and moving from this beautiful
18th century town house to those plastic prefabrica ted business premises is only going to
damage that. The clients .. .
Alex: 5................................................................................... _ I'd like
10 know how we're supposed to get to that place. I
mean most of us live in the north and .. .
Julia: Yes 6_................ _.... __........................................................... _ but
7..................................................................................._ what I
was saying about the clients? Most of them are
situated within a kilometre of this office.
8 ................................................................................... _ they
are going to go all that way out there to us?
I wouldn't. We've loads of competitors nearer.
Carl: Yes, OK, I accept that, but the fact remains we've
9 ..........................._....._... _..........._............................ _ make
some big cuts, and fas t, if we are going to get
through this year - the rent here is astronomical.
Alex: I 0................................................................................... _ about
distance for a moment, I think if you go ahead
with this you're going to make some pretty big
cuts with staffing as well.
11 ................................................................................... _ that
several of us wouldn't like to travel that far.
Oxford University Press
(18 marks in total)
This is the transcript of what your Sales Director has
told you about sales representatives' expense claims.
Rewrite it as a formal email to all sales staff.
'Expense claims were up 15% last year and sales were
down by 10. There's no excuse for it! TeU them that when
they go on business trips they can of course claim all
travel expenses. but the rate is staying at 16p per kilometre
fo r car travel and any repairs have to be made by
mechanics the company has chosen. Train travel must be
second class as usual and any plane tickets have to be
okayed by their Sales Manager. If they aren't, they'll have
to pay for them themselves. Hotel expenses have got to
come down as well - from now on, three star only and if
at all possible, in hotels where we have a discount
agreement. All expenses have to be backed up with
documents - receipts. tickets and so on - or they won't be
reimbursed. I mean that. Last but not least is the company
policy on making gifts to clients - they can't be worth
more than €ISO. All the reps should know this, but
looking at some of their expense claims they obviously
need reminding. I know it's sometimes hard to stick to,
but if they want to make an exception it would need to be
a special case, and in any case they'd have to see their sales
manager first.'
Test 3
Units 7-9
1 Read the text from a newspaper article. Complete each
gap 1-6 below with a sentence from a-g be1ow.
(2 marks fo r each corrcct answer)
Loyalty schemes all work in the same way.
b O nline retailers are obsessed with customer loyalty.
c When the com pany launched this sum mer, it said
thai pay-outs would be limited to £20 a month 'until
it was sure of its business model.'
d This is usually in the fo rm of a voucher exchangeable
for th e compan y's goods or services.
e Apart from buying, you can also earn points by fi lling
in surveys and looking at ads.
T he most obvious way of ensuring customer loyalty
might be to provide decent customer service, you
would have thought.
r;;; pt:e::;:~;:atiSfie~-----'1 ...............
Sometimes it seems as if they believe their own hype
about how the net shifts the balance of power to the consumer.
They're all worried that the competition is 'just a click away' on
the net and that if they lose a customer, they could be gone for
z............... Many net shops are now concentrating more on
this and have also introduced all sorts of customer loyalty
1 ............... You have to register with whoever is running the
scheme. You earn points depending on how much you spend:
points t hat will earn discounts on future purchases or enable
you to buy stuff outright , if you save enough . Some American
schemes go further. ~ .............. .
Another thing to look out for at the moment is the referral
reward. On some sites, if you introduce a set number of friends
to the site and they buy something, you get something in
return. 5 .•• .. •••••••• ..
1 Read the extract fro m a lecture on importing
p rocedures. Underline the correct word in italics.
( I mark for each correCl answer)
' So let's imagine you've agreed 1 to import I
importing some products. Now, if you 2 didn't
know I hadn 't known where to find these
particular goods, I'd advise you to try 3 to contact
I contacting the consulates - they're able and
will ing to supply lists of companies. The next step
is to go to your own consulate in that country and
see which agents they suggest 4 to contact /
contacting. They'll be able to arrange visits to
factories. In some countries you 5 require I are
required to go through a trading company rather
than the factory itself - this means 6 dealing / to
deal with more paperwork of course. Now, the
product needs 7 checking I to check so the
exporter will send you some samples. If the
quality 8 is I will be satisfactory, send them to your
agent and he'll check them against the rest of the
manufacturer's merchandise. So, provided that
everything 9 would go I has gone fine so far you
could go on 10 to ship / shipping the goods. If you
received the goods and you 11 were / have been
unhappy about them for some reason, it would be
wise to try 12 to get / getting a reduction on the
bill. Otherwise it might mean 13 shipping I to ship
them back, which you would find very expensive.
This brings us to payment. This can be 14 made /
make by Letter of Credit which is usually
'irrevocable' - once the terms of the transaction
15 have been I must be agreed , they cannot
18 be / become changed unless both parties
agree. Next, we come to customs clearance
If you want to see if you ca n actually make some money
from yet another online giveaway, one UK business will pay you
25p for every hour you spend online, so long as you install a
bar at the bottom of your browser t hat will show ads. You get
referra l fees if you introduce fri ends to the service. 6•..•••••••.••••
'A@!H+!fimtj © Oxforduniversity Press
Test 3
2 Word forms
1 Read the passage about negotiating a salary increase.
Underline the correct word in italics.
( 1 mark per correct word)
(I mark for each correct answer)
"_r--. _ _ . . -
I Asking for a rise
decided the time has come to discu ss the
position: you know your job inside o ut. you're a
real asset to the company, they're s imply not
paying you enou gh - so let's go and talk about ill
It's OK to come across as assertive but you don 't
want to seem arrogant. saying th in gs you mi ght
later J feel sorm I regret I realize l ap%gize, There is
no getli ng away from the fact lh at your boss is in
the domina nt position here and can be quite
dislionest I misertlll/e I illtimitlmillg I deceitful at
limes, There's no goi ng back now though - you
can'l just 5 give ou t I fJo round I give ill I !let tllrollfJ"
before you've started. You'll ju st have to prepa re
your case a little better. 0 fintllly I tli last I at tile elld
I after ,,//. it's nol as if you 're 7 lIavillfJ I makinfJ I
with your boss. You th ink you're in a strong
I r llll1li1lg the risk of h im firing you for askin g
- it would cost the company a lot more to hire and
train somebody to take your piClce, Anyway, even if
he offers you only a 8 negligible I negotiable I redl/ced
I smaller increase. or non e at a ll , you'll have made
a poin t about your own worth ,
1 argument I debale I isslle I poill£ of your sala ry
I barg(lillillg I de(il;II9 / asking power of a
union beh ind you so you're out all your own if
you wan i. to ask for a risco But let's say you've
1 l1ayglillg
At mana gement level you don't usua lly h ave the
Complete this table with the correct forms of the
_ _ _ _- -_ _-
'© O"'. ,d Uni versity Press
_ _ _.,J
Test 3
2 Dealing with complaints.
Choose the correct word from the box to complete
these sentences.
