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3DES-Triple Digital Encryption Standard. A symmetric algorithm used to encrypt data and provide confidentiality. It is a block cipher that
encrypts data in 64- bit blocks
AAA-Authentication, authorization, and accounting. A group of technologies used in remote access systems.
Authentication-verifies a user's identification
Authorization-determines if a user should have access
Accounting-tracks a user's access with logs
AUP-Acceptable Use Policy. A policy defining proper system usage and the rules of behavior for employees. If often describes the purpose
of computer systems and networks, how users can access them, and the responsibilities of users when accessing the systems
AP-Access Point. A device that connects wireless clients to wireless networks
ACLs-Access Control Lists. Lists of rules used by routers and stateless firewalls. These devices use the ACL to control traffic based on
networks, subnets, IP addresses, ports, and some protocols
active reconnaissance
A penetration testing method used to collect information. It sends data to systems and analyzes responses to gain information on the target.
ad hoc
A connection mode used by wireless devices without an AP. When wireless devices connect through an AP, they are using infrastructure
Advanced Encryption Standard. A strong symmetric block cipher that encrypts data in 128-bit blocks. AES can use key sizes of 128, 192, or
256 bits
A scheduling method used with load balancers. It uses the client's IP address to ensure the client is redirected to the same server during a
aggregation switch
a switch used to connect multiple switches together into a network. Switches connect to the aggregation switch and it connects to a router
Authentication Header. An option within IPsec to provide authentication and integrity
A physical security control that provides physical isolation. Systems separated by airgap don't typically have any physical connections to
other systems
Annual Loss Expectancy. Quantitative risk assessment calculated by SLE x ARO
amplification attack
an attack that increases the amount of bandwidth sent to a victim
A proprietary wireless protocol used by some mobile devices
a method used on some routers to protect against spoofing attacks. A common implementation is to implement specific rules to block certain
software that protects systems from malware including viruses, Trojans, worm, etc
application cell (AKA application container)
a virtualization technology that runs services or applications within isolated application cells. Each container shares the kernel of the host
Advanced persistent threat. A group that has the capability and intent to launch sophisticated and targeted attacks
A command-line tool used to show and manipulate the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache
ARP poisoning
An attack that misleads systems about the actual MAC address of a system
asymmetric encryption
A type of encryption using two keys to encrypt and decrypt data. It uses a public key and a private key
A process that checks and validates system files during the boot process. TPMs sometimes use remote attestation, sending a report to a
remote system for attestation
ensures that systems and data are up and operational when needed. one of the 3 main goals of information security.
an alternate method of accessing a system
banner grabbing
a method used to gain information about a remote system. It identifies the operating system and other details on the remote system
a key stretching algorithm. it is used to protect passwords. bcrypt salts passwords with additional bits before encrypting them with Blowfish.
This thwarts rainbow table attacks
Basic Input/Output systems. A computer's firmware used to manipulate different settings such as the date and time, boot drive, and access
password. UEFI is the designated replacement for BIOS!
a password attack named after the birthday paradox in probability. in a random group of 23, 50% chance 2 have the same birthday
block cipher
An encryption method that encrypts data in fixed-sized blocks.
a strong symmetric block cipher. it encrypts in 64-bit blocks and supports key sizes between 32 and 448 bits
sending unsolicited messages to nearby bluetooth devices
attackers gain unauthorized access to bluetooth devices and can access all the data on the device
short vertical posts to stop vehicles
is a group of computers that are joined together and then used to launch attacks
Business partners agreement.
A network device used to connect multiple networks together. can be used instead of a router in some situations
buffer overflow
An error that occurs when an application receives more input, or different input, than it expects. It exposes system memory that is normally
Business impact analysis
Certificate Authority. An organization that manages, issues, and signs certificates. A CA is a main element of a PKI
captive portal
a technical solution that forces wireless clients using web browsers to complete a process before accessing a network. It is often used to
ensure users agree to an acceptable use policy or pay for access
carrier unlocking
the process of unlocking a mobile phone from specific cellular provider
Cipher Block Chaining. A mode of operation used for encryption that effectively converts a block cipher into a stream cipher. It uses an IV for
the first block and each subsequent block is combined with the previous block
Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol. An encryption protocol based on AES and used with
WPA2 for wireless security. It is more secure than TKIP, which was used with the original release of WPA
Canonical Encoding Rules. A base format for PKI certificates. They are binary encoded files
chain of custody
A process that provides assurances that evidence has been controlled and handled properly after collection
change management
the process used to prevent unauthorized changes
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. An authentication mechanism where a server challenges a client
A linux command used to change the root directory. Often used for sandboxing
the result of encrypting plaintext. not easily read until decrypted.
