Ablaza, Jan Lloyd Vergara BSMA 1A PHILIPPINE HISTORY CHARTER 1 Exercises A: True or False 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. True False True False False False True False False 10. False Exercises B: What Source? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Primary because the old photograph that he saw is original object. Secondary because the book is a draw conclusion from a primary source. Tertiary because the textbook are compiled from other sources. Primary because the sculpture of “The Golden Tara” is original object. Tertiary because the travel brochure that she get is a compiled from other sources. CHAPTER 2 Exercises A: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. False True False True True False False True True 10. True Exercise B: The First Voyage Around the World by Magellan by Antonio Pigafetta The first globe circumnavigation, as described by Antonio Pigafetta, was one of the most significant successes in the history of navy exploration and discovery. He was an important part of one of the most incredible global exploration journeys. The record gives various insights not only about the precolonial character of the Philippines, but also into how European eyes view a deeply unknown landscape, environment, people, and culture. According to the arts and culture Antonio Pigafetta was a scholar and explorer from Italy. He took part in the expedition to the Spice Islands conducted by explorer Ferdinand Magellan under the leadership of Emperor Charles V, as well as the subsequent voyage around the world after Magellan's death in the Philippine Islands. During the trip, he supported Magellan and kept a detailed journal, which eventually helped him translate the Cebuano language. It is the earliest written record of the language. Despite its tendency to include fantastic details, Pigafetta's report is the single most valuable source about the circumnavigation journey. Pigaffetta was regarded as a reliable source for a period which has previously remained unreported and unchronicled. The earliest comprehensive documentation. Pigafetta's writings were thought to represent the "purest" precolonial culture. Pigaffetta regarded indigenous belief systems and ways of life to be inferior to Christianity and the European way of life. As stated in the Philippine diary project Antonio Pigafetta's report of the Philippines was the first detailed and descriptive account of the people, their lives, and the geographic data he gathered. Pigafetta's work is significant not just as a source of information on the voyage, but also as a first Western description of the Philippines' people and languages. And it is one of the most cited documents by historians who wished to research the precolonial Philippines. The KKK and the "Kartilya ng Katipunan" This document explains how Filipinos came together to work together effectively or citizens to attack the Spaniards. The truth of the matter is, Filipinos are able to unite, and they stand up and fight the colonizers to take back their land, even if the risk is high. They will fight for independence for the sake of everyone, including those who have given their lives for our country's freedom. The purpose of Katipunan's kartilya is to educate Filipinos' minds to care about their country and respect individuals. According to bayani art, he enrolled a private school for his primary education, Colegio de San Juan de Letran for his secondary education and college, and The University of Santo Tomas for his law studies Emilio Jacinto dropped out of college at the age of 20. According to Philippine history source material, he joined the Katipunan, a secret revolutionary society. He also became the society's chief advisor on fiscal matters, and he was named the "Utak ng Katipunan." The Kartilya ng Katipunan served as a rulebook for the group's new recruits, detailing out the group's regulations and beliefs. The Kataas-taasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng Mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK) was a revolutionary group that campaigned for democracy and liberty for the Philippines through the use of force. Katipuneros' acts were guided by the Kartilya, a moral and intellectual foundation. Members of the Katipunan were required to read the Kartilya and follow its code of conduct upon joining. As stated in the Philippine Folk Life Museum the principles and philosophical basis of our people, the Filipinos, are the document's contribution to Philippine history. Our heroes' mental capability to fight those with better education was demonstrated by the fact that they had a goal and set of rules, evidently a work of intelligence. The document also demonstrated that Filipinos are dignified and treat everyone fairly. They battled for our independence with awe. Proclamation of the Philippine Independence The day when the Philippines achieved independence is recognized as the height of patriotism, and June 12 symbolizes a completely independent Philippines. On June 12, 1898, the Philippines declared independence, making them the first free and united nation in colonial Asia. President Emilio Aguinaldo declared the Philippines' independence from Spanish colonial control in Cavite el Viejo (Kawit), Cavite, during this period. This was also the first public performance of the Philippine National Anthem and the first public display of the Philippine flag. Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, lawyer and confidante of General Emilio Aguinaldo, was born on this day in Philippine history, December 7, 1830, in Bian, Laguna. Bautista was the author of the "Act of Declaration of Philippine Independence," which was arrested and imprisoned at the start of the Revolution. He was also the one who read the declaration at General Aguinaldo's proclamation of independence in Kawit, Cavite, on June 12, 1898. Bautista, who also served as the revolutionary government's solicitor general, died on December 4, 1903, at the age of 72 according to Arts and Culture After Spain was defeated at the Battle of Manila Bay during the SpanishAmerican War, Filipino revolutionary forces led by General Emilio Aguinaldo (later to become the Philippines' first Republican President) declared the Philippines' sovereignty and independence from Spanish colonial rule in the Declaration of Independence. The statement was not recognized by the US or Spain because the Spanish government surrendered the Philippines to the US in the 1898 Treaty of Paris in exchange for a settlement for Spanish expenses and assets lost. As stated in the Cebu Daily News President Diosdado Macapagal issued a presidential proclamation declaring June 12 as the country's day of independence in 1962. Republic Act No. 4166, passed in 1964, further solidified the date shift. Macapagal stated that a country's independence should not be recognized by any other country but itself. The revolution, which ended on June 12, 1898, was Asia's first successful national revolution since the arrival of the West, and the Republic it created was the world's first democratic republic outside the Western hemisphere. A Glance at Selected Philippine Political Caricature in Alfred McCoy's Philippine Cartoons: Political Caricature of the American Era (1900-1941) This marking the beginning of a more open and free press. Filipinos from various social classes experienced the post-independence and post-FilipinoAmerican periods in the Philippines in different ways. The cartoons also depicted the suffering of underprivileged Filipinos in the Philippines, which is currently administered by the US. There doesn't appear to be much of a difference. Professor Alfred W. McCoy of the University of Wisconsin in Madison has published numerous articles on Philippine politics, opium trafficking in the Golden Triangle, underground crime syndicates, and international political surveillance. His 1972 book The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia, which detailed the CIA's involvement in heroin manufacture in the Golden Triangle of Burma, Thailand, and Laos, is perhaps his most well-known work as stated in Academia. The chosen cartoons depict not only the viewpoints of various media outlets on Philippine society during the American period, but also a wide picture of society and politics in the United States. In politics, for example, we can observe the cost that Filipinos paid for a democracy modeled after the United States. To begin with, it appeared that Filipino politicians at the time lacked a clear understanding of the nature of democracy, as well as the associated democratic institutions and processes. According to the Visualizing Culture the cartoons, apart from lengthy written editorials and opinion articles, were an efficient medium for promoting viewpoints through significant use of symbolism. For historians, the unique way a caricature communicates thought and grabs the audience's imagination is reason enough to investigate these political cartoons. Public opinion is inevitably shaped by media commentary, and this type of opinion is worthy of historical study. Corazon Aquino's Speech Before the US Congress Maria Corazon "Cory" Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino was a Filipino politician who served as the country's 11th President, making her the first woman to do everything. Corazon Aquino was the most visible character in the 1986 People Power Revolution, which overthrew President Ferdinand Marcos' 21-year dictatorship. Cory's speech was about the Filipino people's battles throughout the Marcos era and how they earned the country's freedom; democracy. It was a speech to the joint assembly of the United States Congress in which she requested international assistance. Secretary Teodoro L. Locsin, Jr. is a lawyer by profession and a journalist by trade. He has a Master of Laws from Harvard Law School and has worked as a publisher, editorial writer, co-anchor and host for a number of national broadsheets, radio and TV news shows. He served as a professor at the US National Defense College for a short time. President Corazon Aquino's legal counsel and speechwriter, as well as Presidents Joseph Estrada and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's as stated in Tokyo Philippine Embassy. Cory was quite satisfied to live in the shadow of her popular husband for the first 50 years of her life, and she had no need or desire to speak publicly about anything. But Ninoy was the most visible victim of an oppressive administration when she was assassinated in August 1983. She began to share her suffering and, before