1 Making presentations.
A marketing manager is giving a presentation about
extending a company's product lines. Complete his
presentation with the expressions in this box.
(I mark fo r each correct answer)
first of all
handing you over
I do apologize
that will bring us to
we'll begin by
I shall outline
as y® can see
'Good morning everybody, my name's Vic Wilcox and
I'm Group Product Manager here at HTC.
1................................................................................... _ for the slight
delay in slarting this morning - there seems to have been
a mix-up over rooms, but we're all here now.
2 ..................................................................................• from the title
of the presentation, we're going to be looking at the
portfolio of products I'm responsible for and discussing
various proposals that have been put forward for
extending some of these lines.
........................................................................ _ , <un-down
of the steps to be taken 10 bring the new lines into
production, and finally
4 ...................................
.......... _...... _..... ___ ..• the reasons
why I strongly support certain proposals before
.. __ ... _._..... ___... ___ ..... _._....__ ..... _............ __...• to Brian
Everthorpe to go through som e of the initial costing
estimates. So, if you'd like to open your fo lders at page 3,
....................................................................... looking at
how our product range looks at the moment ...
.. . now we come to what this will involve on the
production side. Well,
..................................... , the starting
I do ...
......... for this delay, sir.
2 Could you .... ................... with me for a moment,
please, madam.
Do you _.... __.................... _ to have your order number?
4 I'm afraid that it's no longer under ............................. .
.. __ ....... _.... your disappointment with
' can full y
our service.
1 Write 150-200 words o n one of the following:
(I8 marks in total )
Your company specializes in supplying offices with
computer hardware. There have been several
customer complaints recently. Your line manager has
asked you to write a brief report describing these
complaints and the reasons for them. They include:
faulty equipment
late delivery times
installation problems
poor after·sales service.
2 Your company is a customer of the computer
hardware company in question I above. Write a polite
but firm letter of complaint.
point for the new product is our usual finished standard
article. So 8 .................................................................................... the
product comes off its usual line, it'll be moved o n to be
reworked ... •
'A@(.!i.!'!bIfi.©Oxford University Press
Test 4
B is a multi-media activity.
Viral marke ting the IKEA way
As any marketing manual will tell you, the mos t
effective way of promoting your product is b y
wo rd ·of-mou th , but this relati vely h armless
activity seems to have taken on a kind of
Robocop transformation in recent yea rs to
becom e Viral Marketin g. If that ha s you
reaching fo r your medicine cabinet, then I
should say that its aim is in fact the usual one: to
sed uce you into spend ing more - the difference
being that the marketers a re dedicating more
lime and energy than ever on trying to get us to
tell each other how nice they are. I KEA is a
mast er in this respect - not content with
persuading the public, it also seeks to win the
love of its employees.
In October 1999, head office decided to hand
over a day's profits (Saturday's) to its 40,000
employees worldwide - about 60 million dollars.
More recentl y in the U K, ca r park congestion
has insp ired the management to present 3,500
employees with a new bicycle each. Now, the
idea that treating your staff well will produce
bette r results is not a new one. Robert Owen saw
the benefits of treating his workers well nearly
two centuries ago, even to the point of providing
them with hous ing. I KEA may not have deemed
it necessary to go quite that far, but the message
passed via the media and employees was that this
is the place to wo rk - doing wonde rs fo r its
image and making staff recruitment a piece of
A San Francisco IK EA outlet decided to
expand into an I nternet vi ral ca mpaign ; it
offered a $75 saving if you sent ten fr iends ten
on line postcards, with five postcards getting you
a 525 reduction on a S150 purchase. 48 hours and
80,000 cmai ls later though, a lot of complaints
s tarted coming in that they were jus t d ist ributing
spam . They cancelled the campai gn. Well, if
you're going to spread something around , you've
got to be sure you r customers want to catch it.
© '0",." University Press
is carried out by word-of-mouth.
aims to tell us how nice we are.
2 According to the writer, IKEA:
Read the article about viral marketing and choose the
correct answer for each of the questions 1-6 below.
r .....-_--"----_--~---r---
The first paragraph explains that viral marketing:
A is an expensive but successful marketing
Units 10-12
(2 marks for each correct answer)
A tries to get both its clients and staff to speak well
of them.
B is not satisfied with its relations with the public.
C mainly concentrates on staff relations.
is only concerned with what the public thinks of
3 The writer suggests that IKEA have been generous
with their staff:
A because o f high profits and organizational
B for historical reasons.
C to improve their image and reduce the head
to make it easier to hire employees and improve
the company image.
4 According to the writer, Robert Owen:
A let property to his workers.
B did not believe poor treatment of workers
improved productivity.
did not treat his workers as well as lKEA.
D gave his workers flat-pack housing.
S The San Francisco store promotion:
A had a high response but customers were not
happy about product quality.
B had a very low response.
meant the more you contacted friends the greater
the discount you got.
meant the more postcards you bought , the greater
the discount you got.
6 The writer suggests viral marketing:
A is not really a successful promotional tool.
B is best aimed at improving staff relations.
C can be effective if handled well.
D is out of date.
Test 4
1 Read the article about opting to work for a non-profit
organization. Underline the correct word in italics.
o means no word is entered in the text.
1 Read what a salesperson a nd an accountant have to say
about their jobs. Underline the correct word in italics.