clean desk policy
a security policy requiring employees to keep their areas organized and free of papers. The goal is to reduce threats of security incidents by
protecting sensitive data
An attack that tricks users into clicking something other than what they think they're clicking
cloud access security broker. A software tool or service that enforces cloud-based security requirements. It is placed between the
organization's resources and the cloud, monitors all network traffic and can enforce security policies
cloud deployment models
cloud model types that identify who has access to cloud resources. Public, private, community, hybrid
code signing
the process of assigning a certificate to code. the certificate includes a digital signature and validates the code
compiled code
code that has been optimized by an application and converted into an executable file
ensures that unauthorized entities cannot access the data. One of the 3 main goals of information security
configuration compliance scanner
a type of vulnerability scanner that verifies systems are configured correctly
a cryptography concept that indicates ciphertext is significantly different than plaintext
A method used to isolate applications on mobile devices
context-aware authentication
an authentication method using multiple elements to authenticate a user and a mobile device
continuity of operations planning
the planning process that identifies an alternate location for operations after a critical outage
control diversity
the use of different security control types
thin AP
controller-based AP
Corporate-owned, Personally Enabled. the organization purchases and issues devices to employees
Certificate Revocation List. A list of certificates that a CA has revoked
crossover error rate
the point where the false acceptance rate (FAR) crosses over with the false rejection rate (FRR). A lower CER indicates a more accurate
biometric system
Cross-site request forgery. A web application attack. XSRF attacks trick users into performing actions on websites, such as making
purchases, without their knowledge
cross-site scripting. A web application vulnerability. Attackers embed malicious HTML or JavaScript code into a web site's code, which
executes when a user visits the site
a type of ransomware that encrypts the user's data
crypto module
A set of hardware, software, and/or firmware that implements cryptographic functions
crypto service provider
A software library of cryptographic standards and algorithms. These libraries are typically distributed within crypto modules
Certificate signing request. A method of requesting a certificate from a CA. It starts by creating an RSA-based private/public key pair and
then including the public key in CSR
Counter mode. A mode of operation used for encryption that combines an IV with a counter. The combined result is used to encrypt blocks
custom firmware
Mobile device firmware other than the firmware provided with the device. People sometimes use custom firmware to root Android devices
cyber-incident response team
A group of experts who respond to security incidents. Also know as CIRT
choose your own device. employees can connect their personally owned device to the network as long as the device is on a preapproved list
Discretionary Access Control. An access control model where all objects have owners and owners can modify permissions for the objects.
used by Microsoft NFTS
Data Execution Prevention. A security feature that prevents code from executing in memory regions marked as non-executable. it helps
block malware
data exfiltration
the unauthorized transfer of data outside an organization
Distributed Denial-of-Service. An attack on a system launched from multiple sources intended to make computer's resources or services
unavailable to users. DDoS attacks typically include sustained, abnormally high network traffic
removing data from magnetic media (destroying hard disks or credit cards)
Distinguished Encoding Rules. A base format for PKI certificates. They are BASE64 ASCII encoded files
Data Encryption Standard. A legacy symmetric encryption standard used to provide confidentiality. THIS HAS BEEN COMPROMISED. use
Diffie-Hellman. An asymmetric algorithm used to privately share symmetric keys.
