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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
Asian Institute of Maritime Studies
Pasay City
PERCEPTION OF MALE AND FEMALE FILIPINO SEAFARERS TO THE
CHALLENGES OF FILIPINO FEMALE SEAFARERS IN THE MERCHANT
MARINE SECTOR
By
BORINAGA, QUIEL ANDRES G.
CRUZ, CYRUS KENT O.
CUSTODIO, EXELL REY E.
DAYO, JEAN CLAUD T.
2021
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INSTRUCTOR’S RECOMMENDATIONS SHEET
PERCEPTION OF MALE AND FEMALE FILIPINO SEAFARERS TO THE
CHALLENGES OF FILIPINO FEMALE SEAFARERS IN THE MERCHANT
MARINE SECTOR
By
BORINAGA, QUIEL ANDRES G.
CRUZ, CYRUS KENT O.
CUSTODIO, EXELL REY E.
DAYO, JEAN CLAUD T.
This thesis has been examined and is recommended for acceptance
and approval for ORAL EXAMINATION.
JEANE MARIE H. GALERO
Thesis Professor
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APPROVAL SHEET
This Thesis entitled “PERCEPTION OF MALE AND FEMALE FILIPINO
SEAFARERS TO THE CHALLENGES OF FILIPINO FEMALE SEAFARERS IN THE
MERCHANT MARINE SECTOR” prepared and submitted by Borinaga, Quiel Andres
G., Cruz, Cyrus Kent O., Custodio, Exell Rey E., and Dayo, Jean Claud T. in partial
fulfillment of the requirements in Maritime Research Completion for the Bachelor of
Science in Marine Transportation has been examined and is recommended for
approval and acceptance.
JEANE MARIE H. GALERO, MAED
Research Adviser
PANEL OF EXAMINERS
Approved by the Committee on Oral Examination with a grade of _____.
3/E ARJAY A. NERBES
Chairman
MICHAEL DE GUZMAN, PhD
Member
CHARITY MANUEL, MEM
Member
Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Maritime
Research Completion.
Date of Final Defense: 18 September 2021
OMAR C. MONZALES, PhD
DEAN, SMM
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The completion of this research would have not been possible without the
presence of the individuals to whom the researchers sought for inspiration and
assistance. The reasons for the excellence of the study stand behind the individuals
to whom we offer the greatest of gratitude.
First of all, we would like to thank Almighty God for giving us the strength that
keeps us standing and for the hope that keeps us believing that this research would
be possible.
We would also like to acknowledge and extend our heartfelt thanks to the
following persons who have made the completion of the study possible.
Thank you Ms. Jeane Marie H. Galero for supervising our research. Your
advice, recommendations, and comments were of great help in the preparation and
compilation of our study.
Thank you, Ms. Charity T. Manuel and Mr. Jose Rafael Y. Benito, for validating
our research instrument to be used in our study.
Thank you, Mr. Mike De Guzman, Mr. Arjay A. Nerbes, and Ms. Charity T.
Manuel, for your expertise to examine our study. All the comments and
recommendations were of great help to improve our study.
To our family, thank you so much for understanding and for providing our
financial needs.
Lastly, we would like to thank our respondents, who shared their valuable
experiences and be a part of this research and to everyone who became a part of the
researchers’ journey in writing this thesis.
Thank you very much.
The researchers
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PERMISSION TO PUBLISH PAGE
I hereby grant the Asian Institute of Maritime Studies (AIMS), a non-exclusive,
worldwide royalty-free license to reproduce, publish and publicly distribute copies of
this thesis in whatever form subject to the provisions of applicable laws, the provisions
of the AIMS Intellectual Property Right (IPR) policy and any contractual obligations,
as well as more specific permission marking on the Title Page.
Specifically, I grant the following rights to the institution:
1)
to upload a copy of the work in the theses database of the academic institution
and in any other databases available on the public internet;
2)
to publish the work in the school research journal, both in print and electronic
or digital format and online; and,
3)
to give open access to above-mentioned work, thus allowing “fair use” of the
work in accordance with the provisions of the intellectual property code of philippines
(republic act no. 8293) especially for teaching, scholarly and research purposes.
BORINAGA, QUIEL ANDRES G.
Signature over student name and date
CRUZ, CYRUS KENT O.
Signature over student name and date
CUSTODIO, EXELL REY E.
Signature over student name and date
DAYO, JEAN CLAUD T.
Signature over student name and date
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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
PERCEPTION OF MALE AND FEMALE FILIPINO SEAFARERS TO THE
CHALLENGES OF FILIPINO FEMALE SEAFARERS IN THE MERCHANT
MARINE SECTOR
1Borinaga,
Q.A.G.
C.K.O.
3Custodio, E.R.E.
2Cruz,
4
Dayo, J.C.T.
12422,
A. Cuenca St., Brgy. 69, Pasay City 1300
28487 Cruz Compound, Santo Niño, Parañaque City
332 Block 3 Lot 16, Goodhaven 3 Masaya Street, Brgy. Gulod, Novaliches,
Quezon City
4Block 37 Lot 21, Famela Street, Zone 6, South Signal Village, Taguig City
ABSTRACT: The study was designed to analyze and determine the perception of the
male and female seafarers to the challenges of Filipino female seafarers in the
merchant marine sector. Specifically, the study seeks to answer the following
questions: (1) what is the profile of the respondents in terms of gender, age, and length
of service in the merchant marine sector? (2) What are the challenges being
encountered by female Filipino seafarers in the merchant marine sector in terms of
work performance, attitude towards fellow crew members, and team management?
(3) What can be suggested to overcome the challenges of the female Filipino
seafarers in the merchant marine sector in terms of work performance, attitude
towards fellow crew members, and team management.
Combination of Quantitative and Qualitative methods were utilized as the
research design in the study. Qualitative methods are applicable to studies that involve
relationships between individuals, their environments, and motives that drive
individual behavior and action. On the other hand, most researchers agree that
combining quantitative and qualitative techniques (sometimes called “mixed method”
research) produces a richer and more comprehensive understanding of a research
area. The purpose of this study is to know the perception of male and female
seafarers, and how to overcome the challenges of Filipino female seafarers in the
merchant marine sector. The respondents of the study are active male and female
Filipino seafarers who already have experienced working with another female Filipino
seafarers on board a vessel. The target number of respondents will be 30 seafarers
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who were given a survey questionnaire and 8 of them were interviewed. Snowball
sampling method was also used in the study.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title ……………………………….……………………………………...
Instructor’s Recommendations Sheet ………………………………….
Approval Sheet ……………………………………………………….…..
Acknowledgement ………………………………………….…………..
Permission to Publish Page …………………………………………….
Abstract
......................................................................................
Table of Contents ………………………………………………..........
List of Tables / Figures ....................................................................
Chapter 1.
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction ……………………………………………………....
Background of the Study ……………………………………….
Conceptual Framework
……………………………………....
Statement of the Problem ………………………………...........
Scope and the Limitation of the Study ......…………............
Significance of Study
……………………………………....
Definition of Terms ………………………………………...........
Chapter 2.
1
3
5
6
7
7
8
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Foreign and Local Literature and Studies………………………
Chapter 3.
i
ii
iii
vi
v
vi
viii
ix
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METHODOLOGY
Research Design ………………………………………….......
Population, Samples and Sampling Techniques ……………..
Research Instrument
……………………………………...
Data Gathering Procedure ………………………………….......
Statistical Treatment
………………………………….......
25
25
26
27
28
Chapter 4.
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 29
Chapter 5.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary ……………………………………………………….…
Conclusion ………………………………………………………..
Recommendation ………………………………………………...
REFERENCES …...………………………………………………………….......
41
43
44
46
APPENDICES
Letter of Request for Questionnaire Validation ……………......
Letter for Request for Interview ....………………………………
Questionnaires ..............................……………………………...
51
52
53
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Sample Survey Questionnaire …………………………………..
Qualitative Interview ……………………………………………...
Interpretation of Data …………………………………………….
Curriculum Vitae
………………………………………………
54
57
59
65
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1
Demographic Profile of the Respondents According to
Gender ………...………………………………………………….……. 29
Table 4.2
Demographic Profile of the Respondents According to
Rank …………...………………………………………………….……. 29
Table 4.3
Demographic Profile of the Respondents According to
Length of Service……….…….………………….…………………….
31
Table 4.4
Challenges Being Encountered by female Filipino
Seafarers in terms of Work Performance …………………………... 32
Table 4.5
Challenges Being Encountered by female Filipino
Seafarers in terms of Attitude Toward Fellow
Crew Member ……………………………..…………………………...
34
Table 4.6
Challenges Being Encountered by female Filipino
Seafarers in terms of Team Management ....…………….……........ 36
Table 4.7
Descriptive Statistics of the Perception of Seafarers
On the Challenges of Female Filipino Seafarers ………….……….. 38
Table 4.8
Suggestions of Seafarers to Overcome the
Challenges of the Female Filipino Seafarers ……..………………..
