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637799550560762090 Language analysis

Language Analysis and Comprehension
Example Q & A:
1. Give two ways in which the final paragraph (lines 29–30) differs in style from the
rest of the text.
2. What layout feature does the writer use to help understanding?
3. Identify a metaphor used in the third paragraph (lines 8–11).
What is the effect of this metaphor?
Award 1 further mark for an answer correctly describing the effect, e.g.:
concert is magical.
4. How do the heading and subheading help to attract the reader’s interest?
Comment on the presentation and content for each.
1a heading
Use of bold letters and mysterious / dramatic wording
1 1b subheading
Use of italics / different fonts and an overview of the content of the article
5. Give a simile from Text A.
A: ‘…...like invisible hyenas’
Explain the simile in your own words. Give two details.
Accept reference to:
loud / mocking sound
aggression / danger
can’t be seen
6. Identify three features of Text B that make it persuasive. Give a quote from the
text for each feature.
(rhetorical) questions (directed at the reader)
‘Which one’s for you?’
use of second person / you
‘If you’ve never climbed on ice...’
use of imperatives
‘Come on one of our adventure holidays’
use of attractive / positive / tempting / descriptive language
reassurance ‘enjoyed by all’
special aspects ‘unique structures’
inclusivity ‘open to all abilities’
repetition of sentence structures
7. What effect does the writer create by using a single-word sentence?
• It highlights (that the writer is on his own) / emphasises (that the writer is on
his own)
• Dramatic effect
• It provides contrast (to the long sentences before
8. Why does the writer use a colon ( : )?
• to introduce a list / something / a list follows it
• to add information/examples
9. Why does the writer use a colon ( : )?
• to introduce a list / something / a list follows it
• to add information/examples
10. What does the limited use of commas and full stops in this paragraph tell us about
11. Look at the first paragraph of the prologue (lines 1–3).
Give three literary features the writer uses to create an atmosphere.
• simile
• short sentences
• metaphors
• visual imagery
• repetition
• alliteration
• personification
• use of pronouns
• use of contractions.
12. Give two ways that the writer uses structure and punctuation to emphasise how
hot it is.
• dash (accept hyphen)
• short phrase (accept short sentence)
• italics
• lack of a contraction of ‘it is’
• use of ‘so’ (as an adverb)
• the information comes at the end of the paragraph.
13. Look at this sentence: ‘Her bangles clang and clank in the silence.’ (Lines
Which two language features are used here?
Award 1 mark for each of the following:
• onomatopoeia
• alliteration.
14. Why has the writer put these paragraphs next to each other? Use your own
• The writer is pointing out the contrast/comparison/difference (between the
dream house that the family would like and the real house they live in) / the
perfect placed next to the not perfect / they are opposites
15. Look at this phrase: ‘… windows so small you’d think they were holding their breath.’
(Line 10)
What technique is this an example of?
• Personification.
16. Give one example of each of the following:
• a metaphor – (my mother’s hair is) the warm smell of bread / (my mother’s
hair is) the smell when she makes room for you on her side of the bed
• repetition – my mother’s hair / like little (rosettes), like little (candy circles) /
the rain / snoring / the smell / warm / holding (you)
• alliteration – like little / candy (circles) all curly / pinned it in pincurls / bread
before you bake it (accept any two of the ‘b’ words)/ like little rosettes
17. Explain two ways in which the writer tries to get the reader’s attention in
the first paragraph.
• challenging the reader
• use of (rhetorical) questions
• use of direct speech / direct address of the reader
• pronoun ‘you’ / second person
• repetition
18. Explain in your own words two ways the writer makes this sentence
• The writer gives (real) examples / offers detail (of dates and/or places)
• It shows that it happens all over the world / referring to different countries
• It ends by referring to a ‘young’ / ‘dead whale’.
• It gives three examples of whales harmed by plastic in one sentence / rule
of three.
• The repetition (of the word ‘whales’)
• Uses emotive language
19. Why is the phrase ‘the patient’ (line 6) in inverted commas?
• It’s not literally a patient
• It is treating the turtle as a human.
20. What effect does the writer create by using these three short sentences?
• It emphasises their decline
• It is dramatic
• a desolate tone / sad
21. Look at this phrase: ‘The lights love to play hide and seek.’ (line 24).
What is the phrase above an example of?
Tick one box.
22. Text A is an information text, which means it gives factual information about a topic.
Give two more features of an information text that are used in Text A.
• It is written in the third person.
• It is written in neutral / formal language.
• Subheadings are used.
• It does not offer opinions
23. Give two words or phrases from the third paragraph (lines 9–14) that are
examples of emotive language.
• (and Gravelet became ) ‘enthralled’ (by the tightrope walker).
• (he felt) ‘compelled’ (to try to achieve)
24. What effect does the writer achieve by using the sentence ‘The secret’s
out!’? (Line 9)
• a sense of discovery.
25. The writer uses a long sentence in lines 9–11. Why?
• The writer wants to give a lot of information and provide details of the
reasons why zebras have stripes.