(1 mark for each correct answer)
There tend to be (wo main types of 1 (he I some
I @applicants fo r jobs with non-profit-making
organ izations: those who have just left further
education a nd have little experience, and those
who have been in wo rk for 2 (he I some I lillIe
time and have decided to 'give something back
to 1 @ !the I a society', A few of the latter,
instead of looking forward 4 10 relax I relax /10
relaxing for a few years, have taken early
reti rement o nly from their previous jobs and
have a great deal of experience to otTer. They
sbou ld be carefu l, however, that while they may
come ~ lip \IIilh flip agaillst/up some great ideas
for their new em ployers, applying their profitoriented skills straight onto organizations with
very different priorities and cultures can 6 lastly
I e l'entually / el'elltual prove to be misguided.
Whatever your reasons for pursuing your new
career, you can't just 7 tum up I film it up I arrive
up at the job on Monday. You should carefully
consider why yo u are 8 apparelllly I obviously I
aCfllally going into this kind of work , what you
have to ofTer, and the amount of time you wa nt
to dedicate to it. As with any otber post, you
should also loo k carerully at the job description
before finall y going 9 for I il for I for il; there
would be no point in 10 elld 0111 I eliding up I end
up in a job you would be likely to resign from
II lately I shortly I recently afterwards, so don't
hesitate to lum 12 off I up I down a ny offer you
think un su itable. You will have to work just as
13 hardly I hard Ilollg if not harder, and you
must also bear in mind that not only will you be
poorly paid, but you will probably have to fa ce
some emotionally wearing situations you
wou ldn't normally face at universi ty o r in the
office. You may well have to sort 14 through I
down I oul any a nxieties your family may have,
and they sho uld be encouraged to be part o f
any 15 finally I el'emually I even/ltal decision .
( I mark per correct answer)
Sales is not easy: there's no doubt in my mind that it's a
really 1 chaf/mgillg / dishonest / borillg job: you need a lot
of 2 arrogallce / disbelief / self-collfidellce and energy. You
may have to travel a lot, spend a lot of time on the road,
and stay 3 to / 011 / up late at the office. Of course the
rewards are excellent: good salary, and plenty of
opportuni ties to earn 4 wages / penalties / bOlluses.
The thing about sales is that it's all down to relationships
which you S build up / start up / make up with customers
over a long period of time. Sometimes you hear 6 on the
grapeviTle / by the way / Olll of the woods of an
opportunity for a big cont ract, and you have to 7 go to /
go for / go arOllnd it. But fo r good salespeople, customers
come to you.
There's a lot of 8 relief/resentment / determination felt by
young employees who are worried about losing their jobsbeing made') lIt1employable / fired / redulldam and I think
I'm lucky to be one of those who has had a !O pemumellt
post / part-time job / temporary position as long as I've
wanted it. I'm coming up to retirement now and the
company 1I holiday pay / health illSurance / pellSion plall
here is a good one. A lot of compan ies these days are
abandoning them. You need to be 12 compassiollate alld
caritlg / coIIScielltiolts and reliable / dynamic and imaginative
in this job and if you are, you'll find the job a I) rewardillg /
fascinating / paying one.
'#ff.li.IHIQO. © Oxford University Press
Photocopiable Activities
Teacher's Notes
Target markets
Problems and solutions
For furth er practice in talking about some of the marketing
For fur ther practice in using language for apologizing,
criticizing a nd making ded uctions, make copies of
Photocopiable activity 2 o n page 86. Students play in pairs.
Each pair will need o ne complete set cut up of either the
conference cards or the trade fair cards.
issues in unit I of ProFile 3 Student's Book. make copies of
Photocopiable activity I on page 85. You will need onc board
for each group of three to four studen ts. Each group will need
a dice, and each student will need a counter.
In turn, each student throws the dice, and moves his I her
counter fonvard accordingly. St udents must talk about the
topic q uestion in the square that their countcr has landed
o n. If they land on a 'quest ion mark' sq uare, students ca n
ask o ne of the other players any question related to
2 Encourage stronger students to expand their answers by
asking each olher follow- up questions in o rder to develop
a co nversatio n.
Remind students of the appropriate functional
language on page 20 of ProFile 3 Student's Book.
2 Give each pair of st udents a sel of cards, which they
put face down in fro nt of the m. Each pair of students is
at a d ifferent event, either the conference o r the trade
fair. During the event, a number of things go wrong.
These problems a re on the cards.
3 To play, studen ts take it in turns to turn over and read a
card. They then role-play the situation together in their
pairs explaining and apologizing for the situation.
Photocopiable activities
Offers and requests
The marketing mix
For further practice in m aking requests, offering, and
refusing politely, make copies of Photocopiable activity 3
on page 87, one for each group of three to four students.
The aim is to collect four of a kind: in this case, a set of
four cards from the same office department.
For further practice in describing products, how they are
marketed, and language of opinions, m ake a copy of
Photocopiable activity 4 on page 88, one for each student.
Remind students of the language for making requests,
offering, and refusing politely on page 30 of ProFile 3
Student's Book.
2 Cut up the cards and deal them using one set of four
per studen t (each group of three students will play
with twelve cards, grou ps of fo ur with sixteen cards).
3 In turn, each player can ask a nyone of the other
players to 'carry out a task' from a specific department,
but only from a department where he I she already has
one task. For exa mple, if a student has the Promotions
Department card from the first row on the
Pho(ocopiable activity page, he f she can ask: Could
you fix f Would you mind fixing a meet ing with the
designers, please?
4 If the player asked has that card, he f she must agree o r
offer to do the task, and must then give the card to the
player who made the request. The player who made the
request m ust then, in exchange, give the player he / she
asked one of his / her own cards. Players should have
four cards at all times.
5 If the playe r asked doesn't have the card, he / she must
refuse politely using an appropriate expression. Play
then moves to the next student. Encourage students to
use the phrases they have studied.
6 The first player to get a set of fo ur cards from one
department is the winner.
Students read and revise the inform ation on the
marketing mix, the 4 ' P's', which was covered in the case
study o n pages 42-43 of ProFile 3 Student's Book.