39
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1
Research Paradigm …………….………………................................. 5
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CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
This chapter introduces the problem and clarify important variables, its
delimitations, and its significance to the field of study.
Introduction
Although more women have been attracted to seafaring in the past decade, the
number of women sea officers has remained microscopic, compared to the thousands
of male seafarers deployed every year (Tangi 2016). The long interaction of men and
the sea has also created significant cultural barriers to the participation of women in
seafaring. This is, however, no excuse for the continued exclusion of women, or for
failing to support many women who have pushed past outdated gender norms and
made great strides in improving the participation of women in maritime (Walker 2015).
Seafaring has been known as a manly job; many shipping companies still choose men
over women to operate their ships because men have built their reputation in seafaring
industry.
IMO’s gender program was initiated on 1988. At that time, only a few maritime
training institutes opened their doors to female students. Since then, IMO's gender
and capacity-building program has helped put in place an institutional framework to
incorporate a gender dimension into IMO's policies and procedures. This has
supported access to maritime training and employment opportunities for women in the
maritime sector. The World Maritime University (WMU) and the IMO launched a
project in 2016 to develop “A Global Strategy for Women Seafarers” in the hope of
encouraging more women to join the seafaring industry.
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Many organizations related to maritime industry has showed full support in
promoting female opportunities in the male dominated profession. “Empowering
Women in the Maritime Community" was the World Maritime Day theme for 2019. This
theme provided to promote and raise awareness of the gender equality and the
importance of contribution of women in the maritime sector. On this celebration, lot of
shipping companies opened their door and make the industry a more attractive
workplace for women, as well as encouraging them to pursue seafaring.
According to IMO, women represent only two percent of the world's
approximately 1.6 million seafarers and 94 percent of female seafarers are working in
the cruise industry. Within this historically male dominated industry, IMO has been
making a concerted effort to help the industry move forward and support women to
achieve a representation that is in keeping with twenty-first century expectations.
Filipinos account for a quarter of the world’s 1.6 million seafarers. However,
Filipino women account for only around two percent of more than 400,000 seafarers
deployed annually. There is a need for education and training to motivate females to
participate the male dominated community and to change the perception that the
maritime industry is not a job exclusive for males. Women can also work on what men
can do by enhancing opportunities for women to be educated and gain experience in
maritime activities.
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Background of the Study
This research aims to enlighten women about the merchant marine sector by
way of promoting and recognizing females into the maritime industry by knowing what
women can do based on their capabilities and opportunities in the merchant marine
sector. It also aims to inspire every young woman that wants to enter the maritime
world and be part of this profession.
Men ever since dominated maritime industry even in ancient times. For this
21st century, women are now being acknowledged and empowered in seafaring
community because women are new engaging in this profession and aims to be a
successful female seafarer. The challenge is on to them to prove them that women
can also manage this male dominated work environment.
The maritime industry is one of the special sectors, which worldwide, humanity
has accepted as being a job for men, thereby making it difficult for women to penetrate
and function very easily within the industry as in the norm. This industry is one of the
largest international industries with a vast need for technical, legal and administrative
branches. About 90% of the world’s trade is carried by sea, and the sea is the common
heritage of humankind (Ma, 1999).
Despite this development, it seems that many women seem to be unable to
accomplish their goals. While the wage gap between men and women has narrowed
in recent years, it remains significant, women continue to be underrepresented in
many sectors and occupations, and too many women struggle to balance work and
family obligations. Barriers to equal opportunities and organizational laws and norms
that do not promote a fair work-life balance have slowed progress. If these barriers
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remain, we will waste the ability of many of our people and suffer a significant decline
in our economy's productive capacity at a period when population aging and low
productivity growth are already weighing on economic growth (Yellen, 2017).
Captain Maria Kristina Javellana, a graduate of Maritime Academy of Asia and
the Pacific is the first Filipina woman to become a master of an overseas merchant
ship. She accomplished this way back in May 2017. Every year many students
graduates from maritime schools and aspires to board an international vessel as soon
as possible. With an increasing number of maritime graduates each year, a part of this
number are women who wants to kill the stigma that a seafaring profession is only for
men.
This study aims to investigate what is the perception of Male and Female
Filipino seafarers towards the challenges of female Filipino seafarers in terms of their
work performance, their attitudes towards their fellow crew members and their way of
team management onboard now that the number of female seafarers is progressively
increasing because of continuous recognition of their presence on the maritime
industry and program for empowerment by different institutions.
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Conceptual Framework
Research Paradigm in the Assessment of the Perception of Male and Female
Filipino Seafarers to the Challenges of Female Filipino Seafarers in the
Merchant Marine Sector
•
•
•
•
INPUT
Assessment of
the Perception
of Male and
Female Filipino
Seafarers to the
Challenges of
Filipino Female
Seafarers in the
Merchant
Marine Sector in
terms of:
Work
Performance
Attitudes
towards fellow
crewmembers
Team
Management
PROCESS
• Analysis and
interpretation of
the Perception
of male and
female Filipino
Seafarers
through surveys
validated with
interviews
OUTPUT
• Enhanced
understanding
and awareness
about female
seafarers.
• Improved
awareness of
gender
openness of the
merchant
marine sector.
• Knowing the
Challenges of
Filipino Female
Seafarers in the
Merchant
Marine Sector
Figure 1
In this particular research undertaking, the conceptual paradigm as shown in
figure 1 illustrates the input components includes assessment of the Perception of
Male and Female Filipino Seafarers to the Challenges of Filipino Female Seafarers in
the Merchant Marine Sector. These data would be analyzed and interpreted in the
Process component of the paradigm. In turn, it shall serve as basis for the researchers
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to identify the Perception of Filipino Seafarers that will serve as the basis for the
content of the Output component of the Paradigm.
Statement of the Problem
This research aims to determine the perception of Male and Female Filipino
seafarers to the challenges of Filipino Female Seafarers as a basis in enhancing
knowledge about seafaring for women under the merchant marine sector.
1. What is the profile of the respondents?
1.1 Gender
1.2 Rank
1.3 Length of service in the merchant marine sector
2. What are the challenges being encountered by female Filipino seafarers in the
merchant marine sector?
2.1 Work performance
2.2 Attitude towards fellow crew members
2.3 Team Management
3. What can be suggested to overcome the challenges of the female Filipino
seafarers in the merchant marine sector?
3.1 Work performance
3.2 Attitude towards fellow crew members
3.3 Team Management
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Scope and Limitations of the Study
This study focuses only on the active male and female Filipino seafarers and
their perception towards the challenges of Filipino female seafarers in the merchant
marine sector. The respondents involved were 30 Filipino Seafarers who already have
experienced working with Female Filipino seafarer onboard a vessel.
Significance of the Study
The study would benefit the following groups:
Maritime schools. They will be able to educate the students with the current situation
regarding the growing number of Female Seafarers in the Merchant Marine Sector
compared to the past years.
Women aspiring to be a Seafarer. They will be enlightened about the challenges
female seafarer does experience and how they will overcome these challenges.
Parents. They will also be guided and informed on what really is the current situation
of women on the merchant marine sector and how they are being recognized.
Community. It will be help them through the information that will guide them in having
programs and activities that not all jobs do not depend on your gender but solely on
an individual’s performance.
Active Filipino Seafarers. They will be aware on what it is like to work with a Female
Seafarer based on these perceptions of those who have already experienced working
with Female onboard.
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Other researchers. They will be given an idea about the current situation of the
Women on the Merchant Marine Sector; thus, they can pursue more in-depth studies
related to the seafarers and in the seafaring industry.
Definition of Terms
Female – described as strong women that wants to enter the male dominated career.
Filipino Seafarers – are seamen, sailors, or seafarers from the Philippines. Although,
in general, the term "Filipino seamen" may include personnel from the Philippine Navy
or the Philippine Marine Corps, it specifically refers to overseas Filipinos who are "seabased migrant Filipino workers".
IMO – (International Maritime Organization) is the United Nations specialized agency
with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping and the prevention of marine
and atmospheric pollution by ships.
Maritime Industry – an area of work by use of seafaring strategies.
Merchant Marine Sector- this pertains to being part of the crew of the deck and
engine department of the ship.
Perception - is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory
information in order to represent and understand the presented information or
environment. All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system,
which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sensory system.
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CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents various literatures and studies, both foreign and local,
found to have some bearing or relationship to the present study.
Education
It has only been in a last few decades when women entered the merchant
marine sector. Today, there are now female personalities form around the world who
already proved to the society that they can also succeed in seafaring. It is all because
of the IMO’s program focused on the development of a gender strategy to establish
formal institutional structures to include gender balance in their strategic goals. From
this, programs for persuading female to take up this type of course continued to
emerge. On year 2019, the theme for the maritime day was entitled “Empowering
Women in the Maritime Community”. This theme provided the maritime industry an
opportunity in raising awareness about the importance of gender equality highlighting
the important contribution of Female Seafarers around the world to the maritime
sector.
