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ensc cards

6 human health issues caused by organic compounds 1. lethality<br>2. cancer<br>3. respiratory disease<br>4. reproductive damage<br>5. birth defects<br>6. neurotoxic effect
what are the 6 main factors that impact toxicity?1. does<br>2. exposure period<br>3. mixtures<br>4. age<br>5. genetic make up<br>6. diet
what are the two types of evidence for human health issues?1. human based evidence<br>2. laboratory studies
what is a carcinogen?substance that causes new or autonomous growth of tissues
neoplasmlesion resulting from growth
IARC category 1carcinogenic to humans
IARC category 2probably carcinogenic
IARC category 3possibly carcinogenic
IARC category 4not classifiable
IARC category 5probably not carcinogenic
what are three possible sources of benzo(a)pyrene?fossil fuel, forest fires, and charred meat
source of benzeneindustrial solvent used in production of drugs, plastics, gas, sunthetic rubbers, and dyes
what are the 3 main side effects of acute benzene exposure?dizziness, headache, confusion
what are the side effects of chronic benzene exposure?leukemia and asplatic anemia
aflotoxin B1produced by fungus, when ingested can cause liver cancer
what is an organic teratogen?substance that causes birth defects
3 examples of organic teratogens- benzo(a)pyrene<br>- pesticides<br>- PBDEs
what happens in male reproductive toxicity?reduced sperm count and sperm quality
what happens in female reproductive toxicity?breast cancer, endometriosis, clear cell carcinoma
what was the purpose of diethylstilbestrol (DBES) and its actual effects?given to women from 1940-1971 to reduce risk of miscarriage but caused clear cell carcinoma in their daughters
what are four ways endocrine disrupters exert their influence?1. mimick effect of endogenous hormones<br>2. antagonize effects of endogenous hormones<br>3. alter pattern of synthesis and metabolism of hormones<br>4. modify hormone receptor levels
what IARC category is bisphenol A?category 3
what is BPAplastic used in packaging 
persistance of organophosphate pesticides"low to moderate, won't bioaccumulate"
type A organophosphate pesticideused in controlled releases, intermediate toxicity
type B organophosphate pesticidemostly phased out, very toxic and not very selective
type C organophosphate pesticidein wide use, low toxicity, more toxic to insects but suspected to have long term health effects
mechanism of action of organophosphate pesticidesremoves acethycholine neurotransmitter after nerve signal, preventing synapse reset and thus causing paralysis
what is a better approach to pesticides?pyrethrins because they have low toxicity to humans
where are pyrethrins isolated from?crysanthemum
pyrethrin mode of actioninhibit sodium channel
what is the mode of action and use of atrazines?interfere with photosystem II, used to control weeds
persistance of atrazine"moderatly water soluble, doesn't bioconcentrate<br>- persistant in soil and water"
what is PBO?PBO is an example of a synergist which helps boost selective toxicity of pyrethrins
what plants do 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T target?they are selectively toxic for dicotyledon plants, leaving grass unaffected
toxicity, persistance, and solubility of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-Tlow toxicity to humans<br>not persistent in soil and water<br>they are soluble in soil and water
mechanism of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-Tmimic auxin which is produced by dicot plants to control side branch growth
what is the product of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T being mixed together?agent orange which is a military and industrial defoliant
what is the target of glyphophosphate?all plants, inhibits shikimic acid synthesis pathway
solubility, persistence, and toxicity of glyphophosphatewater soluble<br>non-persistent<br>low toxicity to humans
what is the use of neoncotinoid pesticides?they protect seeds and crops against insect pests
Essential Elementsabsolute requirements in relatively large amounts for most living organisms (N, Ca, Na, P, K)
Essential Trace Elementsneeded in small amounts, often enzymatic function, essential for health but some are toxic at certain concentrations (Cu, Se, Zn)
Elements with no Known Biological Function often toxic no matter the concentration (lead, mercury)
4 sources of exposure to metals1. weathering of geological deposits into soil, water, air<br>2. medicinal or pest control use<br>3. dietary and cultural exposure<br>4. pollution and/or mobilization 
where are there the highest concentrations of zincblack shale (1500mg/kg)
how does mining effect toxicity? when rocks are crushed it exposes the metal to oxygen and water, releasing them and allowing them to become toxic
explain speciation of metalsreferes to the chemical form or valence of the metal and affects toxicity 
where can lead be found naturally?in soil, water, and rocks at low concentrations
why is lead useful?its dense, malleable and does not corrode
5 sources of exposure to lead1. lead additives in gasoline<br>2. tetraethyl lead when burned in engines<br>3. paint in older homes<br>4. old water pipes and lead-based solder<br>5. ammunition
what are the risks related to lead?can cause neuro damage in young children, leading to developmental problems