DH Ephemeral. uses keys ephemeral keys, which are re-created for each session
Elliptic Curve DHE
ECDHE uses elliptic curve cryptography to generate encryption keys
a command-line tool used to test DNS on linux systems
DLL injection
An attack that injects a dynamic link library into memory and runs it
Data Loss Prevention. A group of technologies used to prevent data loss
Demilitarized Zone. A buffer zone between the internet and an internal network. Internet clients can access the services hosted in the DMZ,
but the DMZ provides a layer of protection for the internal network
Domain Name System. A service used to resolve host names on IP addresses. DNS zones include records such as A records for IPv4
addresses and AAAA records for IPv6 addresses
Domain Name System Security Extensions. A suite of extensions to DNS used to protect the integrity of DNS records and prevent some
DNS attacks
DNS poisoning
An attack that modifies or corrupts DNS results. DNSSEC helps prevent DNS poisoning
domain hijacking
an attack that changes the registration of a domain name without permission from the owner
Denial-of-Service. An attack from a single source that attempts to disrupt the services provided by the attacked system
downgrade attack
a type of attack that forces a system to downgrade its security. the attacker then exploits the lesser security control.
Digital signature algorithm. An encrypted hash of a message used for authentication, non-repudiation, and integrity. the sender's private key
encrypts the hash of the message
Extensible Authentication Protocol. An authentication framework that provides general guidance for authentication methods. Variations
include PEAP, EAP-TLS, and EAP-FAST
EAP-Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling. A Cisco-designed replacement for Lightweight EAP (LEAP). supports certificates but is
EAP-Transport Layer Security. An extension of EAP sometimes with 802.1x. This is one of the MOST secure EAP standards and is widely
implemented. It requires certificates on the 802.1x server and on the clients
EAP- Tunneled Transport Layer Security. An extension of EAP sometimes used with 802.1x. It allows systems to use oler authentication
methods such as PAP within a TLS tunnel.
Electronic Codebook. A legacy mode of operation used for encryption. It is weak and should not be used.
embedded system
any device that has a dedicated function and uses a computer system to perform that function. It includes a CPU, an operating system, and
one or more applications.
a process that scrambles, or ciphers, data to make it unreadable.
A wireless mode that uses an 802.1x server for security. Forces users to authenticate with username and password
ephemeral key
a type of key used in cryptography. Have very short lifetimes and are re-created for each session
Encapsulating Security Payload. An option within IPsec to provide confidentiality, integrity, and authentication
evil twin
a type of rogue AP. Has the same SSID as a legitimate AP
false negative
a security incident that isnt detected or reported.
false positive
an alert on an event that isnt a security incident
False Acceptance Rate. a rate threat that identifies the percentage of times a biometric authentication system incorrectly indicates a match
Faraday cage
a room or enclosure that prevents signals from emanating beyond the room or enclosure
Fat AP
an AP that includes everything needed to connect wireless clients to a wireless network. Must be configured independently
Full Disk Encryption. A method to encrypt an entire disk
two or more members of a federated identity management system. Used for SSO
a software or network device used to filter traffic. Firewalls can be application-based (running on a host), or a network-based device.
Stateful Firewalls
filter traffic using rules within an ACL
Stateless Firewalls
filter traffic based on its state within the session
firmware OTA updates
Over-the-air updates for mobile devices firmware that keep them up to date. These are typically downloaded to the device from the internet
and applied to update the device
Flood guard
a method of thwarting flood attacks. On switches, a flood guard thwarts MAC flood attacks. On routers, a flood guard prevents SYN flood
False Rejection Rate. A rate that identifies the percentage of times a biometric authentication system incorrectly rejects a valid match
File Transfer Protocol Secure. An extension of FTP that uses TLS to encrypt FTP traffic. Some implementations of FTPS use TCP ports 989
and 990
full tunnel
all traffic from a user is in an encrypted connection using VPNs
Galois/Counter Mode. A mode of operation used for encryption that combines Counter (CTM) mode with hashing techniques for data
authenticity and confidentiality
Group Policy Object. A technology used within Microsoft Windows to manage users and computers. It is implemented on a domain controller
within a domain
hardware root of trust
A known secure starting point. TPMs have a private key burned into the hardware the provides a hardware root of trust
A number created by executing a hashing algorithm against data, such as a file or a message. Hashing is used for integrity. Common
hashing algorithms are MD5, SHA-1, and HMAC
A type of monitoring on IDS and IPS. It detects attacks by comparing traffic against a baseline. AKA anomaly detection
Host-Based Intrusion Detection System. Software installed on a system to detect attacks. It protects local resources on the host.