The IMO has engaged in the strategic development of regional associations for
women maritime professionals (Tansey, 2015). This development led maritime
institutions to open its doors to aspiring female seafarers and helped women to
succeed in this type of work.
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Education improves the knowledge, skills, and development for women
entering the maritime industry. This can also help them to be known in the industry
and recommends them in maritime companies for faster application. Background of
your education is one of the qualifications that companies always looking for, if you
have good grades then you have a better chance in recruitment of the company. And
then finally, there are some specific informative recommendations about best
practices in maritime education, certainly in terms of leadership, are made. According
to Baya (2015), educational industries serving the maritime industry can adopt a set
of best practices in order to raise representation of women in maritime industry,
particularly at leadership levels. Truly, education nowadays is modern than the days
before. Knowledge of one person can enhance with the education we have now.
Since then, the IMO always supports the empowerment of women in the
maritime industry. There are many maritime universities that opened their door for the
education for females that want to enter the male dominated career. Females are
known for their excellence in making decision and working accordingly than men but
in the marine sector, females have some difficulties to enter to this sort of profession.
Female graduates of IMO’s global training institutes, the World Maritime
University (WMU) and the International Maritime Law Institute (IMLI) are today
working as maritime administrators and decision makers. They have a positive impact
as role models in encouraging new female recruits. IMO also supports the
empowerment of women through gender-specific fellowships; by facilitating access to
high-level technical training for women in the maritime sector in developing countries.
(IMO, 2019). It has been proved that females have a good impact in the maritime
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industry and they serve as a role model to those aspiring female cadets that pursuing
their dream in seafaring. They educate themselves to act on their work like men
because in maritime industry, it needs physically and mentally fit to be certified on this
sort of work.
The continuous operation of the seafaring industry depends on constant
employment of qualified seafarers around the world. Every year, the number of female
seafarers employed increases and the industry now currently has female officers
working together with other competent officers. As the merchant marine sector
became open to females, shipping companies also made their step towards gender
openness regarding employment. Nowadays, many shipping companies no longer
employ a seafarer based on their gender, perhaps they look more on an individual’s
knowledge and technical skills which everyone can possess through progressive
learning and application. By the help of maritime institutions, the number of
employments of female to work as seafarers increased. Maritime schools endorse
their students to shipping companies where equal opportunities is given to applicants
where they will have the chance to be accepted in the company. An individual’s work
performance plays a big factor on employment opportunities. For cadets, a transcript
of record is their ticket towards employment while for those already in the merchant
marine sector, their sea service and work output as observed by their superiors will
serve as their key for re-employment.
According to the International Chamber of Shipping (2020), the sustainability
of this sector depends on the ability to continue to attract sufficient quality new entrants
and retain experienced seafarers, including women seafarers and other under-
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represented groups. This only implies that being a female is not a disadvantage nor a
hindrance when it comes to employment aspect in the merchant marine sector.
Employment
Historically, shipping industry is known for male workers. Work environment in
this industry requires physical labor which fits the attributes of a man. Traditionally,
duties of women are household chores thus, entering in the male-dominated career is
a challenge for them. Nowadays, there are few women studying and excels in
maritime education. Seeking for companies and staying in their work is hard enough
for them as they are not treated fairly compare to men seafarers. Study finds that
women seafarers regularly face discrimination when they begin applying for shipboard
internship and employment. They need to battle loneliness, sexual harassment, and
bullying by their male colleagues on board (Tangi, 2016). Therefore, women struggle
engaging in male-dominated workplace.
The entry of women to the seafaring profession is increasingly attracts the
attention of international organizations. Aside from women who excels in the academic
achievement, the work field seen here in land is also have the same work on board a
vessel. Although male seafarers have been dominating the seafaring career, there
are still female who wants to be in the top also. Females who work here in land as a
hotel staff also dominates the proportion of crew working in sea. According to
Dragomir and Surugiu (2013), a relatively larger number serve on passenger vessels
where they are mostly in the passenger service categories. Working in that kind of
work field fits perfectly for women because of their working capabilities.
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Since then, male has already dominated the employment in maritime industry.
It’s undeniable that there are some barriers in making a female becoming as one of
male dominated jobs such as army, police, navy and most especially seafarer as part
of this study. The small percentage of female seafarers compared to their male
counterparts shows that getting a job on-board is difficult, particularly at the ship officer
level. The difficulty of getting a job on-board varies by country, but it is undeniable that
barriers exist. Women cadets or women seafarers are often stated to face difficulties
when applying for jobs or to be discriminated against because of their gender during
the selection process. To deal with this situation, all stakeholders must take action.
Only 6 percent of female seafarers are employed on-board cargo ships, they make up
about 20 percent of the total number of seafarers on cruise ships (Zhao, 2002; Blecher
et al., 2003). The literature shows that there are less chances or not much as a choice
for female becoming a cargo ship crewmember due to some factors that can be
compared for the capabilities of women against men. In addition to this, there is an
even employment distribution for men and women in passenger type ship.
Traditionally-male industries are looking for women to join. At the meeting of
the first National Dialogue focused on Women in Blue Collar Transportation Careers
held in 2011, their main goals are to change the image of traditionally male dominated
careers, recruit more women and retain them within the workforce. The IMO and other
organizations show a support for female opportunities in the merchant marine sector
in which they help manning companies, maritime schools and training centers to
encourage more women to enter this profession. Female opportunities are welcome
to maritime, also, there are requirements that were set for them to be qualified to join
the male dominated industry.
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The women of the Danish Navigators’ Union (DNU) expressed how difficult it is
for a woman navigator to get a job ashore, unlike their male counterparts. Their union
office they say is no exception to this act (Aggrey 2000). The maritime industry has
already supported the female opportunities in the marine sector. The industry will only
be becoming more advance when technology progresses thus, they will need an
educated and well-trained female seafarer who can do male work and are up to date
on the new technologies and management practices.
Salary and Benefits
Being a seafarer also comes with a stereotyping that seafarers become rich in
an instant once they already joined onboard an international vessel. Just like other
jobs, working on a ship is not just as easy as what the society thinks. Many seafarers
enter seafaring hoping that they can have a successful and stable life someday. While
it is true that seafarers earn dollars, the salary still is based on an individual’s position
onboard. The amount of salary and benefits differs on every company but as per
regulations of the Maritime Labor Code 2006 also known as the Seafarer’s Bill of
Rights, the said salary and benefit should be based on the regulations of the
convention regardless of their gender. All seafarers are covered with all the
regulations of the convention specifically the benefits of a seafarer. The salary stated
on the seafarer’s employment agreement is protected by the convention therefore, the
salary the employee will receive every month should be in the exact amount as stated
in the agreement.
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According to Maritime Institute of Technology and Graduate Studies (2020),
Women working in the maritime industry can earn an excellent salary compared to
other occupations that require the same or more education, and there are several
opportunities for career advancement. This only means that women can also succeed
in terms of being employed in the merchant marine sector.
Most of the maritime students chose this profession because of the salary and
benefits. Women in this industry expecting that they will have equal salary range to
their male coworkers. However, workloads given to male seafarers are heavier than
female seafarers which results in different salary range. Bonuses and benefits are
more favorable to men seafarers than women seafarers. But according to Tangi
(2016), Women seafarers should receive the same salary as their male counterparts.
This proves that women in the maritime industry must obtain equal salary and benefits.
Being a seafarer is not just working, navigating, and any operations while on
board ship. One benefit that both men and women seafarers can acquire is travelling
for free. You are lucky when you destined to have a voyage to some famous or dream
countries, no travel fee and you can already step in that particular land. Most of
Filipinos dreams to travel around the world but due to lack of financial stability they
were not able to obtain it, but for the seafarer’s despite of their gender this already an
advantage with their respective profession. According to Romero (2018), a woman
seafarer, she had visited many European countries, the Caribbean, South America
and the US. She has been to the ends of the world, the southernmost island inhabited
by people, Ushuia in Argentina. A lot of individuals dream to visit European and
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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
American countries but only few can due to financial problems and this is the thing
should the seafarers to be thankful and can be proud of for taking seafaring career.
Women in maritime is going strong as many women seafarer encourages more
women to have in the maritime industry. Many benefits of recognizing females in the
merchant marine sector, both onboard the vessel or as executives and leaders
ashore. Females can bring new experiences, talent, perspectives and skills into the
male dominated work. The maritime industry is also benefiting from females as they
strive towards safe, secure, clean and sustainable shipping. According to International
Transport Federation (2021), once employed, women seafarers may also face lower
pay even though they are doing work equivalent to that of male colleagues. More
women lead to more women. They need to encourage other females to work with them
because some of women wants to explore the sort of work of men in seafaring even
though they were paid lower than male colleagues but compared to the salary of
women in other works, working onboard is much higher than others.