what is bioaccessibility?proportion of a chemical that is soluble in bodily fluids
what technology allows for ppt detection of organic contaminants?liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (LCMS)
what does PPCP stand for?pharmaceuticals and personal care products
what are the effects of the many drugs found in the great lakes?intersex fish due to males developing eggs in their testes
primary stage of wastewater treatmentphysical separation of oil and grease
secondary stage of wastewater treatment treatment with bacteria to biodegrade contaminants
what is the goal of wastewater treatment?reduce oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients, etc
what are the limitations of secondary wastewater treatment?treatment was not designed for these kinds of compounds and some compounds are metabolized by the bacteria
what is the proposed solution to PCPP exposure in water?"use the minimum therapeutic dose as ""acceptable level"" of PCPP in water"
what is the tertiary step of the wastewater treatment process?targets PCPPs and can include chemical processes and advanced filtration
what are two examples of radiation disasters?chernobyl (included iodine and cerium)<br>fukushima daiichi (hydrogen exploosions caused by earthquake and tsunami)
alpha particlescollide with matter and lose their energy quickly, only a concern if inhaled or ingested
beta particleselectrons, penetrated 1-2cm of water/human flesh
neutronsgenerated from splitting atoms in nuclear reactors, penetrate the furthest
gamma raysenergy transmitted in a wave, penetrate greater than alpha and beta particles
x-rayssimilar to gamma except artificially produced
explain how natural radioactivity occursmost elements comprise a mix of isotopes, some of which are unstable 
isotopesvariants of elements which have a different number of neutrons, same number of protons
what is radon?a radioactive gas found naturally in the environment produced by the decay of uranium in soil, rock, and water
how does radon decay work?can enter the home and decay, decay continues when inhaled and emits alpha particles that damage lung tissue
radiotherapyused to treat cancer using radiation to damage DNA
use of iodine-131used for imaging and treatment of thyroid cancer
nuclear weaponsmanufacturing, testing, use
nuclear power productionmining, uranium fuel fabrication, waste storage amid disposal
what are 5 examples of manufactured sources of radiation1. xrays<br>2. radiotherapy<br>3. iodine-131<br>4. nuclear weapons<br>5. nuclear power production
explain the effects of tines capitis irridationused in the early 1900s to treat ringworm in the scalp of children until seen that it caused cancer
what are the three forms of natural chemical hazardsgeological<br>weather<br>biological
what are 5 examples of geological chemical hazards1. earthquakes<br>2. volcano<br>3. landslide<br>4. natural radiation<br>5. natural elements (arsenic, radon, uranium)
what are examples of weather chemical hazards?hurricane, tornado, wildfire, avalanche
primary hazard of volcanodirect contact with the eruption and its material
secondary hazard of volcanoeseffects that arise from products or derivatives of the eruption<br>--> landslides, ice melting, climate change, production of sulfuric acid
describe the effects of forest firesrelease CO2, methane, NO, smoke and aerosol which trap and block sunlight
what 4 factors determine the concentration of a toxin in a plant?age, climate, soil, and genetic differences within a species
give two examples of plants that have toxic effectsstrychnine: neurotoxin that causes powerful convulsions, used as a pesticide<br>ricin: water soluble and when ingested causes severe GI symptoms followed by vascular collapse and death due to inhibition of protein synthesis
give an example of a herbal medicinethe plant foxglove produces digoxin which helps to strenghten heart contractions, and inhibits sodium/potassium pump to increase Ca<br>- side effects incude nausea loss of appetite and vision, and vomit
give three examples of bacterial toxins1. botulism<br>2. anthrax<br>3. diphteria
dexcribe botulism toxinsources can be foodborne or wound and interferes with ACTH release, disrupting nerve impulses
describe diphteria toxininhibits ability to synthesize new proteins, causes upper respiratory tract illness
describe anthrax toxinoccurs mainly in wild and domestic animals and humans can become infected when in contact with animal<br>- in an inactive form until ingested
describe fungal toxinsderived from mushrooms and known to have a hallucinogenic effect<br>- main one if aflatoxin
describe aflatoxinfungal toxin found in corn, peanuts, and cotton seed that can cause necrosis and cancer in animals
what are ergot alkaloids?produced by the fungue claviceps purpurea and can infect grass, grain and rye<br>- produces the myotoxin ergotoxine the causes convulsions, nausea, vomit, hallucinations, and gangrene
explain the effects of venomproteolytic enzymes, blood coagulation, cardiac and pulmonary dynamics, and destabilization of cell membranes
how do puffer fish have a toxic effect?release tetradodoxin which causes paralysis by releasing neurotoxins into the synapse
what is domoic acid?produced by algae and causes neurotransmission-memory loss, coma, seizures, and often found in shellfish due to bioaccumulation
domoic acid has a similar structure to which amino acid?glutamic acid