# Assignment Question Paper

```EE038-4-3-FLM
Individual Assignment
Page 1 of 5
Fluid Mechanics
Instructions
1. This assignment is to be carried out individually.
Learning Outcomes
ON COMPLETION OF THIS ASSIGNMENT YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO
DEMONSTRATE THE FOLLOWING LEARNING OUTCOMES:
LO1: Evaluate fluid mechanics principles to perform relevant calculations (C5, PLO4)
PLO4: Ability to investigate complex engineering problems using research techniques.
No.
Assessment
Question
Cognitive Level
1 2
LO1
1
POM
APU Level 3
3
4
5
100m
100%
Question vs. Taxonomy
Psychomotor Level
6
1 2 3
4
Affective
Level
5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5
Asia Pacific University of Technology &amp; Innovation
20220201
EE038-4-3-FLM
Individual Assignment
Page 2 of 5
A. Fluid Flow Visualization
Fluid flow visualization is the art of making flow patterns visible. Most fluids (air, water,
etc.) are transparent, thus their flow patterns are invisible to the naked eye without methods to
make them this visible. Historically, such methods included experimental methods. With the
development of computer models and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulating flow
processes (e.g. the distribution of air-conditioned air in a new car), purely computational
methods have been developed.
In experimental fluid dynamics, flows are visualized by three methods:
1. Surface flow visualization: This reveals the flow streamlines in the limit as a solid surface
is approached. Colored oil applied to the surface of a wind tunnel model provides one
example (the oil responds to the surface shear stress and forms a pattern).
2. Particle tracer methods: Particles, such as smoke or microspheres, can be added to a flow
to trace the fluid motion. The particles are illuminated with a sheet of laser light in order
to visualize a slice of a complicated fluid flow pattern.
3. Optical methods: Some flows reveal their patterns by way of changes in their optical
refractive index. These are visualized by optical methods known as the shadowgraph,
schlieren photography, and interferometry.
In scientific visualization flows are visualized with two main methods:
1. Analytical methods that analyse a given flow and show properties like streamlines,
streaklines, and pathlines. The flow can either be given in a finite representation or as a
smooth function.
2. Texture advection methods that &quot;bend&quot; textures (or images) according to the flow. As the
image is always finite (the flow through could be given as a smooth function), these
methods will visualize approximations of the real flow.
Streamlines, streaklines and pathlines are field lines in a fluid flow. They differ only when
the flow changes with time, that is, when the flow is not steady. Considering a velocity vector
field in three-dimensional space in the framework of continuum mechanics,

Streamlines are a family of curves that are instantaneously tangent to the velocity
vector of the flow. These show the direction in which a massless fluid element will
travel at any point in time.

Streaklines are the loci of points of all the fluid particles that have passed
continuously through a particular spatial point in the past. Dye steadily injected into
the fluid at a fixed point extends along a streakline.
APU Level 3
Asia Pacific University of Technology &amp; Innovation
20220201
EE038-4-3-FLM

Individual Assignment
Page 3 of 5
Pathlines are the trajectories that individual fluid particles follow. These can be
thought of as &quot;recording&quot; the path of a fluid element in the flow over a certain period.
The direction the path takes will be determined by the streamlines of the fluid at each
moment in time.
B. Objective
To evaluate the visualization effects of streamlines, streaklines and pathlines.
C. Analyses Requirement
Students are required to evaluate the visualization effects of streamlines, streaklines and
pathlines based on following two dimensional velocity field equation
⃑ = (𝑢̅, 𝑣̅ ) = (0.6 + 0.8𝑥)𝑖 + (1.6 + 2.5𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜔𝑡) − 0.8𝑦)𝑗
𝑉
Where the angular velocity,  is equal to 2, 0 &lt; x &lt; 5 m, - 1 m &lt; y &lt; 5 m and 0 &lt; t &lt; 2 s.
Other required parameters should be assumed appropriately and justified from the complex
engineering perspectives.