Work Performance
A work of a seafarer requires a lot of physical force for an individual seafarer to
do his or her task on every daily operation onboard ship. An example of this can be
simply by carrying heavy tools and equipment, tightening or loosening bolts, and even
performing mooring lines operation. Men and women genetically speaking, have
obvious differences on the build of the body and men are generally proven to be
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stronger than most women physically. Because of these obvious differences, women
are often questioned if they can really perform efficiently being a seafarer.
Onboard a vessel, teamwork is very important but every single crew must learn
to work independently and not wait for others to help them always. A seafarer
regardless of gender should learn to accept and perform his or her duties and
responsibilities onboard a vessel efficiently and not to act as a burden to anyone. It is
a female seafarer’s responsibility to refuse to any kind of special treatment that is not
necessary in line with her work to prove to the male seafarers that female can also
excel in this type of work environment because seeking special treatment as a female
only shows that women are still not ready to compete with men in this industry.
Being a female seafarer is not an excuse to be given any preference to work
more or work less even though it was toilsome. In fact, a female should work harder
to prove their competency as a seafarer (Mukherjee, 2019).
As of now women can take a job same as men can do. A lot of individuals
already commonly heard the phrase “Women Empowerment” where women take it
even in a male dominated service. But despite of this circumstances there are some
discriminations when it comes to the capabilities of women especially in maritime
sector. There are some already stated that there is a difference when it comes to
treatment and job distribution between men and women seafarers. The treatment is
the same as the treatment of parents with their son and daughter. In this case it could
really affect for the development of a woman specifically on her work performance on
board ship wherein fact that she should be had an equal and the same level as what
men can-do on-board ship. According to Chin (2008), women seafarers can be found
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at all levels on board ships, but the majority of them are found performing cleaning
duties, serving in the dining room, working in the galley and below deck. This case
only a ratings job level was highlighted for women and this shows that it’s difficult for
women to get those promotions due to some discrimination when it comes to their
work performance.
Attitude Toward Fellow Crew Members
Traditionally, maritime industry follows the rule of biology that female is being
dominated by male by their physical attributes. Women’s strength fits the duties at
home which is doing household chores while men use their strength into power.
However, becoming a woman seafarer is not easy. According to Yunus and Said
(2016), Women’s attitude became courageous, determined and challenged to equal
men if not surpass in the seafaring profession instead of being discouraged and
disappointed to pursue the career. Indeed, women are independent and as strong as
a man, not physically but mentally and spirituality.
It is difficult for women to get along with men and building a good relationship
to them especially when they are at the beginning of contract. Most women would feel
strange and fear when some men act weird. Seafaring could be truly difficult for
women due to it’s a man dominated environment especially on a cargo ship. For this
reason, there could be some adjustment with their attitudes or behavior in order for
them to be part of that environment. It will take time for them to be with their comfort
zone as may not behave as they do in their true environment. Aside from that, most
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of women are comfortable to open up with the same gender. They might overthink
when they are already on board because of their ideas about sexualities and for the
men’s attitudes.
One factor that can affect towards their behavior or attitude is sexual
harassment. There are a lot of reports already that deals with this situation and this is
already one barrier on taking seafaring career. According to DCOMM (2003), some
women stated they went to extremes to avoid being harassed, such as altering or "defeminizing" their appearance (one woman engineer actually shaved her head).
Another said she had to punch a chief officer out of her room in order for her to leave.
A sad reality that has already happened to female seafarer that should be avoided for
women and to get rid of for male seafarers.
The merchant marine sector always concerned about attitudes of seafarers in
the industry in which both male and female are working together. It is very effective
that both parties are brainstorming which exchanging their perspectives and ideas
about their target activity to come up with the decision. Others think that women are
more fragile than men because traditionally women are expected to stay home and
depend on men and women should not do this sort of work and live with this
environment. Some women have a view that, for the sake of equality, they would like
to be part of the industry. Shipping is an international business that circulate around
the world. It’s very difficult to generalize; but we know that the mixture of male and
female managers is good for a business (York, 1999). The combination of male
dominated career and putting female opportunities have a large impact in the maritime
sector.
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Leadership
A seafarer’s rank onboard a vessel prior his or her employment on a vessel
determines his or her duties and responsibilities as a seafarer. A seafarer on a
management and operational level allocates tasks to their subordinates and for them
to work efficiently, their leader’s attitude towards them is very important. The attitude
of a leader greatly affects the work environment on a vessel. Negative attitude can
lead to negative outcome and positive attitude can lead to a desirable outcome. The
officers onboard ship should act with a quality of a good leader to maintain productivity
of their crew members. Being a female or male officer onboard a vessel should not be
an issue because gender is not a basis of being a leader. A leader is someone who is
competent enough to lead the team to success and are knowledgeable enough in
different work situations. When it comes to intelligence, there are no such thing as
men are stronger or women are brighter, it all comes down on the eagerness to level
up on their career and willingness to equip themselves with additional knowledge
about a certain profession.
Female’s leadership in the maritime is a hot issue, other thing that scarcity of
female that being the captain and these great females should be able to take over the
commando under all the crew. Many doubted the capabilities and roles of female
aboard the ship as a captain, but those female onboard could cripple the growing
issues among the public (Setiawati R. Et al. 2018).
Gender discrimination is one of the problems faced by women in a maledominated
industry
like
in
maritime
industry.
Obviously,
many
seafarers
underestimate working capability of a woman in their career. Male seafarers think that
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women should only do land-based works such as working in the offices. Also, they
think that male seafarers have more chance to be in a higher position and more
comfortable when they are being controlled by a male officer. The evaluation of their
co-workers for female leaders underrates the leadership skills while for male leaders
overrate their leadership skills (Olga O.D. Et al. 2015). This perception of their coworkers is clearly on a one-side.
There are already women that became a leader in various types of sectors.
Women has already this leadership skills that has compared with men capabilities
especially in maritime industry. Women are being promoted into the maritime industry
by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Labor
Organizations (ILO). Nonetheless, there are barriers to female employment in the
maritime industry, especially in leadership positions. The primary goal of the study is
to see whether there is a substantial gap in implicit leadership values between men
and women. Furthermore, it examines whether the aforementioned distinction exists
in the sense of masculine and neutral job domains.
According to Samuel M. and Mokoaleli I. (2017), early studies indicated that
there might be differences in leadership between women and men. Since working on
board ship is dominated by men, there’s always gap and discrimination of having a
female leader on board. Female leaders tended to underestimate their real leadership
abilities, while male maritime officers tended to exaggerate their leadership abilities in
comparison to their co-workers’ assessments.
The teamwork and coordination onboard the vessel depend on the leadership
style of a leader. Companies are always looking for seafarer in both gender who offer
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something valuable. Women can provide new perspectives and leadership styles that
can be very effective and beneficial to a male dominated industry. To success in the
maritime field, it needs much more about using intellectual than muscles. Females
think that they need to be strong, big and mechanically minded to be succeed to join
in the male dominated industry.
The leadership model that goes on board is a team leadership model. A team
is a special kind of group whose members are interdependent, have common goals,
and must coordinate their activities to achieve that goal. The team has a special role
for its members with the knowledge and skills necessary to carry out its role (Levi D,
2011). It does not require that leaders should always be men because women can
also do. Females have an advantage over men in terms of honesty that’s why females
are excellent and an effective leader and it suits onboard so that they have a teamwork
among its crew members.
Team Management
On board ships, bridge and engine teams have little time to make until to
become fully operational. Therefore, the officers and ratings that are constitute of
these teams should possess some good communication skills in order to make
possible creation of well-ordered teams in such a short time. Also, good
communication depends on the level of English language proficiency of the seafarers.
According to Eugen, B. & Nicolae-Voicu, G. (2016), For having good teamwork
cooperation you must have in the first place a good communication between team
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members. This indeed proves that understanding between each of the crew and the
team members can make a safe operation or any other activities that may happen on
board ships.
One of the challenges that female faces is on how they act as a leader and a
follower on the management on board the vessel. Team management is difficult to
manage and it depends to the power of the leader on how he/she handle the crew.
Women may engage in different styles of team management compared to men.
Managing a team can be challenging as (potentially) disparate individuals need to
work together to accomplish a common team goal (Parker, 2021). Female seafarer
can develop something new, innovative point of view and unique ideas through the
open discussion among crew members. Although both genders can show emotional
support to the team which can reduce the impact of work stressors and can resulting
positive team on work performance. It is still a challenge to the women to interact with
men to lead the team and can motivate them since the sort of work is male dominated
area.