2 Group students into groups of four a nd give each pair the
product information cards, A and B (Spirit and Cooleo).
The two pairs must not look a t the same product.
3 Ask them to use the grid to note down info rmation about
their product relating to the sub-elem ents o f the
marketing mix. Some areas may not be full y known , so
you might like to discuss these as they come up.
Bring the two pairs together. Ask them to exchange
info rmation about their products and complete the rest of
the table.
S The two pairs should then compare the marketing mix of
the two products a nd decide which product is the
stronger of the two and therefo re stands the best chance
of making a profit. Remind students of the language of
giving o pinions (ProFile 3 Student's Book page 10).
Photocopiable activities
Obligation and necessity
Peaks and troughs
For further practice in talking about rules, what you should
and shouldn't do at work, make copies of Photocopiable
activity 5 on page 89, one for each group of three to five
students. Students read and revise the language for
obligation and necessity from ProFile 3 Student's Book, page
50, with further reference to the Grammar Guide on page
139 of ProFile 3 Student's Book.
For more practice of language for describing graphs, make
a copy of Photocopiable activity 6 on page 90 for each pair
of students.
Divide students into groups of three to five and give each
group a board. Each student needs a counter and each
group needs a d ice. Students should imagine that they
are all new employees at a company. They are on trial for
one week, after which the boss will decide if they can
stay on. Some squares they land on will indicate they
have done something wrong, while others are 'good'
squares, which will get them to the end of the week more
quickly and effectively.
2 In turn, each student roUs the dice, which indicates how
many squares he I she can move. When a studen t lands
on an '~' square, he I she must read the situation, and
respond, stating what the correct behaviour is or should
be, using one of the key words. A second roll of the dice
indicates which verb they must use as in the dice chart at
the top of the page.
2 Students spend a couplc of minutes studying their
graphs. They should not be able to look at each other's
graphs at this stage.
For example: First throw: situation: ~ You arrive late.
Second throw: I - should(n't) o r ought(n't) to.
'I should have arrived o n time. I I ought to be on time
(tomorrow).' o r ' I shouldn't have been late.'
3 The other students must decide if the response is correct.
If it is, the player stays on that square, but if it is either
grammatically incorrect or an unsuitable response for
that situatio n, he , she moves back o ne square (but
without responding to the situation on that square).
4 A student landing on a .I square reads the situation, and
moves on one square (but without responding to any
new situation). If he I she lands on a SAFE ('safe'
square), play moves to the next player.
S Students move round the board line by line. The firs t
studen t to reach the end is the winner.
Divide students into pairs. Give one student part A, the
other, part B. Cut up the box of words at the top of the
page and place all the cards face- up between the two
students. This is the word bank.
3 Student A starts. Student A describes their graph while
student B listens. and draws the line on their blank
graph. Student A must try to use as many words from
the word bank as possible. When a word is used, it is
removed fro m the word bank so it cannot be used by
student B.
4 Then student B describes his' her graph to student A in
the same way. Student B must also try 10 use as many
words remaining from the word bank as possible. The
winn er is the student who used the most words from
the word bank. If there are different st rength students in
the class, it is best to give the role A to the weaker
students so they have more words to work with.
Photocopiable acti vit ies
For further practice in negotiating, make copies of
Pholocopiable activity 7 on page 91. Students work in pairs,
Aand B.
Divide students into two groups, giving one group role
A, the other group role B. Ask students to read the
background information to familiarize themselves wi th
the company context. Check that students understand
the context. (In a nutshell, two co-owners of Inner
Sunlite tours, based in Graz, Austria are now dividing
their business. The company has been having problems,
while the poten tial market fo r its new venture is exciting,
though not without the risks any new business faces. The
two owners meet to negotiate how they are going to
'separate' thei r business.)
1 Students read through the rest of the information
deciding which areas need prioritizing, and working o ut
what is important to their partner. Remind students to
check the language on conditionals on page 69 of
Profile 3 Student's Book. They may also like to consider
what tactics to use.
3 Pair off the students - A and B. They will need 20-25
minutes to negotiate the issues. As the issues under
negotiation are interconnected, students should link
their negotiations of each one.
4 When studen ts have finished, ask them to summarize
together each point they discussed to ensure that they
are clear on the final arrangement.
2 Place the cards face down in front of the students. In
turn, each student turns over two cards. If he I she picks
a verb card and a topic card, they should try to make a
grammatically and logically correct sentence, using the
verb in its appropriate form.
For example: forget + Early memories: I' ll never forget
going to the seaside for the first time.
3 If a student is able to make a suitable sentence with a
verb card and topic card, he I she keeps the cards. Play
then moves to the next player.
4 If he I she cannot find suitable pairs of cards, for
example if he I she picks up two verb cards, or two topic
cards, his I her turn is over. Likewise, if he I she cannot
make a good sen tence, his I her turn is over. He I she
must place the cards face down where they were
originally. Remind students to remember where the
cards are!
5 T he player with the most cards at the end is the winner.
The production process
For more practice in exchanging facts and information
related to describing processes, make copies of
Photocopiable activity 9 on page 93. Students work in three
teams: A, B, and C. Each team is given a q uestion and
answer sheet.
Ask students to work as a team to try to fo rm correct
questions. They need to create one question for each
prompt. Give them 10-15 minutes. Students must write
their new questions on the papers in the space provided.
5 The winner in each pair is the student who gets the most
'suns' O.
Gerunds and infinitives
For fu rther practice in using gerunds and infinitives, make
copies of Photocopiable activity 8 on page 92, one for each
group of 1....0 to four students. Cut up the cards and shuffle
them. There are sixteen verb cards, and sixteen topic cards
(There are eight topics with two cards each). The aim is for
students to pick up a verb card and a topic card and to
make a correct sentence.
Students read and revise the grammar reference on page
77 and on pages 138-139 of ProFile 3 Student's Book.
2 Each team then takes it in tums to ask the other two
teams a question from their paper. The team able to
supply the correct answer first scores two points.
If one team answers fi rst but makes a m istake, the other
team may answer. If they answer correctly, they get one
point. Give an extra point for an answer including a
passive form used correctly.