D. Report Writing
A written report is required to be submitted. The report has to be neatly typed up with no
hand-drawn figures or hand written equations. Figures that are taken using digital camera and
reproduced in the report are strictly not allowed. The report should include, but not be limited
to the following chapters:
1. Flow visualization methods
2. Determination of streamlines, pathlines and streaklines
3. Evaluation of the visualizations.
4. Discussion
5. Conclusion
E. Tutor Assessment
Students are required to do a short presentation of your investigation and have a question and
answer (Q&amp;A) session with the lecturer before the report is submitted.
APU Level 3
Asia Pacific University of Technology &amp; Innovation
20220201
EE038-4-3-FLM
Individual Assignment
Page 4 of 5
Criteria

Flow Visualization
Methods
(15%)
[LO1-PO4]


Determine
streamlines, pathlines
and streaklines with
unclear assumptions.


Evaluate briefly
streamlines, pathlines
and streaklines
according to their
differences.


Appraisal done on the
results obtained and
identified the main
ideas with very poor
discussion.

Determination of
streamlines,
pathlines and
streaklines
(30%)
[LO1-PO4]
Evaluation of the
Visualizations
(20%)
[LO1-PO4]
Discussion
(10%)
[LO1-PO4]
Fail
Explain with very poor
and unrelated facts on
the visualization
methods.
APU Level 3
Marginal Fail
Explain with poor
facts
the
visualization methods
and barely related to
the
appropriate
engineering principles
associated with the
method.
Determine
streamlines, pathlines
and streaklines
without proper
assumptions.

Pass
the
visualization
methods and related to
appropriate
engineering principles
associated with the
methods generally.

Credit
Explain sufficiently
all the visualization
methods and related to
the appropriate
engineering principles
associated with
methods.
Distinction

Explain in detail all
the
visualization
methods and related to
the
appropriate
engineering principles
associated with the
process accurately.

Determine
streamlines, pathlines
and streaklines
according to proper
assumptions with
justifications based on
complex engineering
considerations.
Evaluate streamlines,
pathlines and
streaklines according
to their differences,
visualizing complex
engineering fluid
flow.
Appraisal done on the
results obtained and
identified the main
ideas with excellent
discussion.

Determine
streamlines, pathlines
and streaklines
according to proper
assumptions.

Determine
streamlines, pathlines
and streaklines
according to proper
assumptions with
justifications.
Evaluate streamlines,
pathlines and
streaklines according
to their differences.

Evaluate streamlines,
pathlines and
streaklines according
their differences,

Evaluate streamlines,
pathlines and
streaklines according
to their differences,
visualizing common
fluid flow problems.

Appraisal done on the
results obtained and
identified the main
idea with poor
discussion.

Appraisal done on the
results obtained and
identified the main
ideas with average
discussion.

Appraisal done on the
results obtained and
identified the main
ideas with good
discussion.

Asia Pacific University of Technology &amp; Innovation
20220201
EE038-4-3-FLM
Page 5 of 5

Evaluation outcomes
are not concluded or
not related as a
solution to the
complex engineering
problem.

Evaluation outcomes
are poorly concluded
as a solution to the
complex engineering
problem.

Evaluation outcomes
are concluded with
one or two pints as an
average solution to the
complex engineering
problem.

Evaluation outcomes
are sufficiently
concluded but some
points unrelated to the
solution to the
complex engineering
problem.

Evaluation outcomes
are accurately
concluded as a
solution to the
complex engineering
problem.

Evaluation outcomes 
are not presented,
explained and justified
as an appraisal to the
visualization methods.
Evaluation outcomes
are presented,
explained and justified
with poor ability to
provide as an appraisal
to the visualization
methods.

Evaluation outcomes
are presented,
explained and justified
with an average ability
to provide an appraisal
to the visualization
methods.

Evaluation outcomes
are presented,
explained and justified
with good ability to
provide as an appraisal
to the visualization
methods..

Evaluation outcomes
are presented,
explained and justified
with excellent ability
to provide as an
appraisal to the
visualization methods.
Conclusion
(5%)
[LO1-PO4]
Tutor Assessment
(20%)
[LO4-PO2]
Individual Assignment
APU Level 3
Asia Pacific University of Technology &amp; Innovation
20220201
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