Since the maritime industry was dominated by men, it’s probable that women
will have difficulty getting into it. It may be difficult just to be accepted in this setting,
to be flexible, and to fit in as a team member. How will they manage the team on
board, given that she may be the only woman on the team? It’s probable that just
having an influence over everyone on performing such things and managing the team
is difficult for them, especially if she’s already a senior to her colleagues. Perhaps they
have previously encountered this type of situation because they were in a virtually allmale setting throughout their college years. However, joining the experts, Filipino male
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seafarers with a huge age gap on board is a challenge, how can they exert influence
in all they do when they encounter this situation. Management teams hold the potential
to strongly influence the performance of an organization (Flood, MacCurtain, & West,
2001; Hambrick & Mason, 1984)
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CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
This chapter describes the research design, respondents, instrument, data
gathering procedure and statistical treatment used in the study.
Research Design
Mixed methods research is a research design with philosophical assumptions
as well as methods of inquiry. As a methodology, it involves philosophical assumptions
that guide the direction of the collection and analysis of data and the mixture of
qualitative and quantitative approaches in many phases in the research process. As
a method, it focuses on collecting, analyzing, and mixing both quantitative and
qualitative data in a single study or series of studies. Its central premise is that the use
of quantitative and qualitative approaches in combination provides a better
understanding of research problems than either approach alone (Gunnell, 2016).
This study utilized the mixed method for it aimed to assess the perception of
Filipino seafarers to the challenges of the Filipino female seafarers in the merchant
marine sector.
Population, Samples and Sampling Techniques
The researchers conducted a survey by snowball sampling. It is a sampling
technique where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their
acquaintances. It was conducted to at least 15 male and 15 female respondents who
are active Filipino seafarers and had already experienced working with Female Filipino
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seafarers regardless of their age, and rank onboard for the quantitative method and
at least 4 male and female respondents for the qualitative interview. Female Filipino
Seafarers as a respondent should have experienced working with a fellow female
seafarer onboard and all of their answers on the surveys and interview should not be
based on themselves as a female seafarer alone.
Due to the time constraint and very limited number of female respondents who
have also experienced working with other female Filipino seafarers, the researchers
only found 7 female and 23 male respondents.
Research Instrument
For the research instrument, the researchers utilized survey questionnaires
and combined structured and unstructured interviews. The researchers used mobile
phones and laptop, as well as applications such as Google Forms, Messenger, and
Zoom for the virtual interviews. The questionnaire was divided into three parts. The
first part was the respondent’s profile. The name, gender, and the length of their sea
service was asked. The second part asked for the respondent’s perception to the
challenges encountered by female Filipino seafarers in terms of their working
performance, attitude towards fellow crew members and their team management. The
third and last part was their suggestions to overcome the challenges of the female
Filipino seafarers in the merchant marine sector.
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The respondents were requested to rate each item in the questionnaire based
on their perceptions using the following scale:
•
4-
Strongly Agree
•
3-
Agree
•
2-
Disagree
•
1-
Strongly Disagree
Data Gathering Procedure
The researchers prepared a survey questionnaire which they assured that
there is enough information to collect data, covering all variables to answer all the
specific questions under the statement of the problem. The questionnaire was
submitted for correction and validated by the Professor. After which, the researchers
conducted a survey to 23 male and 7 female respondents who are active Filipino
seafarer that experienced working with female Filipino seafarer onboard. The
researchers will validate the data gathered on the survey questionnaires to the
respondents by conducting interviews as a supplementary data since the aim of the
study is to know the perception of Filipino seafarer towards the challenges of female
Filipino seafarers in the merchant marine sector so that the respondents can answer
the questionnaire with honesty and full knowledge. Based on the information that were
provided by the respondents, the researchers came up with conclusion and
recommendation for this study.
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Statistical Treatment
The data gathered were tabulated and the statistical tool used was the mean
of the weighted frequencies to determine the perception of Filipino seafarers towards
the Challenges of female Filipino seafarers. The mean of weighted frequencies (MWF)
was computed using this formula:
MWF
=
𝑤𝑓
𝐹
Where: MWF= mean of weighted frequencies
The mean of weighted frequencies was interpreted using this scale:
•
3.25 – 4.00 =
Strongly Agree
•
2.50 – 3.24 =
Agree
•
1.75– 2.49
Disagree
•
1.00 – 1.74 =
=
Strongly Disagree
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CHAPTER 4
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter includes the presentation, analysis, and interpretation of data that
have been gathered from the answered questionnaire of the respondents. This
chapter also contains the presentation of the data in tabular form along with their
corresponding interpretations.
S.O.P. 1 Demographic Profile of the Respondents
Table 4.1. Demographic Profile of the Respondents According to Gender
Gender
Profile
Frequency
Percentage
Female
7
23.3%
Male
23
76.7%
Table 4.1 shows the demographic profile of the respondents according to
gender. 23 seafarers or 76.7% of the respondents are male and 7 seafarers or 23.3%
of the respondents are female.
Table 4.2 Demographic Profile of the Respondents According to Rank
Rank
Profile
Frequency
Percentage
Captain
1
3.3%
Second Officer
3
10%
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Third Officer
5
16.7%
Deck Cadet
7
23.3%
Fourth Engineer
1
3.3%
Electro-technical
1
3.3%
Bosun
2
6.7%
Able-Bodied
3
10%
Ordinary Seaman
2
6.7%
Oiler
1
3.3%
Wiper
1
3.3%
Assistant Steward
1
3.3%
No response
2
6.7%
Officer
Seaman
Table 4.2 shows the demographic profile of the respondents according to rank.
In terms of rank, there were many different ranks that took part in this study. 7
seafarers or 23.3% of the respondents are Deck Cadet which has the highest figure
in the table.
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Table 4.3 Demographic Profile of the Respondents According to Length of
Service
Length of Service
Profile
Frequency
Percentage
1-8 years
19
63.3%
9-16 years
8
26.7%
17-24 years
2
6.7%
25-32 years
0
0%
33-40 years
1
3.3%
Table 4.3 shows the demographic profile of the respondents according to
length of service. In terms of length of service, 19 seafarers or 63.3% of the
respondents have been working 1-8 years followed by 8 seafarers or 26.7% of the
respondents have been working 9-16 years. 2 seafarers or 6.7% of the respondents
have been working for 25-32 years. Lastly, 1 seafarer or 3.3% of the respondent have
been working for 33-40 years.
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S.O.P. 2 Challenges Being Encountered by Female Filipino Seafarers in the
Merchant Marine Sector
Table 4.4 Challenges Being Encountered by Female Filipino Seafarers in the
Merchant Marine Sector in Terms of Work Performance
Challenges of Filipino Female Seafarers
Mean SD
Interpretation
Strongly
Finishes on time
1.73
0.94
Disagree
Strongly
Performs duties according to rank
1.63
0.61
Disagree
Challenges
on Work
Strongly
Does not ask for special treatments
1.63
0.49
Disagree
Performance
Can work independently
1.80
0.76
Disagree
2.03
0.89
Disagree
1.77
0.52
Disagree
Accomplishes job based on
requirements
Overall
Table 4.4 shows the challenges being encountered by Female Filipino
Seafarers in the merchant marine sector in terms of work performance. Results shows
that working on time (M= 1.73, SD= .94), successfully finishing the duties expected of
their rank (M=1.63, SD= .61), and without any biased preferential to their gender (M=
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1.63, SD= .49) were all highly observed among and experienced by Female seafarers
in Merchant Marine Sector. These were noted from the strong disagreement by the
participants that the female seafarers experience challenges related to their working
performance.
Further, based on the response given by the respondents on the work
performance, some of the female Filipino seafarers are still experiencing challenges
in terms of physical works on board like exhaustion because of overtime works.
However, by the overall working performance of the female Filipino seafarers, most of
the respondents said that female Filipino seafarers can also perform their duties well.
According to Mukherjee (2019), being a female seafarer is not an excuse to be
given any preference to work more or work less even though it was toilsome. In fact,
a female should work harder to prove their competency as a seafarer.
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Table 4.5 Challenges Being Encountered by Female Filipino Seafarers in the
Merchant Marine Sector in Terms of Attitudes Towards Fellow Crew Members
Challenges of Filipino Female Seafarers
Mean SD
Interpretation
1.90
0.76
Disagree
2.10
0.88
Disagree
1.93
1.14
Disagree
Disagree
Blends well with other crew
members
Does not isolate self
Challenges
on Attitude
Communicates clearly without
towards
hesitation
Crew
Does not create gender barrier
1.83
0.95
Does not use gender to be superior
1.37
0.56
Members
Strongly
Disagree
Overall
1.83
0.65
Disagree
Table 4.5 shows the challenges being encountered by Female Filipino
Seafarers in the merchant marine sector in terms of their attitudes towards other crew
members. The disagreement was also noticed among the responses of the
participants when asked whether they observe female seafarers having difficulties
with blending well (M= 1.90, SD= .76) and communicating clearly without hesitation
(M= 1.93, SD= 1.14) with others or acting superior due to their gender (M=1.37, SD=
.56).
