ID #: 816022499 COURSE: ESST 3103 TASK ASSIGNMNT 1 1. Make a list of 6 cleaning products and 6 personal care products in your household. 2. For each of these products, prepare a list of the active ingredients in each. 3. For each of these active ingredients, find a research paper or article that links it to adverse environmental or health effects. Identify the article 4. Tabulate the health effects of each of the active ingredients from your research papers. Comment on the range of environmental health effects that you have obtained Cleaning Products Cleaning Products Active Ingredients Bleach Sodium hypochlorite Cif Ethylene glycol Disinfectant Benzalkonium Chloride Soap Triclosan Baking soda Sodium bicarbonate Powder Detergent Alkylbenzene sulfonates Personal Care products Personal Care Products Active Ingredients Hair Mask Glycerin Deodorant Aluminium zirconium Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen Peroxide Face Wash Salicylic acid Shampoo Sodium lauryl sulfate Toothpaste Sodium fluoride Active Ingredient – Sodium Hypochlorite (Environmental) This ingredient is used as an antimicrobial or disinfectant agent for surface cleaning, water purification, odour removal and is commonly known as bleach. A research on the adverse effects on the environment for sodium hypochlorite was done by (Emmanuel et al, 2004). To prevent the spread of pathogenic microorganisms at the hospital, the waste water was frequently disinfected using sodium hypochlorite. A toxic environment arises after the organic matter from the waste water would react readily with the sodium hypochlorite, forming halogenated organic compounds that affects aquatic organisms. Active Ingredient- Ethylene glycol (Environmental) This agent is commonly used in various organic chemicals for cleaning products. It is known to react with photo-chemical hydroxyl radicals which remains in the atmosphere for a maximum of two days. It is however non-toxic in the environment as it is readily biodegradable and does not bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms (Staples et al. 2001). Active Ingredient- Benzalkonium Chloride (Environmentl) On two organisms (nematode and zebrafish), the antimicrobials Benzalkonium Chloride (BAC), Benzalthonium Chloride and chloroxyenol were used to test. On the nematode, BAC showed comparable toxicity to that of a previously banned antimicrobial TCS on both the organism and molecular levels. The fish showed a delayed hatching of the egg, morphological malformation, embryonic toxicity and neurotoxicity of the larvae. The BAC agent showed acute lethal toxicity in the environment and should therefore be further examined (Sreevidya et al. 2018). Active Ingredient- Triclosan (TCS) (Health) This is agent is commonly used in soaps for both personal care and industrial and is antibacterial. It has shown evidence of interrupting the endocrine system, affecting the release of hormones and the various functions such as hormone metabolism from hormone acceptors, and steroid genic enzyme activity. It is hydrophobic and is has an accumulation potential. It is suspected to be edc, and have deleterious effects which makes it harmful to humans. The study is inconclusive and conflicting though it shows some potential that triclosan has estrogenic effects (Wang, Tian. 2015). Active Ingredient- Sodium bicarbonate (Health) A study done by (Kahle et al, 2014) showed that sodium bicarbonate, commonly known as baking soda, can cause substantial gastrointestinal issues after ingestion. The study’s main objective was to test the ergogenic effect of sodium bicarbonate after an intense exercise session Sodium bicarbonate has a large amount of sodium in its composition which can increase the recommended sodium daily intake past its limits. However, it showed to affect thirst, bloating, nausea and vomiting in most of the test subjects. This can be especially severe for individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Active Ingredient- Alkylbenzene sulfonates (Health) This agent is found in detergents and is an anionic surfactant that is commonly found within the environment. The human intestinal cell known as Caco-2, showed an increase in cell proliferation at non cytotoxic concentrations. The elongation factor 2 and dipeptidyl peptidase 3 were overexpressed and the 14-3-3 protein theta showed a decrease. It was then deduced that at non cytotoxic concentrations, Alkylbenzene sulfonates can increase growth rate of the colon cells which can lead to colon cancer as it increases the tumour promotion effect potential (carcinogenic) (Bradai et al. 2015). Active Ingredient- Glycerin (health) This agent is relatively safe agent, as it is naturally occurring in humans, animals and plants in different forms. It is formed as a by-product from the process of hydrolysis of oils and fats. Commonly used for cosmetic purposes, Glycerin can be used for hair, oral care and as a denaturant. It can also be used non cosmetic purposes and can be absorbed rapidly into the stomach and intestines. When tested on both humans and some animals, it rarely showed adverse effects except the suppression of spermatogenesis in rats when injected into the testes (Becker et al. 2019). Active Ingredient- Aluminium zirconium (Health) Antiperspirants which is an essential agent for the underarm personal care product to reduce