• To give ideas and create a list of important details.
• A variety of sentence structure
26. Look at the fourth paragraph (line 19).
Why has the writer used a short paragraph here in the text?
• to signal the end of one stage of Caro’s research and/or the beginning of
another / to indicate a change of location/activity
• to show/emphasise that the first stage of the experiment was inconclusive /
did not give an answer.
27. Why does the writer use a colon in line 24?
Award 1 mark for an answer that recognises the way the colon draws the
reader’s attention to the conclusion in the second part of the sentence, e.g.:
• to join the two clauses which are very closely related
• to emphasise the conclusion of the previous sentence.
Give two features of a newspaper article used in Text A.
• headline / title / heading
• names of real people/places
• direct quotations / interview
• (short) paragraphs
• factual information/data
• direct speech
• expert (others) opinions
• rhetorical questions.
28. Look at lines 8–9: ‘… a leopard’s not more than 6 centimetres, and the
male’s is wider than the female’s.’
• ellipsis.
29. Why is the word woo (line 11) in inverted commas ( ‘ ’ )?
• because this is the actual sound that the deer makes
• (an example of) onomatopoeia
30. ‘Behind her, raised voices competed with the keening of the gulls and the
phud-phud-phud of the boat’s great paddles.’ (lines 17–18).
What language feature is the phrase ‘phud-phud-phud’ an example of?
31. Give two ways that the writer uses language and structure to show
mama’s excitement.
• repetition (of (your) Nanima)
• short sentences
• speaking quickly / no pauses
• use of exclamation marks/ exclamatory marks
32. Give two ways that the writer uses language in the sentence above to show the
strength of Meena’s feelings. Support each answer with a quote from the text.
• Answer: the use of vocabulary/ alliteration/ metaphor (associated with warm
or pleasant things)
• Answer: emotive language (shows how overcome she was)
• Answer: her detailed description of her grandmother/ use of adjectives
• Answer: compares her to her mother/remind her of her mother
• Answer: the Punjabi language isn’t a barrier to understanding
• Answer: uses the senses to show the feelings
33. How does the writer make the structure of the sentence above show the
strength of Meena’s feelings?
• by using one long sentence (which shows how many feelings were flooding through her)
‘When the sun does come out, it does so
apologetically, like a ballerina who is unsure of her entrance on stage.’ (Lines 11–12)
What literary techniques does the writer use in the sentence above?
• a simile
• personification.
34. ‘The climate suits me.’ (Lines 12–13)
What does the sentence above tell the reader about how Nora is feeling?
• Her mood is grey / dull / dark / gloomy
• She is unhappy / sad / down / miserable / serious / sombre / depressed /
35. Nora calls Petra’s classes her ‘Organised Wellness’. (Line 17)
What does the phrase above tell the reader about Nora’s attitude towards
Petra’s classes and workshops?
• She doesn’t like/enjoy them / isn’t interested
• She thinks they’re too organised / too controlled/forced / orders are given
• She doesn’t think they’ll work / doesn’t think the classes will help her
(become well).
• She doesn’t respect what her aunt is doing / she is disdainful / she thinks
they are pretentious
36. What techniques does the writer use to emphasise the sentence above?
Give two ways.
• The writer uses a short/snappy sentence
• The writer uses a one-sentence paragraph / a separate paragraph for one
sentence / it is placed by itself / one line paragraph
• The sentence begins with ‘because’ / with a conjunction/connective
• The use of ‘no’ (instead of ‘isn’t a’).
37. Read the sentence beginning ‘In sturdy sea kayaks …’ (lines 4–5).
How does this sentence make sea kayaking sound interesting? Give three techniques the
writer uses.
• alliteration
• rule of three
• positive adjectives
• direct address
• noun phrases.
‘Join them.’ (line 10)
38. What is the purpose of the verb form in this sentence?
• it commands you / tells you what you have to do
• it creates an imperative mood.
39. What effect does the writer create by keeping this sentence short?
• it persuades you / it makes you do it
• it makes you focus on the key information / it makes the information
40. Look at the sentence beginning ‘Denis is also famous for …’ (line 20).
Give one language feature used for effect in this sentence.
• tripling / rule of three / triples
• adjectives
• exaggeration/hyperbole.
41. Look at the final paragraph (lines 23–26).
Give one way in which the content of this paragraph is different from the
rest of the text.
• It is not mainly about football. / It is about sport generally.
• It gives Denis’s own views. / You hear from Denis rather than about him.
• It is about Denis helping young people.
42. Give one way in which the language of this paragraph is different from
the rest of the text.
• first person / I
• direct speech / Denis’s own words
• less formal (because he is speaking) / more personal
Look at Text A and Text B.
43. Name two differences in language between Text A and Text B.
Answers must refer to both texts.
Text A
formal language
mostly third person
mostly long sentences
mostly facts
one piece of direct speech
Text B
informal language / slang
first person
mixture of long and short sentences
mixture of fact and opinion
more direct speech