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Further, the qualitative data shows that the challenges and overall attitude of
female Filipino seafarers towards other crew members in the merchant marine sector.
Further, based on the response given by the respondents on the attitude of
female Filipino seafarer to their fellow crew members, most of them experienced
positive attitude as the female Filipino seafarers get along with them as well as to the
other crew members. There were also some positive and negative attitude of female
seafarers that the respondents stated. The respondents shared that there are also
attitudes that female Filipino seafarers was having strict attitude as they are exhausted
because of the work on board. Some also does not go with them whenever there are
occasions and some were enthusiastic, brave, and hardworking.
According to DCOMM (2003), some women stated they went to extremes to
avoid being harassed, such as altering or "de-feminizing" their appearance (one
woman engineer actually shaved her head). Another said she had to punch a chief
officer out of her room in order for her to leave. Gender barrier may be one of the
different factor that affect this kind of attitude of female Filipino seafarers to their fellow
crew members.
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Table 4.6 Challenges Being Encountered by Female Filipino Seafarers in the
Merchant Marine Sector in Terms of Team Management
Challenges of Filipino Female Seafarers
Mean SD
Interpretation
Strongly
Coordinates well to the team
1.73
0.74
Disagree
Does not hesitate to provide
1.93
0.94
Disagree
suggestions
Challenges on
Can be a leader when
Team
needed/appointed
Strongly
1.73
0.78
Disagree
Management
Strongly
Is open to constructive criticisms
1.57
0.82
Disagree
Strongly
Can boost morale of the team
1.50
0.57
Disagree
Overall
1.69
0.64
Table 4.6 shows the challenges being encountered by Female Filipino
Seafarers in the merchant marine sector in terms of team management. Same results
were seen when the respondents were asked about the challenges of female
seafarers in merchant marine sector related to team management. They generally and
strongly disagree that the female seafarers experience challenges like coordinating
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with others (M= 1.73, SD= .74), providing suggestions (M= 1.93, SD= .94) or acting
as leaders when needed by the team (M= 1.73, SD= .78), and accepting constructive
criticism from others (M= 1.57, SD= .82).
Further, based on the responses of the respondents, all of them agreed that
the female Filipino seafarers can handle the team when needed. The respondents
generally perceive that being a leader and handling a team is not gender based. Thus,
all leaders undergo training to be qualified as one.
According to Parker (2021), Managing a team can be challenging as
(potentially) disparate individuals need to work together to accomplish a common
team goal. In general, a team will not function properly without coordination. Hence,
every individual should contribute on the team they belong regardless of one’s gender.
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Table 4.7 Descriptive Statistics of the Perception of Seafarers on the
Challenges of Filipino Female Seafarers in Merchant Marine Sector
Challenges
Mean
Standard
Interpretation
Deviation
Work Performance
1.77
0.52
Disagree
Attitude towards
1.83
0.65
Disagree
1.69
0.64
Strongly Disagree
1.76
0.56
Disagree
Fellow Crew
Members
Team
Management
Overall
Experience of
Challenges
Table 4.7 shows that the descriptive statistics results of the perceptions or the
level of agreement of the respondents about the challenges experienced by Filipino
Female Seafarers in Merchant Marine Sector indicate that, generally, the seafarers
disagree and strongly disagree that female seafarers experience a lot of challenges
in different areas: Work Performance (M= 1.77, SD= .52); Attitude towards Fellow
Crew Members (M= 1.83, SD= .65); Team Management (M= 1.69, SD= .64); and,
Overall Experience of Challenges (M= 1.76, SD= .56).
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S.O.P. 3 Suggestions of Seafarers to Overcome the Challenges of the Female
Filipino Seafarers
Table 4.8 Suggestions of Seafarers to Overcome the Challenges of the Female
Filipino Seafarers
Respondents
Responses
1 – Male
Do not be carried away by
homesickness. Courage and
Determination.
2 – Male
Be open to workmates. Ask for help
when needed.
3 – Male
Don’t set limits on themselves.
4 – Male
Help them by sharing own experiences.
Inspiration.
5 – Female
Believe in themselves.
6 – Female
Prepare mentally, physically, and
emotionally. Learn to adjust with other
people.
7 – Female
See challenges as opportunity.
8 – Female
Don’t listen to discrimination. Be nice to
everyone.
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Table 4.8 shows the suggestion of seafarers to overcome the challenges of the
female Filipino seafarers. Based on the responses of the respondents, most of them
give positive suggestions to help them to overcome the challenges that experiencing
and might experience by female Filipino seafarers when they choose this profession.
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CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the summary of findings; the conclusions made and the
recommendation offered.
Summary of Findings
The findings of the study were specified as follows:
S.O.P. No.1 Profile of the respondents:
1.1. Of the 30 respondents, 23 of them were male and 7 are female. Due to a
very limited number of female Filipino seafarers who have also experienced
working with a fellow female Filipino seafarer, the researchers were unable
to hit the target female respondents of the study. This is also backed up by
the respondent’s answers on the follow up questions that their company
only has a very few female Filipino seafarers that is why the chance of
having 2 female Filipino crew onboard is slim to none.
1.2. Because this study is not rank specific, there were many different ranks that
took part in this study. The rank with the highest figure is the deck cadet
with 7 respondents.
1.3. This study has no minimum length of service required for the respondents.
Of the 30 respondents, 19 of them have been working or are in service for
1 - 8 years followed by 8 respondents who have been working or are in
service for 9 - 16 years.
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S.O.P. No. 2 The challenges being encountered by female Filipino seafarers in the
merchant marine sector.
2.1. Based on the overall mean of 1.77, the respondents generally disagree that
they perceive that female Filipino seafarer encounter challenges in terms of work
performance.
2.2 Based on the overall mean of 1.83, the respondents generally disagree that
they perceive that female Filipino seafarer encounter challenges in terms of
attitude towards fellow crew members.
2.3 Based on the overall mean of 1.69, the respondents generally strongly
disagree that they perceive that female Filipino seafarer encounter challenges
in terms of team management.
S.O.P. 3. Suggestions to overcome the challenges of the female Filipino seafarers in
the merchant marine sector.
3.1 As answered by the respondents, female Filipino seafarers can overcome
the said challenges by having courage and determination and preparing
themselves mentally, physically and emotionally before every contract. Female
Filipino seafarers are also encouraged by the respondents to not hesitate ask
for help needed. Female Filipino seafarers should not set limits on themselves
and should see such challenges as an opportunity to learn. Lastly, the
respondents suggest that female Filipino seafarers should learn to adjust to
everyone around her onboard a ship.
42
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
Other specific challenges mentioned by the respondents are:
•
Discrimination
• Homesickness
• Nature of women (menstruation)
• Physical strength
• Pregnancy
• Gets involved a complicated relationship
Conclusion
Based on the findings of this research, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. The researchers therefore conclude that the challenges mentioned in this
study somehow exist on female Filipino seafarers. This implies that in
general, respondents disagree that the said challenges in this study does
have noticeable impact to the seafaring career of the female Filipino
seafarers. The mentioned challenges somehow still exist but there are
some other challenges that have a bigger impact as perceived by the
respondents such as, discrimination, physical strength, and pregnancy.
2. The researchers conclude that female Filipino seafarer can overcome these
challenges by motivating themselves to enhance their skills and to build
courage and determination. It is natural to encounter challenges in every
different field. Female Filipino seafarer should see these challenges as an
opportunity to overcome those experiences they encounter onboard.
43
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
Recommendations
In relation to the findings and conclusions, the following are recommended:
1. The
researchers
recommends that
Maritime schools
should provide career
guidance to help women understand and know about maritime careers better.
Conduct seminars and workshops align to empowering women in the maritime
sector. The maritime sector and other related institutions should promote positive and
gender-sensitive information to potential seafarers.
2. The researchers recommends that women aspiring to be a seafarer should be
ready and determined to take on the duties and responsibilities they may have. They
should learn how to live with men and their quirks.
3. The researchers recommends that parents should motivate and encourage their
daughters in fulfilling their dream job. Give support to what their daughters want to
pursue.
4. The researchers recommends that community should offer great employment
opportunities for male and female seafarers alike. They should create and implement
laws for maritime that ensure the safety and protection of women on the seas. With
the help of different stakeholders and community participation, anti-discrimination and
harassment materials in the form of booklets and posters should be distributed onboard ships.
5. The researchers recommends that other researchers should study solutions on
helping women how to overcome the different challenges in the merchant marine
sector.
44
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
6. The researchers recommends to other researchers who are studying similar topics
related to the challenges of female seafarers that they should a lot more time and
patience in finding more female respondents that have experienced working with other
female onboard so that they may be able to gather an equal ratio of information so
that the result of this research may be improved on their study.