long, she was comfortable discussing topics such as freedom, democracy, spirituality, and People Power. According to Women History Cory's Speech before the United States Congress is a composition written by Cory. One of the most contentious issues in our country was Congress. This was utilized as a reference for future generations to learn about what happened during the Marcos-Aquino administration. The Filipino people's sufferings, particularly Ninoy's, were expressed in her speech, in which she detailed and publicized how difficult Ninoy's daily life was while he was imprisoned and oppressed. Cory's speech is also a component for people to comprehend how the Filipino people won democracy with her as a leader in terms of having freedom. CHAPTER 3 Exercise A: True or False 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. True True True True True True False False True 10. True Exercise B: 1. The role of Balanggiga Bells in local history is to give a memory to the Filipinos who died in the battle against American soldiers. 2. The Bells taken by American soldiers to give a memorial in honor of their soldiers who were killed at the time. 3. There is a need for the Bells returned according to the Philippine Government is to "heal the wounds" left by the 1901 incident. 4. Yes, I agree to the decision of the Government to reclaim the Bells because this Bells symbolizes the bravery and love for the country of the Filipinos who died in fighting to the American soldiers. And they are part of our national heritage. CHAPTER 4 Exercise A: True or False 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. False False True True False True False True True CONSTITUTION Malolos Constitution Philippine Organic Act of 1902 FORM OF RATIFYING/ LENGTH OF DISTINCTIVE GOVETNMENT PROMULGATING EFFECTIVITY FEATURES BODY Unitary SemiJanuary It had a Presidential Malolos Congress 23,1899 to government Constitutional March 23, that oversaw Republic 1901 social services, education, the formation of an army, the establishment of a monetary system, and diplomatic activity. Filipinos’ core civil rights were emphasized. Temporary Bicameral 1902-1916 The first Civil Legislature organic law Government for the for the Islands Philippine islands that provided for the creation of a popularly Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916 Unitary Presidential Republic Senate and House of Representatives 1916 1935 Constitution Presidential Commonwealth Approved by US President Franklin Roosevelt and ratified by Filipino people in a plebiscite. November 15, 1935 to July 4, 1946 1943 Constitution Single Party Authoritarian Republic Philippine Committee for Independence October 14,1943 to August 17, 1945 elected Philippine Assembly. Jones Act replaced the Commission with an elective Senate and, qualifications, extended the franchise to all literate Filipino males. For the first time, women were granted the ability to vote and participate in Philippine politics, as well as the establishment of the Philippine Armed Forces for national defense and the development of the national language. The 1943 Constitution was basically a condensed version of the 1935 Constitution consisting only of a preamble and 12 articles. It was transitory in nature as it was only effective during the duration of the war. It created a republic with three offices (executive, legislative, and judicial) but owing to the war, no legislature was convened. Instead, the powers of government were concentrated with the President. The Bill of Rights basically enumerated the citizen's duties and obligations rather than their constitutional rights and Tagalog was declared the 1973 Constitution Martial Law 1973 Constitutional Convention January 17, 1973 to February 22, 1986 1987 Constitution Democratic Government Philippine Constitutional Plebiscite, 1987 February 2, 1987 to Present national language. The Batasang Pambansa defeated legislative power. The Civil Service Commission, the Commission on the Elections, and the Commission on Audit were all established under the Constitution. The Philippine government is led by a president who is supported by a bicameral legislature and an independent judiciary. Every Filipino citizen’s Bill of Rights has been amended. Recognition of Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras as autonomous regions suggested constitutional revisions to the 1987 Constitution. 10. True 1. Why is a constitution considered as the “fundamental law of land”? -Because it is the source of legislation in our country, the constitution is considered as a fundamental law of the land. When both members of Congress and the President of the Philippines approve them, they become law. And all of the laws that have been passed must articulate and comply with the Constitution's provisions and ideals. Any choice taken by a single member would have to take the society's best interests into account. 2. Is a constitution vital in a country? -Yes, the constitution is important in a country since it is a written instrument that gives various legal bodies power. It is also the people's protector. It guarantees that individuals who make choices on behalf of the people fairly represent public opinion. It also provides us with rights and protections to ensure our safety and dignity.