Host-based Intrusion Prevention System. is an extension of HIDS. It is a software installed on a system to detect and block attacks
Hash-Based Message Authentication Code. A hashing algorithm used to verify integrity and authenticity of a message with the use of a
shared secret. Usually combined with another hashing algorithm (SHA)
HMAC-based One Time Password. An open standard used for creating one-time passwords. It combines a secret key and a counter, and
then uses HMAC to create a hash of the result
Hardware Security Module. a removable or external device that can generate, store, and manage RSA keys used in asymmetric encryption
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure. a protocol used to encrypt HTTP traffic. HTTPS encrypts traffic with TLS using TCP port 443
Infrastructure as a Service. A cloud computing model that allows an organization to rent access to hardware in a self-managed platform
Industrial Control System. A system that controls large systems such as power plants or water treatment facilities. A SCADA system controls
the ICS
the process that occurs when a user claims an identity
IEEE 802.1x
An authentication protocol used in VPNs and wired and wireless networks . VPNs often implement it as a RADIUS server. Wired networks
use it for port-based authentication. Wireless networks use it in Enterprise mode. It can be used with certificate-based authentication
A command-line tool used on a Linux systems to show and manipulate settings on a network interface card (NIC). Similar to ipconfig used on
Windows systems
Internet Message Access Protocol v4. a protocol used to store and manage email on servers. IMAP4 uses TCP port 143. Secure IMAP4
uses TLS to encrypt IMAP4 traffic
provides assurance that data or system configurations have not been modified. One of the 3 main goals of information security
A command-line tool used on Linux systems show and manipulate settingd on a network interface card (NIC)
Internet Protocol Security. A suite of protocols used to encrypt data-in-transit that can operate in both Tunnel mode and Transport mode. It
uses Tunnel mode for VPN traffic and Transport mode in private networks
IP spoofing
An attack that changes the source IP address
Interconnection Security Agreement. an agreement that specifies technical and security requirements for connections between two or more
IV attack
A wireless attack that attempts to discover the IV (initialization vector). Legacy wireless security protocols are susceptible to IV attacks
Key Distribution Center. Aka a TGT server. Part of the Kerberos protocol used for network authentication. The KDC issues timestamped
tickets that expire
A network authentication mechanism used with Windows Active Directory domains and some Unix environments known as realms. It uses a
KDC to issue tickets
the central part of the operating system
key escrow
the process of placing a copy of a private key in a safe environment
key stretching
a technique used to increase the strength of
stored passwords. It salts the passwords and can help thwart brute force and rainbow table attacks
Known plaintext
A cryptographic attack that decrypts encrypted data. In this attack, the attacker knows the plaintext used to create ciphertext.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. A protocol used to communicate with directories such as Microsoft Active Directory. It identifies
objects with query strings using codes such as CN=Users and DC=GetCertifiedGetAhead
LDAP Secure. A protocol used to encrypt LDAP traffic with TLS
least functionality
a core principle of secure systems design. systems should be deployed with the rights and permissions needed to perform assigned tasks or
functions, but no more
Logic Bomb
A type of malware that executes in response to an event
Loop prevention
a method of preventing switching loop or bridge loop problems. Both STP and RSTP prevent switching loops
MAC (Need-to-Know)
Mandatory Access Control. An access control model that uses sensitivity label assigned to objects (files and folders) and subjects (users).
MAC restricts access based on a need to know
MAC (address)
Media Access Control. A 48-bit address used to identify network interface network interface cards. It is also called a hardware address or a
physical address
MAC Filtering
A form of network access control to allow a block access based on the MAC address. It is configured on switches for port security or on APs
for wireless security
MAC spoofing
An attack that changes the source MAC address
Mail Gateway
A server that examines and processes all incoming and outgoing email. It typically a spam filter and DLP capabilities. Some gateways also
provide encryption services
An attack that infects vulnerable web browsers. It can allow the attacker to capture browser session data, including keystrokes.
man-in-the-middle (MITM)
An attack using active interception or eavesdropping. It uses a third computer to capture traffic sent between two other systems
A physical mechanism designed to control access to a secure area.