45
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
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50
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
APPENDICES
Appendix A
Letter of Request for Questionnaire Validation
15th August 2021
___________________
Dear Sir/Ma’am,
Good day!
We, the undersigned, currently conducting a study entitled “Perception of Male and
Female Filipino Seafarers to the Challenges of Filipino Female Seafarers in the
Merchant Marine Sector.” In line with this, we would like to seek for your expertise to
validate our survey and interview questionnaire to be used for data gathering in our
study and to help us in the alignment of our questionnaire to our research statement
of the problem.
We are optimistically looking forward for your approval.
Truly yours,
Midn. Borinaga, Quiel Andres G.
Midn. Cruz, Cyrus Kent O.
Midn. Custodio, Exell Rey E.
Midn. Dayo, Jean Claud T.
Noted by:
Ms. Jeane Marie H. Galero
Thesis Adviser
51
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
Appendix B
Letter for Request for Interview
Dear Sir/Ma’am,
We the researchers, a third-year student of Asian Institute of Maritime Studies
(AIMS) taking up Bachelor of Science in Maritime Transportation, and enrolled in the
course Maritime Research Completion, are conducting a research study entitled
“Perception of Male and Female Filipino Seafarers to the Challenges of the Filipino
Female Seafarers in the Merchant Marine Sector”.
The research is focusing on the questions: What are the challenges being
encountered by the female Filipino seafarers in the merchant marine sector in terms
of work performance, attitude to the fellow crew members, and team management.
And, what can be suggested to overcome the challenges of the female Filipino
seafarers in the merchant marine sector in terms of work performance, attitude
towards fellow crew members, and team management.
In this regard, we are requesting you, Sir/Ma’am, for kind permission to be a
respondent of our research. This includes interview and other data gathering activities
necessary for the completion of the study.
Rest assured that all data gathered will be treated with utmost confidentiality
and for academic purposes only. Results gathered will also be willingly shared to you
as part of our research’s contribution, in any way that proves beneficial to you.
Truly yours,
Midn. Borinaga, Quiel Andres G.
Midn. Cruz, Cyrus Kent O.
Midn. Custodio, Exell Rey E.
Midn. Dayo, Jean Claud T.
Noted by:
Ms. Jeane Marie H. Galero
Thesis Adviser
52
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
Appendix C
Questionnaires
PERCEPTION OF MALE AND FEMALE FILIPINO SEAFARERS TO THE
CHALLENGES OF THE FILIPINO FEMALE SEAFARERS IN THE MERCHANT
MARINE SECTOR
Quantitative Survey Questionnaires
1. Profile of the Respondents
Gender: ___________
Rank: __________
Length of Service: __________
2.1 Work
Performance
Female Filipino
seafarers:
Finishes the job
in the allocated
time
1- Strongly
Disagree
2- Disagree
3-Agree
4-Strongly
Agree
Performs her
duties and
responsibilities
completely
according to her
rank.
Does not ask for
special
treatments for
heavy jobs such
as lifting
mooring ropes,
tools etc.
Can work
independently
without
consistently
53
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
being
watched/guided.
Accomplishes
the job orders
according to the
required output.
2.2 Attitude
towards Crew
Members
Female Filipino
seafarers:
Blends in well
with the rest of
the crew
1- Strongly
Disagree
2- Disagree
3-Agree
4-Strongly
Agree
2- Disagree
3-Agree
4-Strongly
Agree
Does not isolate
themselves
Communicates
clearly without
hesitation
Does not create
gender barrier
towards other
crewmembers
Does not use
her gender to be
superior in
conversations
2.3 Team
1- Strongly
Management
Disagree
Female Filipino
seafarers:
Coordinates well
to the team she
belongs
Does not
hesitate to
provide her
suggestions to
meetings
Can be a leader
when needed or
when appointed
by her superiors
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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
Is open to
constructive
criticisms of the
team
Can boost the
morale of the
team
Qualitative Interview Questionnaires
1. Based on your answer, what can you say about the overall work performance of a
female Filipino seafarer?
2. Can you elaborate the attitude of female seafarer to the fellow crew members on
board?
3. Based on your answer, do you think that female seafarer can handle the team as a
leader when needed? Why?
4. What are the other challenges encountered by women seafarers that you are aware
of and were not mentioned in the survey?
5. What can you suggest to women in order to overcome those challenges they
encountered on board, specifically in marine sector?
55
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
Appendix D
Sample Survey Questionnaire
1. Profile of the Respondents
Gender:
Male
Rank: Bosun
Length of Service: 9 years
2.1 Work
Performance
Female Filipino
seafarers:
Finishes the job
in the allocated
time
1- Strongly
Disagree
2- Disagree
3-Agree
✓
Performs her
duties and
responsibilities
completely
according to her
rank.
✓
Does not ask for
special
treatments for
heavy jobs such
as lifting
mooring ropes,
tools etc.
✓
Can work
independently
without
consistently
being
watched/guided.
✓
Accomplishes
the job orders
according to the
required output.
4-Strongly
Agree
✓
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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
2.2 Attitude
towards Crew
Members
Female Filipino
seafarers:
Blends in well
with the rest of
the crew
1- Strongly
Disagree
2- Disagree
4-Strongly
Agree
✓
✓
Does not isolate
themselves
Communicates
clearly without
hesitation
Does not create
gender barrier
towards other
crewmembers
Does not use
her gender to be
superior in
conversations
2.3 Team
1- Strongly
Management
Disagree
Female Filipino
seafarers:
Coordinates well
to the team she
belongs
Does not
hesitate to
provide her
suggestions to
meetings
Can be a leader
when needed or
when appointed
by her superiors
Is open to
constructive
criticisms of the
team
Can boost the
morale of the
team
3-Agree
✓
✓
✓
2- Disagree
3-Agree
4-Strongly
Agree
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
Appendix E
Qualitative Interview
Challenges and Overall Work Performance of Female Filipino Seafarers in the
Merchant Marine Sector
Respondents
Responses
1 – Male
Mooring operations
2 – Male
Exhaustion because of overtime works
3 – Male
Can perform their duties well
4 – Male
Can perform their duties well
5 – Female
Can perform their duties well
6 – Female
Can perform their duties well
7 – Female
Resilient, able to adopt and can excel
8 – Female
Strong in terms of physical and mental,
and competitive
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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
Challenges and Overall Attitude of Female Filipino Seafarers to their Fellow
Crew Members
Respondents
Responses
Respondent 1 – Male
Getting along with the others.
Sometimes if there is an occasion, they
did not go with them.
Respondent 2 – Male
Getting along with the others and kind.
Respondent 3 – Male
Fun and kind to the others.
Respondent 4 – Male
At first it is complicated but they still get
along with the others.
Respondent 5 - Female
Getting along with the others.
Respondent 6 – Female
Getting along with the others but
sometimes they are strict when they are
exhausted.
Respondent 7 – Female
Enthusiastic, brave, and hardworking.
Respondent 8 – Female
Getting along with the others and fairly
treating the other crew members.
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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
Perception of Seafarers to the Female Filipino Seafarers in Terms of Team
Management
Respondents
Responses
1 – Male
Acts professionally and can handle the
team well.
2 – Male
Can perform the duties and can handle
the team well
3 – Male
Can stand as a leader because being a
leader is not gender based.
4 – Male
They go undergo trainings as well to be
qualified as a leader.
5 – Female
What a man can do, a woman can also
do.
6 – Female
Coordinates well to the department they
belong.
7 – Female
Passion and experience in dealing with
other crew members.
8 – Female
If you know your responsibility and you
take it into action, you can be a leader.
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Other Challenges That Female Filipino Seafarers Experience That Was Not
Mentioned in This Study
Respondents
Responses
1 – Male
Pregnancy, Gets involved a complicated
relationship
2 – Male
Nature of women (Menstruation) and
physical strength
3 – Male
Discrimination
4 – Male
Homesickness
5 – Female
Easily get tired
6 – Female
Discrimination
7 – Female
Discrimination
8 – Female
Physical strength that women cannot do
it alone.
