Assignment no.2 Submitted By: Hadeed Shabir Submitted To: MS. Rabia Topic: Network Topologies Roll No: 21102001-073 What is network topology and types of Network Topology? Network: A network contains of many devices that connect with one another. Network topology Topology is coming about because of two Greek words topo and logy, any place topo signifies 'place' and logy signifies 'study'. In PC organizations, a geography is utilized to explain how an organization is truly associated and the consistent progression of data in the organization. A topology for the most part characterizes how gadgets are associated and network with one another utilizing correspondence joins. Topology have six types in computer network 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Bus Topology Tree Topology Mesh Topology Star Topology Hybrid Topology Ring Topology Now am explain network topology one by one Bus Topology: Bus topology is the handiest form of topology wherein a not unusual place bus or channel is used for conversation with inside the network. The bus is hooked up to diverse faucets and drop lines. Taps are the connectors, at the same time as drop lines are the cables connecting the bus with the computer. In different words, there's most effective a unmarried transmission line for all nodes While a sender sends a message, all other computers can listen it, however most effective the receiver accepts it (verifying the mac cope with attached with the information body) and others reject it. Bus era is especially proper for small networks like lan, and many others. On this topology, the bus acts as the backbone of the network, which joins each pc and peripherals inside the community. Each end of the shared channel has line terminators. The data is dispatched only in a single route and as quickly as it reaches the give up, the terminator gets rid of the statistics from the communication line (to prevent signal bounce and data float. Advantages of Bus Topology 7. Simple to use and install. 8. If a node fails, it will not affect other nodes. 9. Less cabling is required. Cost-efficient to implement. Disadvantage of Bus Topology 10. Efficiency is less when nodes are more(strength of signal decreases). 11. If the bus fails, the network will fail. 12. A limited number of nodes can connect to the bus due to limited bus length. 13. Security issues and risks are more as messages are broadcasted to all nodes. Congestion and traffic on the bus as it is the only source of communication. Tree Topology Tree topology is a PC people group geography wherein every one of the hubs are without a moment's delay or by implication connected with the essential transport link. Tree geography is a total of transport and large name geography. In a tree topology, the entire local area is parted into portions, which might be without issues controlled and kept up with. There's an excellent center point and every one of the different sub-center points are associated with each other in this topology. Advantages of Network Topology 1. Large distance network coverage. 2. Fault finding is easy by checking each hierarchy. 3. Least or no data loss. 4. A Large number of nodes can be connected directly or indirectly. Other hierarchical networks are not affected if one of them fails. Disadvantages of Network Topology 1. Cabling and hardware cost is high. 2. Complex to implement. 3. Hub cabling is also required. 4. A large network using tree topology is hard to manage. 5. It requires very high maintenance. 6. If the main bus fails, the network will fail. Mesh Topology: A mesh network (or simply meshnet) is a local network topology in which the infrastructure nodes (i.e. bridges, switches, and other infrastructure devices) connect directly, dynamically and non-hierarchically to as many other nodes as possible and cooperate with one another to efficiently route data from/to clients. This lack of dependency on one node allows for every node to participate in the relay of information. Mesh networks dynamically self-organize and self-configure, which can reduce installation overhead. The ability to self-configure enables dynamic distribution of workloads, particularly in the event a few nodes should fail. This in turn contributes to fault-tolerance and reduced maintenance costs. There are mainly two types of Mesh: 1. Full Mesh: In which each node is connected to every other node in the network. 2. Partial Mesh: In which, some nodes are not connected to every node in the network. Advantages of Mesh Topology 1. Dedicated links facilitate direct communication. 2. No congestion or traffic problems on the channels. 3. Good Fault tolerance due to the dedicated path for each node. 4. Very fast communication. 5. Maintains privacy and security due to a separate channel for communication. Disadvantages of Mesh Topology 1. Very high cabling required. 2. Cost inefficient to implement. 3. Complex to implement and takes large space to install the network. 4. Installation and maintenance are very difficult. Star Topology: Star topology is a network topology in which each network component is physically connected to a central node such as a router, hub or switch. In a star topology, the central hub acts like a server and the connecting nodes act like clients. When the central node receives a packet from a connecting node, it can pass the packet on to other nodes in the network. A star topology is also known as a star network. Advantages of Star Topology 1. Centralized control. 2. Less Expensive. 3. Easy to troubleshoot(the faulty node does not give response). 4. Good fault tolerance due to centralized control on nodes. 5. Easy to scale(nodes can be added or removed to the network easily) Disadvantages of Star Topology 1. If the central device fails, the network will fail. 2. The number of devices in the network is limited(due to limited input-output port in a central device). Hybrid Topology: It is the combination of two or more different topologies. For example, in a college we have so many departments, let us say one department uses ring topology and another department uses Star topology, connecting these two topologies which results in Hybrid Topology. Advantages of Hybrid Topology 1. It can handle a large volume of nodes. 2. It provides flexibility to modify the network according to our needs. 3. Very Reliable(if one node fails it will not affect the whole network). Disadvantages of Hybird Topology 1. Complex design. 2. Expensive to implement. 3. Multi-Station Access Unit(MSAL) required. Ring Topology: A ring topology is a network configuration where device connections create a circular data path. Each networked device is connected to two others, like points on a circle. Together, devices in a ring topology are referred to as a ring network. In a ring network, packets of data travel from one device to the next until they reach their destination. Advantages of Ring Topology 1. Easy Installation. 2. Less Cabling Required. 3. Reduces chances of data collision(unidirectional). 4. Easy to troubleshoot(the faulty node does not pass the token). 5. Each node gets the same access time. Disadvantages of Ring Topology 1. If a node fails, the whole network will fail. 2. Slow data transmission speed(each message has to go through the ring path). 3. Difficult to reconfigure(we have to break the ring).