# Engineering Optics of Theory

```Light-Light transmission 01,近場光學-設計的流程 02 Geometric Optics-雷射處理上的安全對策 03
Light is a form of electromagnetic energy,Light energy is conveyed through particles and waves.Overview of light sources:1. non-Laser:Thermal,Gas
discharge,LEDs.2.Laser:Continuous wave,Pulsed.The law of reflection:Consider virtual source P” instead of P,Alternative path P”O”P’ is longer than P”OP’,The refore,light
follows the symmetric path POP’.Optical waveguide:high-index dielectric material sandwiched between lower-index dielectrics.Optical fibers:Core diameter=8-10&micro;m,Cladding
diameter=250&micro; m,Index contrast n=0.007,attenuation=0.25dB/km.Dispersion:In a dispersive prism, material dispersion causes different colors to refract at different angles,
splitting white light into a spectrum.Light transmission through the atmosphere is human vision 0.4-1.0.近場光學:Far Field:Distance&gt;&gt;WaveLengthNear
Field:Distance&lt;&lt;WaveLengthModulation:M&lt;=1,M 表示對比度,對比度愈大愈容易識別(Modulatio 愈小,愈難識別,空間頻率愈高,愈難識別)Be Physical Optics, not
Geometrical Optics!aGeneral DiffractionbLasercInterferometrydDiffractive ElementeNonlinear OpticsfWaveguide and Optical FibersgMost Photonic ApplicationWhy
Geometrical Optics:In a word,wavelength is assumed to Zero.The basic concept is RAY. All the rays are Following reflection law, Snell law,which was derived from Fermat
Law.Geometrical Optics may convey wavefront slope, OPD, Intensity, polarization state.It works only with “well-behaved” beams.What is Paraxial Optics?Its ray heights are
limited to be very small.All the system are working as a first order equation.The Pin-Hole camera may suffer serious diffraction effect if the pin-hole diameter is less than 100
μm.理想成像可分為幾何成像及繞射成像光學系統有五種元素相生相剋:A.光譜 Light SpectrumB.材質 Optical MaterialsC.製程 Optical FabricationD.系統設計及規格
Optical System DesignE.Detector and Termina 光學材質 195nm 以下:CaF2(螢石)，反射面,100nm~365nm:光學玻璃(數百種),450nm~1000nm:塑膠材質(十餘種),波長
&gt;2.5&micro;m:Silcon、鍺、反射面當光遇到材質 1 反射 2 透射 3 吸收光學材質所要注意的事項 a.不均勻性 b.不易夾持 c.不易加工 d.熱漲冷縮 e.不易附著鍍膜 f.內應力大，

CODE V，ZEMAX，OSLO 能量系統: ASAP，TRACE-PRO 設計的流程不斷的 check 材質，公差，透光率及量產性。Geometric Optics(1)Gaussian Optics(Ray
Optics)(2)Image Formation in Paraxial Optics(3)Matrix Ray Tracing(4)Optical AberrationsClassification: 1.Geometric Optics:optical system design,optical instrumentation,
(λ→0) Gaussian optics.2.Wave Optics:interference⇒optical metrology,(h→0) diffraction ⇒Fourier optics,polarization⇒crystal optics3.Quantum Optics:laser devices,laser
spectroscopy.4.Optoelectronics:optical detection,fiber communication.Electro-Optics products=laser+optical components+mechanical parts+electronics+computer control
Definitions:1.light source 2.geometric optics⇒Light is described by a straight ray or group of rays by using lenses, prisms,mirrors,…to manipulate light.3. reflection
refraction
dispersion of light
,
4.properties of optical elements
→aberration→optical design→instrumentation optics,ray tracing or radiometry→instrumentation optics←precision mechanics.5.optical path
length (O.P.L.)
6. principle of reversibilitySource(Image) ←→|Optical System|←→Image(Source)7.Rectilinear propagation in homogenous
medium(isotropic, monochromatic)8.light in non-homogenous mediumanisotropic⇒大氣折射(海市蜃樓),birefringence (雙折變),electro-optic crystal,nonlinear optics9.total
internal reflection (TIR)
Fermat’s Principle in modern form:A light
ray in going form point S to point P must traverse an optical path length (OPL) which is “stationary” with respect to variation of that path.(1)a.plane mirror (min.)b.elliptical
reflector (constant)c.spherical reflector (max.)(2)application of Fermat’s Principlea.law of reflection⇒plane mirrorb.law of refractionc.propagation through an optical system

avalanche photo-diode),電荷耦合器(CCD,charge-coupled device),互補性氧化金屬半導體(CMOS,Complementary MetalOxide Semiconductor).常用光學元件:透鏡(lens),面

40727119 四自三甲 邱思齊
Perfect Image System?1.Plane mirrors(reflection )Yes, perfect image system.2.Plane surfaces (refraction )Refraction occurs when the light that crosses
the surface between two transparent media. Snell’s law:
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