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Appendix F
Data Statistics
Gender
Valid
Frequency Percent
Male
7
23.3
Female
23
76.7
Total
30
100.0
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
23.3
23.3
76.7
100.0
100.0
Rank
Valid Captain
Second Officer
Third Officer
Deck Cadet
Fourth Engineer
Electro-technical
Officer
Bosun
Able-Bodied
Seaman
Ordinary Seaman
Oiler
Wiper
Assistant Steward
No response
Total
Frequency Percent
1
3.3
3
10.0
5
16.7
7
23.3
1
3.3
1
3.3
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
3.3
3.3
10.0
13.3
16.7
30.0
23.3
53.3
3.3
56.7
3.3
60.0
2
3
6.7
10.0
6.7
10.0
66.7
76.7
2
1
1
1
2
30
6.7
3.3
3.3
3.3
6.7
100.0
6.7
3.3
3.3
3.3
6.7
100.0
83.3
86.7
90.0
93.3
100.0
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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
Length of Service
Valid
1-8 years
9-16 years
Frequency
19
8
Percent
63.3
26.7
Valid Percent
63.3
26.7
Cumulative
Percent
63.3
90.0
17-24 years
2
6.7
6.7
96.7
33-40 years
1
3.3
3.3
100.0
Total
30
100.0
100.0
Descriptive Statistics
WorkPerformance
N
30
Minimum Maximum
1.00
2.60
Mean
1.7667
Std. Deviation
.51751
Attitude
30
1.00
3.60
1.8267
.64697
TeamMngt
30
1.00
3.80
1.6933
.63622
Overall
30
1.00
3.07
1.7620
.55940
Valid N (listwise)
30
Work Performance Descriptive Statistics
WP1
N
30
Minimum
1.00
Maximum
4.00
Mean
1.7333
Std. Deviation
.94443
WP2
WP3
WP4
30
30
30
1.00
1.00
1.00
3.00
2.00
4.00
1.6333
1.6333
1.8000
.61495
.49013
.76112
WP5
Valid N (listwise)
30
30
1.00
4.00
2.0333
.88992
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Attitudes Descriptive Statistics
ACM1
N
30
Minimum
1.00
Maximum
4.00
Mean
1.9000
Std. Deviation
.75886
ACM2
30
1.00
4.00
2.1000
.88474
ACM3
30
1.00
4.00
1.9333
1.14269
ACM4
30
1.00
4.00
1.8333
.94989
ACM5
30
1.00
3.00
1.3667
.55605
Valid N (listwise)
30
Team Management Descriptive Statistics
TM1
N
30
Minimum
1.00
Maximum
4.00
Mean
1.7333
Std. Deviation
.73968
TM2
30
1.00
4.00
1.9333
.94443
TM3
30
1.00
4.00
1.7333
.78492
TM4
30
1.00
4.00
1.5667
.81720
TM5
30
1.00
3.00
1.5000
.57235
Valid N (listwise)
30
64
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
Appendix G
Curriculum Vitae
DAYO, JEAN CLAUD T.
BLOCK 37 LOT 21, FAMELA STREET, ZONE 6, SOUTH SIGNAL
VILLAGE, TAGUIG CITY 1630
jeanclauddayo@gmail.com – 09260446308
PERSONAL INFORMATION
___________________________________________________
Age:
22 years old
Date of Birth:
March 22, 1999
Place of Birth:
Culasi, Antique
Height:
170 cm
Weight:
70 kg
Gender:
Male
Civil Status:
Single
Religion:
Roman Catholic
Nationality:
Filipino
OBJECTIVES
________________________________________________________________
An enthusiastic Deck Cadet and eager to contribute to team success through hard work, attention to
detail and excellent organizational skills. I have a clear understanding of every tasks to do and proficient
in doing it and has completed designated required training as a Deck Cadet and as an aspiring future
officer. I am very much motivated to learn, grow and excel in maritime industry and will surely exert
my best in everything that I do.
65
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
EDUCATION
_________________________________________________________________
Tertiary
Asian Institute of Maritime Studies, Pasay City
Completed Academic Requirements in Marine Transportation
(July 2018 – October 2021)
Secondary
MCA Montessori School
June 2016 – April 2018
Elementary
Malalison Elementary School
June 2007 – March 2012
TRAININGS
__________________________________________________________________
•
•
•
•
•
Ship’s Familiarization – May 2019
Ship Security Awareness Training and Seafarers with Designated Security Duties
(SDSD) – November 2019
Basic Training (BT) – March 2021
Proficiency in Survival Craft and Rescue Boats (PSCRB) – August 2021
MARPOL Consolidated – August 2021
I hereby certify that the above information is true and correct to the best of my knowledge
and ability.
———————————
JEAN CLAUD T. DAYO
66
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
BORINAGA, QUIEL ANDRES G.
2422, A. Cuenca St., Brgy. 69, Pasay City 1300
borinagaquiel@gmail.com - 09610684683
PERSONAL INFORMATION
Age:
21 years old
Date of Birth:
April 26, 2000
Place of Birth:
Gamay, Northern Samar
Height:
171 cm
Weight:
70 kg
Gender:
Male
Civil Status:
Single
Religion:
Roman Catholic
Citizenship:
Filipino
OBJECTIVES
________________________________________________________________
To obtain a position that would allow me to further develop my knowledge and abilities in
order to become more professionally competitive and capable, as well as gain practical
experience for my personal and professional growth in order to be more effective in your firm.
Ability to perform well in a team setting.
EDUCATION
_________________________________________________________________
Tertiary
Asian Institute of Maritime Studies, Pasay City
Completed Academic Requirements in Marine Transportation
(July 2018 – October 2021)
67
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
Secondary
Liceo del Verbo Divino
June 2016 – April 2018
Elementary
Dao Elementary School
June 2007 – March 2012
TRAININGS
__________________________________________________________________
•
Ship’s Familiarization – May 2019
•
Ship Security Awareness Training and Seafarers with Designated Security Duties
(SDSD) – November 2019
•
Basic Training (BT) – March 2021
•
Proficiency in Survival Craft and Rescue Boats (PSCRB) – August 2021
•
MARPOL Consolidated – September 2021
I hereby certify that the above information is true and correct to the best of my knowledge
and ability.
———————————
QUIEL ANDRES G. BORINAGA
68
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
CUSTODIO, EXELL REY E.
32 BLOCK 3 LOT 16, GOODHAVEN 3 MASAYA STREET,
BRGY. GULOD, NOVALICHES, QUEZON CITY 1117
exellcustodio@gmail.com – 09062456501
PERSONAL INFORMATION
___________________________________________________________________________
Age:
22 years old
Date of Birth:
July 23, 1999
Place of Birth:
Batangas City
Height:
175 cm
Weight:
74 kg
Gender:
Male
Civil Status:
Single
Religion:
Roman Catholic
Nationality:
Filipino
OBJECTIVES
___________________________________________________________________________
To be given the opportunity to be accepted in your cadetship program where I can utilize and contribute
my knowledge and skills. To give my highest standard of discipline, professionalism, excellent service,
good moral character and performance management to your company.
EDUCATION
___________________________________________________________________________
Tertiary
Asian Institute of Maritime Studies, Pasay City
Completed Academic Requirements in Marine Transportation
(July 2018 – October 2021)
69
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
Secondary
Integrated School of Science, Pasay City
June 2016 – April 2018
Elementary
Saint Patrick School of Novaliches
June 2007 – March 2012
TRAININGS
___________________________________________________________________________
•
•
•
•
•
Ship’s Familiarization – May 2019
Ship Security Awareness Training and Seafarers with Designated Security Duties
(SDSD) – November 2019
Basic Training (BT) – March 2021
Proficiency in Survival Craft and Rescue Boats (PSCRB) – August 2021
MARPOL Consolidated – August 2021
I hereby certify that the above information is true and correct to the best of my knowledge
and ability.
———————————
EXELL REY E. CUSTODIO
70
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
CRUZ, CYRUS KENT O.
8487 CRUZ COMPOUND, SANTO NIÑO, PARAÑAQUE CITY
cyrus111999@gmail.com - 09395493873
PERSONAL INFORMATION
___________________________________________________________________________
Age:
21 years old
Date of Birth:
November 19, 1999
Place of Birth:
Atimonan, Quezon
Height:
165 cm
Weight:
65 kg
Gender:
Male
Civil Status:
Single
Religion:
Roman Catholic
Nationality:
Filipino
OBJECTIVES
___________________________________________________________________________
Hardworking and competitive deck cadet who can work under pressure. Looking to further my
knowledge and skills to become professionally capable with practical experiences for my
personal and professional growth. Very much motivated to give my highest standard of
discipline and good moral character.
EDUCATION
___________________________________________________________________________
Tertiary
Asian Institute of Maritime Studies, Pasay City
Completed Academic Requirements in Marine Transportation
(July 2018 – October 2021)
71
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES
Secondary
Olivarez College Parañaque
April 2018
Elementary
Santo Niño Elementary School
April 2012
TRAININGS
___________________________________________________________________________
•
•
•
•
•
Ship’s Familiarization – May 2019
Ship Security Awareness Training and Seafarers with Designated Security Duties
(SDSD) – November 2019
Basic Training (BT) – March 2021
Proficiency in Survival Craft and Rescue Boats (PSCRB) – August 2021
MARPOL Consolidated – August 2021
I hereby certify that the above information is true and correct to the best of my knowledge
and ability.
———————————
CYRUS KENT O. CRUZ
72
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