4 After the game tell the students to pass their question
paper to another group. Explain that you are now going
to give poin ts for correct grammar. Every question which
is grammatically correct scores one point. Finally, add up
the points from stages 2-4 to find the winner of the
Photocopiable activities
3 Ask students to decide which information under Issues
and considerations they wish to include in the email,
and which they would put in a business plan. Give them
10-15 minutes.
Vocabulary mingle
4 When they are ready, ask students to write the email to
Gravesen Inc. together in pairs. Give them 10-15
For further practice of the language of unit 10. and asking
for, and giving information, make a copy of Photocopiable
activity lOon page 94 for each group of five to six students.
Ideally, you need two to three cards per student.
Cut out the cards and scatter the papers face down in
front of the group of students.
2 Each studen t takes one card and reads the instruction.
He I She must ask different students the appropriate
question, until he I she finds someone who can answer
'yes: He I She must then ask that student more questions
to find out as much as possible about that person and
the related 10pic.
3 On each card there are six tick boxes. For each follow-up
question the student asks related to the topic, they may
tick a box, up to a maximum o f six.
4 When the studen t has asked aU the questions he I she
can, or has ticked aU six boxes, he I she keeps the card,
and picks up another and repeats stage 2 above.
5 The game is over after either twenty minutes, or after all
the cards have been used. The winner of the game is the
person who has ticked the most boxes on their cards.
Business start-up
For further practice in writing emails, and 10 recycle some
of the vocabulary and phrases from unit 11 of ProFile 3
Student's Book, make copies of Photocopiable activity li on
page 95, one for each pair of students.
Remind students of useful language for putting across a
business proposal and responding to requests and
suggestions (pages 114 and 1 IO of ProFile 3 Student's
Book). Tell them they are going to write an email to the
venture capital organization, Gravesen Inc.• asking for
support and funding for their new idea. Later they will
read other 'applications', and reply by 'ema il'.
2 Working in pairs, ask students 10 choose one of the two
products A or B at the top of the page (these were used
in Photocopiable activity 4). They will need to do some
research on the product before approaching the venture
capitalist. The Issues and considerations table will help
prompt them.
5 When all pairs have finished, they 'send' their emails by
exchanging emails with another pair. Then, in the new
role of venture capitalist, students read their new 'email',
and decide how feasible the proposal is.
6 Students reply to the email they have received.
For further practice in defining and describing words. make
copies of Photocopiable activity 12 on page 96. Split the
class into groups of eight, divided into four pairs. Give each
pair one list: either list A, list B, list C, or lisl D.
In their pair they should go through the list, and check
together that they understand all the words within the
context of the unit.
2 Then regroup each group of eight students into two
groups of fou r. In each new group there must be one
student who looked at list A, list B.list C, and list D.
They must llQ1 show each other their list. In turn, each
student should define or describe the words, one by one,
to the group. The aim is for the olher three students to
guess the target word.
The group of four to finish first. by eliciting all the words in
their correct form, are the winners.
Target markets
, Does)'OUr company
~ a 'star' prodllCt?
How long do)'Oll
fXl'K1 it to rtmaln a
3 'Who are)'OUr
«NI1pany's main
<Dmpttilorsl What Is
tMir advertising like?
., What do )'011 know
controls in )'0111
country? If mil. wert in
charge, what changes
would)'Oll make?
ls)'OUr company's
product I seMa well
adwrtistd? What art
Iht key {tatures? What
could be done 10
What do you lllink
about the changing
trends In fashion
(cars, dotIIes, mobilt
improw it?
What ptrCffluge share
01 the rnartltl does
)'OUr company I 0IIf: 01
market. who would it
your produds amntly
prodIIcts. What would
haw? How lias this
changed owr the last
12-18 months?
II be?
'9 Do any lamous peopIt
Does )'OUr company
lISt any
lISt)'OUr company's
products I SoerYices?
accessories to promote
products (IIey rings,
mugs, pens)?
24 Congr.llulalions!
'8 How do you know
what Is InI out of
You've passed the one-
fashion? How
important is illo you?
come bad IIelt week!
week trial. Please
aMrt )'OU'w SftII
I'KtIItIy? WIry?
company that
prodllCfd oxygen In a
can, how would you
martel it!
00 )'011 pay attention
10 TV iCMrts? Haw
)'011 Mf
consciously inflUfnctd
to buy .something?
'Fashiollablt' ~Iso
relates to ~ ~ of life,
for example, wheft you
take )'OUr IIoIlday. 00
you consider yoursdf
to be fashionable~
© Oxford University Press
write a sIogaJIlor
one oI)'QU1' company'$
Does)'OUr company
haw a 'ash Cf1fI'
product? How Iont do
you aped it to remain
a 'ash (OW'?
YI1Iat products were
lasIIionable when
you were a dlild and
art stillu/IioniIbIt
now! WIly do)lOll
think this is!
Flftm years ago
thm lRSII't a
marUt lor minmi
water. What minrral
water do you drink,
and why!
WlIal's the worst
magazine I poster
'6 If,au me!! for the
8 You've beeft asked to
If there were one
{OIIIpe:titor )'OU'd like
10 remow: from the
What's !be
worst I best TV
adYert you've!oftf1!
Extra Photocopiable
Problems and solutions
At a conference
~-------------------------------r, - ----------------- ----- - --- ------~-------------------- ----- --------.'
Conference cant 1
Conference card 2
The Minister for Education, due to
open the conference, has cancelled
You have mislaid all the publicity
leaflets to be displayed on your
at the last minute because of a
stand, which also need to be given
government reshuffle. You'l! have to
welcome participants and open the
out to participants during one of
the conference talks. You've already
conference yourself.
been searching for them for an
hour. The talk takes place in thirty
Conference card 3
You need the data projector for the
talk but it is not available. It' s still
being used in a plenary session
which is running late. The talk
about to take place relies on the
projector, and already the room is
filling up with interested
Conference card 4
Conference card 5
Conference card 6
You have been asked to introduce
some new clients to one of your
guests, a successful international
journalist. Unfortunately, the
journalist has had more than enough
to drink, and you are reluctant to
make the introductions.
