Running head: HISTORICAL & THEORETICAL Applying Historical Events and Theoretical Foundations Paper Julie Ann Doolittle EDUC 631 Foundations of Educational Technology and Online Learning 1 HISTORICAL & THEORETICAL 2 How Historical Events Impact Educational Technology & Online Learning Today Many historical events have impacted educational technology and online learning as we know it today. Moore and Diehl (2018) write about some of the many influences to modern technology uses in the realm of education. The average teacher would benefit from understanding that technology and its uses in education has been around for decades. This would help eliminate or soothe the fears and trepidations educators may have regarding using technology to enhance the learning environment. Charles A. Wedemeyer was one of the first to think of using satellites in the world of distance learning. He was also part of the education system that used radios to beam educational programs across the miles into homes and classrooms. Thinking of ways to use technology to benefit education and shorten the distance between students and professors, Wedemeyer was definitely ahead of his time. Börje Holmberg considered that students are more motivated when there is a connection between them and their educators. He considered the concept of distance learning with empathy to be necessary. The connection should still happen even across distance. Without connection, students lose interest in the subject and the class content. This leads to students refusing to engage, learn, develop, or grow in the subject matter. “Radio programmes were by far the most cost effective and viable “modern” distance learning method for many developing countries (eg, Halliwell, 1987), however poor quality radio reception, awkward transmission times and no money to fix expensive equipment, meant that programmes were only partially successful.” (Bond et al., 2019) Radio programs reached millions of listeners and brought many families together to partake in their favorite stories. The innovative minds that thought to introduce educational programs into schools were some of the HISTORICAL & THEORETICAL 3 first to cross that technology boundary and bring technology into education and into the classroom. The BBC used radio programs in schools as early as the 1920s and televisions into classrooms in the 1960s. (Bates, 2016) Both of these uses of technology in education changed the way students engaged with the outside world. The outside world was able to brought into the classroom and into the lives of these young people. Ultimately, none could have guessed just how far technology would ultimately go. Even today, we cannot fathom the reach technology may one day have in the world and in education. How Theoretical Foundations Impact Educational Technology and Online Learning Today Moore and Diehl (2018) talk about the Community of Inquiry Theoretical Framework in their book. There are three main ways that the authors suggest this impacts students in the classroom and in online learning. One way is that the education is more engaging for students, allowing for them to learn more because they are eager to learn more, creating learning skills that are sustainable in the long-term, and also allowing for educators to be more engaged in the process. Secondly, through blended classes, it stretches beyond the normal uses of technology in the lives of the students, outside of games and apps and social media. Thirdly, teachers can be more active in supporting their students, making a learning environment creatively engaging. There are three key elements in this theoretical practice, which are social, cognitive, and teaching presence. (Vaughan et al., 2019) These create a way for the educators to structure their educational environments in safe and engaging ways. An educator must be aware of the risks that come with the utilization of online learning environments and have strategies in place to combat those risks. In fact, educators need to be fully engaged in the online classroom and not expect it HISTORICAL & THEORETICAL 4 to function outside of their interactions and interventions. Educators must have a firm understanding of how these three elements work together. Principles of Learning from Cognitive Science Nilson and Goodson (2018) introduce the Twenty-Five Principles of Learning from Cognitive Science in our textbook. The fourth one listed talks about how a strong knowledge base is important in students relating to the new information being learned. It is vital that the knowledge is organized in such a way that it can be a foundation to build new information upon. It would be best for teachers to assess the level of understanding that students have at the beginning and ed of each term. This will help a teacher know what may need to be reviewed or taught in a new way in order to allow for the new information of the term to better be retained. According to Bardovi-Harlig and Burghardt (2019), there are many different resources available for students to be able to build on the knowledge they already possess as ESL students. One of the biggest struggles is maintaining the use of a language being learned when they are no longer engaged in daily language content, immersion, and practice. Educators should encourage their students to use technology during breaks to continue practice the language and not lose the progress they’ve made during the school term. This allows for the knowledge base to remain firm and helps in the new term for continued building. One tool that an educator can use is an online classroom to continue lessons to strengthen their students during the summer and winter breaks. This will allow the students to continue to work together and collaborate online in a safe environment, monitored by their teacher. The practice doesn’t need to be intensive or drawn out, so long as the students are able to actively engage and practice and the activities are meaningful. Videos, games, and music can be used to allow students to practice the language they already have learned and, through peer interaction, HISTORICAL & THEORETICAL 5 strengthen said language and build upon what already exists. With an educator guiding this and giving feedback, the students will also maintain a connection with their teacher, making the start of term, should the teacher be the same, easier for the student and the transition back into learning smoother. References Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Burghardt, B. (2019, November 30). Preventing Attrition and Promoting Retention. Language Teaching Research Quarterly. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1269456. Bates, T. (2016). Teaching in a digital age: guidelines for designing teaching and learning. SFU Document Solutions. Bond, M., Zawacki-Richter, O., & Nichols, M. (2018, December 26). Revisiting five decades of educational technology research: A content and authorship analysis of the British Journal of Educational Technology. British Educational Research Association. https://berajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bjet.12730. Moore, M. G., & Diehl, W. C. (2019). Handbook of distance education (Fourth). Routledge. Nilson, L. B., & Goodson, L. A. (2018). Online teaching at its best: merging instructional design with teaching and learning research. Jossey-Bass, a Wiley brand. US Department of Education. (2017, January). Reimagining the Role of Technology in Education. Office of Educational Technology. http://tech.ed.gov/files/2017/01/NETP17.pdf. Vaughan, N., & Wah, J. L. (2019, November 30). The Community of Inquiry Framework: Future Practical Directions - Shared Metacognition. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1278566.