sweating, consists of aluminium zirconium that serves as its active ingredient. However it is theorized that this agent is a carcinogen and the source of breast cancer since the breast is located within close proximity of the underarm. The antiperspirant is frequently applied and absorbed in the underarm with high concentrations of aluminium zirconium. The element aluminium is known to alter the DNA and has epigenetic effects therefore can interfere the oestrogen responsible for breast growth. In the study, MCF cells of the breast are shown to be disrupted by aluminium for ligand binding and gene expression permitting aluminium to be an important factor of metals capable of altering oestrogen. An appeal for extensive research is requested to prove the molecular mechanisms. (Darbre 2005). Active Ingredient- Hydrogen Peroxide (Health) Patients that experience tooth sensitivity or cervical root resorption can derive that from that properties of hydrogen peroxide. This active ingredient is used to clean and disinfect tools, surfaces as well as bleach the enamel. Hydrogen peroxide has tumour promoting and genotoxic effects of epithelial and bacterial cells which can affect persons with exposed, diseased or damaged soft tissues. Blistering and loosening of the skin can occur as a side effect. It is advised that hydrogen peroxide should be used in moderation and in low doses to prevent this (Tredwin et al. 2006). Active Ingredient- Salicylic Acid (Environmental) This ingredient is commonly used for skin care products, cardiovascular drugs and industrial dyes. The algal Spirogyra was used to test whether salicylic acid can affect the growth of algae as it is known that the acid can affect the growth of plants. The cross section of the algae and its chlorophyll content were analysed, demonstrating growth occurring. Therefore it can be used to stimulate growth of algae in harsh environments and improve it treatment probability but can only be accomplished with caution as salicylic acid can cause further issues such as eutrophication. This is when there is an influx of growth in the algae population which can block sunlight from reaching below the surface of the water where aquatic organisms are unable to receive any. This proves that without moderation, salicylic acid can create environmental pollution (Xu et al. 2020). Active Ingredient- Sodium lauryl sulphate (Environmental) The ingredient, Sodium lauryl sulphate, is an anionic surfactant that is used to emulsify in cleaning products and cosmetics. Amongst the Mytilus galloprovincialis species of mussels, there has been a decrease in metabolic capacity and respiration rate after it was exposed to various concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate. It has also shown decreased limited antioxidant defence in lower concentrations and cell damage at higher concentrations. This shows that Sodium lauryl sulphate poses a threat to marine organisms and their physiological development (Freitas et al. 2020). Active Ingredient- Sodium Fluoride (environmental) Sodium fluoride is a common ingredient in toothpastes which aids in the prevention of cavities in the enamel. There has been little results shown of sodium fluoride causing any adverse effects in human health but some may have allergic reactions which consists of rash, swelling of the tongue (“Fluoride (Sodium) Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD” 2021). Though it is unethical to test on animals, mice were used to test on with small dosages of sodium fluoride and its possible effects on its reproductive system and fertility. Pregnancy of the mic were significantly reduced after twelve weeks of the agent was continuously administered to them. It was suggested that the cause for the reduction stemmed decreased progesterone which lessen the amount of implantations. Other animals such as owl and foxes also demonstrated a reduction in fertility rates. This further proves that the high sodium fluoride concentration in drinkable wat can be linked to a decreased rate of human births (Darmani et al, 2001). The list of adverse effects obtained for the various active ingredients illustrated that simple domestic items from every day life can have vast effects on our surroundings and ourselves. Individuals may use products and be unaware of what exactly they are ingesting or using on the skin which can lead to complications in their health such as reproductive issues or gastrointestinal issues. The products that accumulate in soil or water sources can also impact other living organisms, creating a shift in the ecosystem and further pollution. REFERENCES Becker, Lillian C., Wilma F. Bergfeld, Donald V. Belsito, Ronald A. Hill, Curtis D. Klaassen, Daniel C. Liebler, James G. Marks, et al. 2019. “Safety Assessment of Glycerin as Used in Cosmetics.” International Journal of Toxicology 38 (3_suppl): 6S22S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1091581819883820. Bradai, Mohamed, Junkyu Han, Abdelfatteh El Omri, Naoyuki Funamizu, Sami Sayadi, and Hiroko Isoda. 2015. “Effect of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) on Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells at Non Cytotoxic Concentrations.” Cytotechnology 68 (4): 1267–75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10616-015-9887-4. 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