You spend almost an hour chatting
to someone and only later realize
she was the plenary speaker you
were expected to invite last night for
dinner. She mentions that she had
spent the evening seeing the city by
night and walking along the river.
Your important journalist was due to
be signing copies of his latest book
at 12 p.m., but unfortunately seems
to have slept in. Just before 12 p.m.,
you get a phone call from his hotel
telling you he'll be there at 2 p.m.
You already have a long queue of
customers waiting.
----------------------------------~-------------------- -------------~---------------------------------"
At a trade fair
~-------- -----------------------~---- ------- - --------- --- - - --------r---------------------------------,
Trade fair card 1
Trade fall' card 2
Trade fair card 3
Your colleagues who were expected
to arrive early to set up the stand
have been delayed in traffic. They'll
now have to set up the stand during
the first few hours of the trade fair
while customers are already
around .
Half the promotional materials you
have brought are in the wrong
language. They are for the French
exhibition next month. You need to
get the English versions couriered
Amongst all the boxes, you can't find
the stock of signed copies of a new
book you are launching, although
you remember seeing them being
put in the van yesterday. They must
be somewhere.
~----------------------------------~----------------------------------~------------------ - ------ -- ------i
Trade fair card 4
Trade fair card 5
Trade fair card 6
The Bier Keller (also a restaurant),
has been double·booked so there is
no room there for you to entertain a
key author whose book you are
launching. You'll have to find
somewhere else.
You arrive back at the trade fair, only
to discover a local marathon taking
place. All the streets are cordoned
off making it impossible to park. You
end up parking 2 km away and arrive
very late.
Overnight, someone has
disconnected all your equipment, so
that the loop Powerpoint
presentation advertising your
materials isn't working. Your own
technician has left, and you don't
know how it works.
--------------------------- - --- - -~-- - -- - - - -- - ------- -- ---------- - --"
© Oxford University Press
Offers and requests
• draft copy for a new
• fix a meeting with the
• get copy translated
• call newspaper about
advertising space
Finance Department
Sales Department
• finalize end month
• check figures with
• order flowers for
• reconcile last
• prepare presentation
quarter's figures
• chase up unpaid
on year-end sales
• plan sales forecast for
• book venue for staff
• type up new staff list
• circulate new office
layout for approval
• Ie-calculate figures
for budget holders
next year
• analyse competitor
~-------------------------~------ - --------------- - --~------------ -------- -----~----------------------- - ~
• fix a meeting with the
• get copy translated
• call newspaper about
advertising space
• draft copy for a new
Finance Department
• reconcile last
quarter's figures
• chase up unpaid
• re-calculate figures
for budget holders
• finalize end month
Sales Department
• prepare presentation
on year-end sales
• plan sales forecast for
next year
• analyse competitor
• check figures with
• book venue for staff
• type up new staff list
• circulate new office
layout for approval
• order flowers for
- -----------------------~--- --------------------- -~-------------------------~-------- --- - - ------ - --- - ~
,,~- Promotions
Finance Department
Sales Department
• get copy translated
• call newspaper about
advertising space
• draft copy for a new
• fix a meeting with the
• chase up unpaid
• re-calculate figures
for budget holders
• finalize end month
• reconcile last
quarter's figures
• plan sales forecast for
next year
• analyse competitor
• check figures with
• prepare presentation
on year-end sales
• type up new staff list
• circulate new office
layout for approval
• order flowers for
• book venue for staff
- ----- -~-------------------------~ ------------------------- ~- -- - -------------------,,~-----------------Promotions
Finance Department
Sales Department
• re-calculate figures
for budget holders
• call newspaper about
advertising space
• finalize end month
• draft copy for a new
• reconcile last
• fix a meeting with the
quarter's figures
• chase up unpaid
• get copy translated
_____________________ _ ___ L _______ _ _ _ _______ __ ___ __ _
© (.rl.", University Press
• analyse competitor
• circulate new office
layout for approval
• check figures with
• order flowers for
• prepare presentation
• book venue for staff
on year-end sales
• plan sales forecast for
• type up new staff list
next year
__ ________________ _ __ _ ___ J ________________________ _
Extra Photocopiable
The marketing mix
The four Ps:
What a re its characteristics: its brand name; its packah,oing?
What is your policy on pricing? Do you offer discounts?
Where and how will it be sold?
How is the customer going to know a bout this product?
... ............................................. ...... .......
distribution channels
location of points of sale
special features
weaknesses I drawbacks
service I guarantee
discounts available
length of payment period
personal selling
'Sprint' - sh oes w h ich can be adapted for
moving muc h faster w he n time is short. The shoes
are normal, but w hen you' re in a hurry, you can
insert a small capsule into the sole of the shoe,
adding bounce and spring to your step, and
enabling you to 'walk' three times faster than the
rest o f the crowd.
'Coolco' - clothing designed to adapt according
to the outside temperature. At the push of a button
on the sleeve of a sweater, or waistband of a skirt,
or a pair of trousers, the fabric either loosens, or
tightens, letting in or out more or less air. The size
of the clothing doesn't c hange! Three settings
available - cool, normal, warm.
'AM!.IM.!6'fftj © Oxford University Press
Obligation and necessity
Use these words to talk a bout rules and regulations. according to the number
shown on the dice:
shordd(n't) or ol/gM(II'r ) to
( rIo t) allowed
(Plot) supposed to
have got or have to
You arrive late.
It's already
Vou park in the
parking space!
people you'll be
working with
Vou leave early
to go to the
You introduce
you rself to the
directly. Move on
one square!
Your boss walks
in and sees you
looking at film
li stings on the
You turn up in
jeans and a
T-shirt. The MD
from HQ is
expected at
11 a.m .!
You ask your
boss to pay you
in cash on Friday
for eight hours
You suggest a
Friday evening
drink with some
colleagues after
work. Move on
one square.
You use the
lunch to finish a
task. Move on
one square.
A friend calls
you on your
mobile - you
chat for over an
You arrange to
meet a dient for
lunch to discuss
a new contract.