Message Digest 5. A hashing function used to provide integrity. MD5 creates 128-bit hashes, which are also referred to as MD5 checksums.
Experts consider MD5 cracked.
Mobile device management. A group of application and/or technologies used to manage mobile devices. MDM tools can monitor mobile
devices and ensure they are in compliance with security policies
Multi-function devices. Any device that performs multiple functions.
Multimedia Messaging Service. A method used to send text messages. It is an extension of SMS and supports sending multimedia content
Memorandum of understanding or memorandum of agreement. A type of agreement that defines responsibilities of each party
Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol v2. Provides mutual authentication
Mean time between failures. A metric that provides a measure of a system's reliability and is usually represented in hours
Mean Time To Recover. A metric that identifies the average time it takes to restore a failed system
Network Access Control. A system that inspects clients ensure they are healthy. Agents inspect clients and agents can be permanent or
dissolvable (aka agentless)
Network Address Translation. A service that translates public IP addresses to private addresses and private IP addresses to public IP
Non-Disclosure Agreement
A command-line tool used to connect to remote systems
A command-line tool used to show network statistics on a system
Network mapping
A process used to discover devices on a network, including how they are connected
network scanner
A tool used to discover devices on a network, including their IP addresses, and their operating system, along with services and protocols
running on the devices.
NFC attack
An attack against mobile devices that use near field communication (NFC. NFC is a group of standards that allow mobile devices to
communicate with nearby mobile devices
Network-based Intrusion Detection System. A device that detects attacks and raises alerts. A NIDS is installed on network devices, such as
routers or firewalls, and monitors network traffic
Network-based Intrusion Prevention System. A device that detects and stops attack sin progress. A NIPS is placed inline (aka in-band) with
traffic so that it can actively monitor data streams
National Institute of Standard and Technology.
A command-line tool used to scan networks. it is a type of network scanner
a number used once. Cryptography elements frequently use a nonce to add randomness
A method used in virtual desktops where changes made by a user are not saved. Most (or all) users have the same desktop. When users log
off, the desktop reverts to its original state
the process of organizing tables and columns in a database. Normalization reduces redundant data and improves overall database
A command-line tool used to test DNS on Microsoft systems.
New Technology LAN Manager. A suite of protocols that provide confidentiality, integrity, and authentication within Windows systems.
An open source standard used for authorization with Internet-based single-sign on solutions
An attempt to make something unclear or difficult to understand. Steganography methods use obfuscation to hide data within data
Online Certificate Status Protocol. An alternative to CRL. It allows entities to query a CA with the serial number of a certificate. The CA
answers with good, revoked, or unknown
OpenID Connect
An open source standard used for identification on the internet. It is typically used with OAuth and it allows clients to verify the identity of end
users without managing their credentials
open-source intelligence
A method of gathering data using public sources, such as social media sites and news outlets
order of volatility
a term that refers to the order in which you should collect evidence
PKCS #7. A common format for PKI certificates. They are DER-based (ASCII) and commonly used to share public keys
PKCS#12. A common format for PKI certificates. They are CER-Based (binary) and often hold certificates with the private key. They are
commonly encrypted
Platform as a Service. A cloud computing model that provides cloud customers with a preconfigured computing platform they can use as
Password Authentication Protocol. An older authentication protocol where passwords or PINs are sent across the network in cleartext
passive reconaissance
A penetration testing method used to collect information. It typically uses open-source intelligence
pass the hash
A password attack that captures and uses the hash of a password. It attempts to log on as a user with the hash and is commonly associated
with the Microsoft NTLM protocol
password cracker
a tool used to discover passwords
patch management
the process used to keep up systems up to date with current patches. It typically includes evaluating and testing patches before deploying
Password-Based Key Derivation Function 2. A key stretching technique that adds additional bits to a password as a salt. It prevents brute
force and rainbow table attacks
Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol. An extension of EAP sometimes used with 802.1x. PEAP requires certification on the 802.1x
Privacy Enhanced Mail. A common format for PKI certificates. It can use either CER (ASCII) or DER (binary) formats and can be used for
almost any type of certificates
penetration testing
A method of testing targeted systems to determine if vulnerabilities can be exploited. Penetration tests are intrusive
perfect forward secrecy
A characteristic of encryption keys ensuring that keys are random. Perfect forward secrecy methods do not use deterministic algorithms
permanent agent
A NAC agent that is installed on a client. It checks the client for health
permission auditing review
An audit that analyzes user privileges. It identifies the privileges granted to the users, and compares them against what the users need
Personal Information Exchange. A common format for PKI certificates. It is the predecessor to P12 certificates
The practice of sending email to users with the purpose of tricking them into revealing personal information or clicking on a link
a command-line tool used to test connectivity with remote systems
A security mechanism used by some web sites to prevent web site impersonation. Web sites provide clients with a list of public key hashes.