Move on one
You take a threehour lunch break
when there are
wrong coffee
CD '"
You work through
Late again!
You leave ina
hurry, leaving
your desk in a
terrible mess.
Clients are
You check your
tasks for the day
with your boss.
Move on one
@ '"
You work until
9 p.m. to meet a
deadline. Move
on one square.
®You phone
in sick.
@ '"
@ '"
You've worked
a 55-hou r week
already. You
need to improve
your time
A senior colleague
arrives at the
same time as you.
You let him / her
have your parking
space. Move on
one square.
You've passed the
one-week trial.
Please come back
next week!
'S@!.!i·i.@Qtj © OxfordUnlversity Press
Extra Photocopiable
Peaks and troughs
~------------ -- --- - -,----------------------,---------- ------------,---------------------- ,
: dramatic(ally)
: slight(ly)
: steady/ -ily
: sharp/ ly
:----------------------:------- ------- --------:------------- ---------:----------------------:
steep/ ly
.:: decrease
(vb I n)
: ri se (vb I n)
: fall (vb I n)
: increase (vb I n)
: peak (vb I n)
: soar (vb)
: fluctuate (vb)
,------ --- --- - --- -- --- -,---------------------'------------ --- - ----_,..... _--- --- --------------,,
,--- --- --- - ------------'----------------------'--- - ---------- - -------'----- - ----------------,
: level off (vb)
: plummet (vb)
: creep up (vb)
: remain (vb)
: collapse (n)
: slump (vb I n)
: climb (vb)
: stay th e same
'-------------- --- --- --'----------------------'----------------------'----------------------,
'----- ------ --- ---- -- - -'----------------------'----------- -----------~---- - ------- --- ------,
-~----- - --- ---- - -------------------------------- - --- ------------ ----- -- - ---------- --- --- -- ------ -- --- --- -- Student A
Describe the graph about last year's sales to
student B.
Listen to student B and draw the graph.
Company: Ventura
Product: Aminga (drug to help reduce effects of
plant allergies)
....., ...
Months, April -7 April
-~--------- ----------- --- --- ------ - - ------------ ------ - --- - --------- - ------------- --------- --- ------- -----------Student B
Listen to student A and draw the graph.
Company: ....................................................................
Describe the graph about last year's sa les to
student A.
Company: Tracks Un limited
Product: SCIl ba-divit.g 'JoUdays by th e Red Sea
'Aif.1Hj.H6mr, © Oxford University Press
Inner Sunlite. a leading tou r operator based in Graz,
Aust ria, in business for 20 years. Co-owned 60:40 by
Sam Simon and Niki Schwartz respectively. Financial
difficulties since 2001 . AJso publishes a series of guide
books, 'Two-Step Guides' - sales have increased lO- fo ld
since 2002. Sam and Niki no longer wish to work
together. Niki wishes to develop the publishing side of
the business. Sam will con tinue wilh the holiday
business. Sam and Niki m eet to discuss a deal o n vario us
options for ownership in each business, as well as
Sam Simon:
As Managing Director of In ner Su nlite tou rs, yo u are
confident that you can get the business back on its feet.
YOll wish to have a finan cial interest in the new guide book
business. You m3Y be 3ble to encourage you r customers to
buy guide books, so your ex-partner may be grateful to
have you r continued help he re. Ready cash is short, SO
com pensating Niki Schw3rtz fin ancially is difficult,
especially in the short term. Yo u may need to consider
taking out a bank loan.
compensation payment.
Yo ur ownershi p of Inner
Sun lite afte r separation
up to 100%
85 - 99%
85% or less
Payme nt compensation you
are offering to Niki
8 00,000 or less
0 01 ,00Q--400,000
€401 ,000 or more
Payme nt compensat ion dates
Up to 20% now,
rest after twelve
20-50% now,
rest after six
51% or more now
Your ownership of Two-Step
after separation
25% or less
Your total :
....~-- --- ------ --- --- ---- --- --- ------------------- -- - - ----------------- -- ----- - ---------------------------- - ------
Inner Su nlite, a leading tour o perator based in G raz.
Austria, in business for 20 years. Co-owned 60:40 by Sam
Simon and Niki Schwartz respectively. Financial difficulties
si nce 2001. Also publishes a series of guide books, 'TwoStep Guides' - sales h3ve increased 10-fold since 2002. S3m
3nd Niki no longer wish to work toge ther. N iki wishes to
develop the publishing side of th e business. Sam will
continue with the holiday business. Sam and Niki m eet to
discuss a deal on various options for ownership in each
business, as well as compensation payment.
Niki Schwartz:
As Executive Director of Inner Sun lite tou rs, yo u have
rece ntly been part of a te3m developing Two-Step Guides.
The new ve nt ure is risky, as the market is ve ry new, so you
need ready m oney to p ro m ote it fasl. However, having
been involved from the start with the 'old' company, you
are reluctant to give it up completely, and want to keep a
financial interest in it. Clients interested in your guide
books may well be interested in the holiday offers yo ur
ex-partner can offer.
Your ownership of Inner
Sun lite after separation
20% o r more
1 5%
10% or less
Payment compe nsation you
are offering to Niki
€500,OOO or more
899,000 or less
Payment compe nsatio n
one-off 100%
paym e nt now
50-99% now,
rest within three
month s
Up to 49% now,
rest in twelve
mo nths
Your ownership of Two-Step
after separatio n
74% or less
'a@'H,llflDM © OxforduniversityPress
Your total:
Extra Photocopiable
Gerunds and infinitives
Verb cards
~ ---------------------~-------- - --- --------------~, -- ------ ------ - ------------~------- -- -------- -- ---- .,
__ -_---------- ------------------- --- ----- ----- ----l, -____ ______ _________ __ _____ _____ ___ __ _____________ ,
,L _______________ _ ________
___________ _ _________ _____
_ __ ___ _ ____________________
______ _ _________ _ _______ -L _ _________ __ _______ ___ _ _ __
L ____ ______ ___ ___ _______
be interested in
_ _ ______________________ _ _
look forward to
~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_________ ____ ______ ___ _
___ __ _________ _ ________ _
Topic cords
~- --------------------~--------------------------~ - -------------- --- ---------~---- ------------------Preferences I
Likes and dislikes
Routines I Habits
Instructions I
Early memories
~---- ------- --- ----- ----_r --- ----- ---- -- ----------- - ~-------- - ---------------- --~- ----------------------~
Problem that
needs solving
career to date
Plans I The
Business career
to date
r-----------------------~--------------------------~---------------------------r--------------------- - -~
Preferences I
Likes and dislikes
Routines I Habits
r---- --- -------- ---- ----_r --- _____ ___ _______ _____ ___ • __
-- ------ --- ---------- - ---~-------------- -- -------,
Problem that
needs solving
Instructions I
Early memories
career to date
Plans I The
Business career
to date
---------------- - -------~------------- ---- --------- ----- - - - --- -- -- ------ --- --~---- ---- ----- --- ---- - -- - .