Clients store the list and use it to validate the website
Personal Identity Verification card
One of the steps in penetration testing. After escalating privileges, the tester uses additional tools to gain additional information on the
exploited computer or on the network
pointer deference
A programming practice that uses a pointer to reference a memory area. A failed deference operation can corrupt memory and sometimes
even cause and application to crash
Post Office Protocol v3. A protocol used to transfer email from mail servers to clients
port mirror
A monitoring port on a switch. All traffic going through the switch is also sent to the port mirror
privacy impact assessment
An assessment used to identify and reduce risks related to potential loss of PII
privacy threshold assessment
an assessment used to help identify if a system is processing PII
private key
Part of a matched key pair used in asymmetric encryption. The private key always stays private
privilege escalation
the process of gaining elevated rights and permissions. Malware typically uses a variety of techniques to gain elevated privileges
protocol analyzer
A tool used to capture network traffic. Both professionals and attackers use protocol analyzers to examine packets. A protocol analyzer can
be used to view sent data in clear text
A server used to forward requests for services such as HTTP(S).
Forward Proxy
forwards requests from internal clients to external clients
Reverse Proxy
accepts requests from the internet and forwards them to an internal web server
Transparent Proxy
does not modify requests, but nontransparent proxies include URL filters
Application Proxy
used for a specific application, but most proxy servers are used for multiple protocols
Pre-shared Key. A wireless mode that uses a pre-shared key (similar to a password or paraphrase) for security
public key
part of a matched key pair used in asymmetric encryption. The public key is publicly available
Public Key Infrastructure. A group of technologies used to request, create, manage, store, distribute, and revoke digital certificates
A process that is performed after shredding papers. It reduces the shredded paper to a mash or puree
race condition
A programming flaw that occurs when two sets of code attempt to access the same resource. The first one to access the resource wins,
which can result in inconsistent results.
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service. An authentication service that provides central authentication for remote access clients.
Alternatives are TACACS+ and Diameter
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. Multiple disks added together to increase performance or provide protection against faults. Common
types include RAID-1, RAID-5, RAID-6, and RAID-10
rainbow table
A file containing precomputed hashes for character combinations. Rainbow tables are used to discover passwords. PBKDF2 and bcrypt
thwart rainbow table attacks
Remote Access Trojan. Malware that allows an attacker to take control of a system from a remote location
A symmetric stream cipher that can use between 40 and 2048 bits. Experts consider it cracked and recommend using stronger alternatives
A driver manipulation method. Developers rewrite the code without changing the driver's behavior
replay attack
An attack where the data is captured and replayed. attackers typically modify data before replaying it
resource exhaustion
the malicious result of many DoS and DDoS attacks. The attack overloads a computer's resources (such as the processor and memory),
resulting in service interruption
RFID attacks
Attacks against radio-frequency Identification (RFID) systems. Common attacks: eavesdropping, replay, and DoS
RACE integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest. A hash function used for integrity. It creates fixed-length hashes of 128, 160, 256, or
320 bits
rogue AP
An unauthorized AP. It can be placed by and attacker or an employee who hasn't obtained permission to do so.
Role-based Access Control. An access control model that uses roles based on jobs and functions to define access. It is often implemented
with groups
root certificate
A PKI certificate identifying a root CA
a type of malware that has system-level access to a computer. Rootkits are often able to hide themselves from users and antivirus software
A substitution cipher that uses a key of 13. To encrypt a message, you would rotate each letter 13 spaces
A scheduling method used with load balancers. It redirects each client request to servers in a predetermined order
Recovery Point Objective.
Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman. An asymmetric algorithm used to encrypt data and digitally sign transmissions. It is named after its creators.
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol. An improvement of STP to prevent switching loop problems
Recovery Time Objective
Real-Time Operating System. An operating system that reacts to input within a specific time. Many embedded systems include an RTOS
Rule-based access control. An access control model that uses rules to define access. Rule-based access control is based on a set of
approved instructions, such as an access control list, or rules that trigger in response to an event , such as modifying ACLs after detecting an
runtime code
Code that is interpreted when it is executed
Software as a Service. A cloud computing model that provides applications over the internet. Ex: Webmail
A random set of data added to a password when creating the hash
Security Assertion Markup Language. An XML-based standard used to exchange authentication and authorization information between
different parties. SAML provides SSO for web-based applications
The use of an isolated area on a system, typically for testing. Virtual machines are often used to test patches in an isolated sandbox.
Application developers sometimes use the chroot command to change the root directory creating a sandbox
Satellite communications
Supervisory control and data acquisition. A system used to control an ICS such as a power plant or water treatment facility
script kiddie.
an attacker with little expertise
Software Defined Network. A method of using software and virtualization technologies to replace hardware routers. SDNs separate the data
and control planes.
secure boot
A process that checks and validates system files during the boot protocol. A TPM typically uses a secure boot process
Secure DevOps
A software development process using an agile-aligned methodology. It considers security through the lifetime of the project
Self-Employed Drive. A drive that includes the hardware and software necessary to encrypt a hard drive. Users typically enter credentials to
decrypt and use the drive
Secure File Transfer Protocol. An extension of Secure Shell (SSH) used to encrypt FTP traffic. SFTP transmits data using TCP port 22
Secure Hash Algorithm. A hashing function used to provide integrity. Versions SHA-1, SHA-2, and SHA-3
An open source federation identity solution
a driver manipulation method. It uses additional code to modify the behavior of a driver
the process of copying an application package to a mobile device. It is useful for developer s when testing apps, but can be risky if users
sideload unauthorized apps to their device
Security Information and Event Management. A security system that attempts to look at security events throughout the organization
Service level agreement. An agreement between a company and a vendor that stipulates performance expectations, such as minimum
uptime and maximum downtime levels
Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. a popular standard used to secure email. S/MIME provides confidentiality, integrity,
authentication, and non-repudiation
A copy of a virtual machine at a moment in time
Simple Network Management Protocol v3. A protocol used to monitor and manage network devices such as routers and switches
System on a Chip. An integrated circuit that includes a computing system within the hardware. Many mobile devices include SoC
Secure Real Time Transport Protocol. A protocol used to encrypt and provide authentication for Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) traffic.
RTP is used for audio/video streaming.
Secure Shell. A protocol used to encrypt network traffic. SSH encrypts a wide variety of traffic such as SFTP. SHH uses TCP port 22
Service Set Identifier. The name of a wireless network. SSIDs can be set to broadcast so users can easily see it. Disabling SSID broadcast
hides it from casual users
Secure Sockets Layer. The predecessor to TLS. SSL is used to encrypt data-in-transit with the use of certificates
SSL decryptors
Devices used to create separate SSL (or TLS) sessions. They allow other security devices to examine encrypted traffic sent to and from the
SSL/TLS accelerators
Devices used to handle TLS traffic. Servers can off-load TLS traffic to improve performance
The process of appending a digitally signed OCSP response to a certificate. It reduces the overall OCSP traffic sent to a CA
A command (not an acronym) used to upgrade an unencrypted connection to an encrypted connection on the same port
Spanning Tree Protocol. A protocol enabled on most switches that protects against switching loops. A switching loop can be caused if two
ports of a switch are connected
stream cipher
An encryption method that encrypts data as a stream of bits or bytes
substitution cipher
An encryption method that replaces characters with other characters
A network device used to connect devices. Layer 2 switches send traffic to ports based on their MAC addresses. Layer 3 switches send
traffic to ports based on their IP addresses and support VLANs
system sprawl
A vulnerability that occurs when an organization has more systems than it needs, and systems it owns are underutilized.
Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System Plus. An authentication service that provides central authentication for remote access
clients. It can be used as an alternative to RADIUS
A command-line protocol analyzer. Administrators use it to capture packets
the process of sharing an internet connection from one mobile device to another
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol. A legacy wireless security protocol. CCMP is the recommended replacement
Transport Layer Security. The replacement for SSL. TLS is used to encrypt data-in-transit. Like SSL, it uses certificates issued by CAs
An authentication device or file. A hardware toke is a physical device used in the something you have factor authentication. A software token
is a file used by authentication services indicating a user has logged on
Time-based One-Time Password. An open source standard similar to HOTP. It uses a timestamp instead of a counter. One-time passwords
created with TOTP expire after 30 seconds
Trusted Platform Module. A hardware chip on the motherboard included with many laptops and some mobile devices. It provides full disk
A command-line tool used to trace and route between two systems
Malware also known as a Trojan horse. It often looks useful but is malicious
A symmetric key block cipher. It encrypts data in 128-bit blocks and supports 128-, 192-, or 256-bit keys
Type I hypervisors
A virtualization technology. Type I hypervisors (or bare-metal hypervisors) run directly on the system hardware. They don't need to run within
an operating system
Type II hypervisors
A virtualization technology. Type II hypervisors run as software within a host operating system. The Microsoft Hyper-V hypervisor runs within
a Microsoft operating system to host VMs
typo squatting
The purchase of a domain name that is close to a legitimate domain name. Attackers often try to trick users who go to the wrong site. aka
URL hijacking
Unmanned aerial vehicles
Unified Extensible Firmware Interface. A method used to boot some systems and intended to replace Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)
Universal Serial Bus On-the-go. A cable used to connect mobile devices to other devices. It is one of many methods that you can use to
connect a mobile device to external media
Unified Threat Management. A group of security controls combined in a single solution
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure or Virtual Desktop Environment. Users access a server hosting virtual desktops and run the desktop operating
system from the server
A technology that allows you to host multiple virtual machines on a single physical system. Different types include Type I, Type II, and
application cell/container virtualization
Virtual Local Area Network. A method of segmenting traffic. A VLAN logically groups several different computers together without regard to
their physical location
VM Escape
An attack that allows an attacker to access the host system from within a virtual machine. The primary protection is to keep hosts and guests
up to date with current patches
VM Sprawl
A vulnerability that occurs when an organization has many VMs that aren't properly managed. Unmanaged VMs are not kept up to date with
current patches
Virtual Private Network. A method that provides access to a private network over a public network such as the internet. VPN concentrators
are dedicated devices used to provide VPN access to large groups of users
watering hole attack
An attack method that infects web sites that a group is likely to trust and visit
Web Application Firewall. A firewall specifically designed to protect a wen application, such as a web server. A WAF inspects the contents of
traffic to a web server and can detect malicious content such as code used in a cross-scripting attack, and block it
Wildcard certificate
a certificate that can be used for multiple domains with the same root domain. It starts with an asterisk.
wireless scanners
a network scanner that scans wireless frequency bands. Scanners can help discover rogue APs and crack passwords used by wireless APs
Self-replicating malware that travels through a network. Worms do not need user interaction to execute
Wi-Fi Protected Access. A legacy wireless security protocol. Superseded by WPA2
Wi-Fi Protected Access II. A wireless security protocol. It supports CCMP for encryption, which is based on AES. It can use Open mode, a
pre-shared key, or Enterprise mode.
Wi-Fi Protected Setup. A method that allows users to easily configure a wireless network, often by using only a PIN. WPS brute force attacks
can discover the PIN
WPS attack
An attack against an AP. A WPS attack discovers the 8 digit WPS PIN and uses it to discover the AP passphrase
Extensible Markup Language. A language used by many databases for inputting or exporting data. XML uses formatting rules to describe the
A logical operation used in some encryption schemes. XOR operations compare two inputs. If the two inputs are the same, it outputs True. If
two inputs are different, it outputs False
zero-day vulnerability
A vulnerability or bug that is unknown to trusted sources but can be exploited by attackers. Zero-day attacks take advantage of zero-day