'PMHc.!@!§!I © Odord University Press
The production process
1 kilos of olives / one litre extra virgin olive oil?
It takes about five kilos of o lives to make one litre of
extra virgin oil.
2 whisky / from oats, barley, rye, wheat?
Whisky is made using barley.
3 silk filaments / one thread of silk? 4-6,12- 14,18-207
12-14 strands of silk filament are used to make one
thread of silk.
_. .:r. ___________ ___ ___________________ __ ___________ _____________________________________________________ ___ _____ __ _
contact lenses /
from polymer and what?
Contact lenses are made from polymer and up to
79% water.
2 valuable Turkish carpet / number knots per square
In a valuable Turkish carpet 1,000 knots are tied per
inch (2.5 em) ?
square inch.
3 Greek feta cheese / sheep's. goat 's, cow's milk or mixture?
Traditional Greek feta cheese is produced from a
mixture of goat's and sheep's cheese. Cow's milk
----_ ...................................................................................................................
is too fatty.
.... .:.-:-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------_.
1 Earl Grey tea / black tea fl avoured with?
Earl Grey tea is black tea flavoured with bergamot oil.
................................................................................................. - .
2 grams of ro se petals / one kilo of rose oil?
4,000 kg of ro se petals are required to produce 1 kilo
of the finest Bulgarian rose oil.
3 USA state / grow coffee? Hawaii, New Mexico. Alabama?
'A@(.jJ.].j6mr'©Odord University Press
Coffee is grown in only one US state, Hawaii.
Extra Photocopiable
Vocabulary mingle
~----- --- ------------------ ----------------------.------------------------,
Find someone who hands out
compliments regularly
Find someone who often has to
stay on late at work
Follow-up que";on,
Follow-up que";on,
r----- --- --- ---- --- ----- -- --------------------------~--------------- - ---------- ---- --- -- ---- ------------ ,
Find someone who has a lot of
unfinished work to sort out
this week
Find someone who gets on well
with his I her boss
Follow-up que,,;on,
Follow-up que,,;on,
L _ ___ ___________________ __ ____ ___ _____ ___ ___ ___ ____ _ r
_---------- - - - ----- ---- --- -- ----- - -----------------~
Find someone who dislikes the way
his I her office is laid out
Follow-up que";on,
Find someone who went for a job in
the past which was more interesting
than well-paid
Follow-up que";on,
I I I I I I I :,
r----------------------- --------- ----- --- ------- ---- ---------------------------------------------------,
Find someone who has come up
Find someone who recently moved
with a new idea for more effective
up the ladder at the company
Follow-up que,,;on,
L _________ __ ________________________________________
Find someone who finds his I her
job very rewarding
Follow-up que,,;on,
Follow-up que,,;on,
~ -
I I I I I I I,
_____ _______ ___ ___________ _ ________ _ ______________ ~
Find someone who needs to be
very skilled in order to do his I
her job
Follow-up quest;on,
~-- - ------------------- - - ----- - - --- ----- --- ---------~------------------------------------ - -- ----- ------~'
Find someone who ended up
working in his I her current job
by chance
Follow-up questions
I I I I I I I,
Find someone who has pulled
strings to help get someone
else a job
Follow-up que";on,
I I I I I I Ii
r-------------------------------------- - ------------~------------- - -- --- --------------------------------~
Find someone who has built up an
impressive CV
Follow-up quest;on,
Find someone who fin ds his I her
job extremely demanding
FOllow-Up que,,;on,
_ ____ ____ _ ___ ____ _ _________________________________ L _ _____ __ _ __ _ _ _________________________ _ ___ _ _______ _
I©O,fo", University Press
Business start-up
A 'Sprint' - sh oes which can be adapted for
moving much faster when time is short. The
shoes arc normal, but when you 're in a hurry,
you can insert a small capsule into the sole of
the shoe, adding bounce and spring to your step
and enabling you to ' walk' three times faster
than the rest of the crowd .
B ' Cooleo' - clothing designed to adapt
according to the temperature. At the push of a
button on the sleeve of a sweater, on a
waistband of a skirt or pair of trousers, the
fabric either loosens or tightens, Ictting in o r
out morc o r less air, accordingly. The size of the
clothing doesn 't change! Three settings
available - cool, normal, warm.
Issues and considerations:
Use this chart to help you plan. Decide what information you wish to pass on to the venture capi tal organization.
Clearly defined concept - what your product is, how you wi ll
establish and grow the company:
Potential customer group and how your product will meet
their needs:
Potential , and how you w ill m easure success:
Your experience in this area:
Premises I offices to rent:
Furniture and fittings:
Staff wages p.a. :
Advertising :
Planned retail price:
Breakeven point:
Overall investment anticipated :
-- - ......
Using the table above, write an email proposal for your new product.
Address th e ema il to the venture capital organization. Gravcsen Inc.
© Oxford University Press
- _.. ...
Extra Photocopiable
.~--------------------------------- ------ --------------,--------------------------------------------------- List A
List B
turning point
status symbol
snob appeal
to live down
to shake off
to appeal
me-too brand
to resurrect
-~--------- ------- ------------ ------------------- - ----- ---------------------------------------------------List C
List 0
act in bad faith
product recall
grey market
to sue
press release
to regain
to let an office
© Oxford University Press