GUNRAN, KEVIN CARLOS ECO22 BUSINESS LAW AND OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACT ACTIVITY #1 1. What is law? What are the general divisions of law? - Law is the system of rules which a particular country or community recognizes as regulating the actions of its members and which it may enforce by the imposition of penalties. The general divisions of law are the divine law and human law. By divine law is meant that in which God himself is the legislator who has promulgated the law. By human law is meant that which is promulgated by man to regulate human relations. 2. What are the concepts of law? explain each - These includes, right, duty, power, privilege, liability, and immunity. To understand the concept of 'rights' and 'duties', it is important to understand the meaning of the term 'legal concept'. A privilege is a legal rule that protects communications within certain relationships from compelled disclosure in a court proceeding. Liability, in law, a broad term including almost every type of duty, obligation, debt, responsibility, or hazard arising by way of contract, tort, or statute. In most countries, an individual may be held legally liable to another for acts or omissions and be required Legal immunity, or immunity from prosecution, is a legal status wherein an individual or entity cannot be held liable for a violation of the law, to facilitate societal aims that outweigh the value of imposing liability in such cases. 3. What are the characteristics of law? Explain the necessity and functions of law. - The characteristics of law are: It is a rule of conduct – Law tells us what shall be done and what shall not be done. As rule of human conduct, law takes cognizance of external acts only. It is obligatory – Law is considered as positive command imposing a duty to obey and involving a sanction which forces obedience. It is promulgated by legitimate authority – In a democratic country, like Philippines, the legitimate or competent authority is the legislature. Under the constitution, laws called “statutes” are enacted by Congress which is the name of the legislative branch of our government; local government units are also empowered to enact ordinances which have the binding force of laws. It is common observance and benefit – Law is intended by man to serve man. It regulates the relations of men to maintain harmony in society and to make order and co-existence possible. Law must, therefore, he observed by all for the benefit of all. - Necessity and functions of law What would life be without law? If we can answer this question, we can answer the more basic question of whether law is necessary. If life without law would be the same as it is now, obviously law is not necessary. Society comes into existence because its members could not live without it. The need for internal order is as constant as the need for external defense. No society can be stable in which either of these requirements fails to be provided for. What does law do? It has been said that law secures justice, resolves social conflict, orders society, protects interests, controls social relations. Life without basic laws against theft, violence, and destruction would be solitary, nasty, brutish, and short. Life without other laws such as those regulating traffic, sanitation, employment, business, redress of harm or of broken agreements, etc. - would be less orderly, less healthful, less wholesome, etc. What is our duty as members of society? No society can last and continue without means of social control, without rules of social order binding on its members. The sum of such rules as existing in each society, under whatever forms, is what, in common speech, we understand by law or is also referred to as the legal system. Since we find law necessary, every citizen should have some understanding of law and observe it for the common good. 4. What are the sources of law? - The principal sources of law in the Philippines are the Constitution, legislation, administrative rules and relations, judicial decisions, and customs. 5. Compare law with other means of social control. - There are several basic differences between social control through law and control through other methods. Laws are made and administered by the only institutions in society authorized to act on behalf of the entire citizenry. Churches, for example, act only for their members. Only the legal institutions within the society can make rules, regulations, and orders with which the entire citizenry must comply. The rules, etc., of social and economic organizations, for example, govern only limited numbers. People associated with an organization can ordinarily terminate their relationship and thereby free themselves from the impact of its rules and regulations. Citizens of a state, however, cannot do this unless they choose to leave the geographical area in which the state is sovereign. The sanctions or techniques of control through law are more varied and complex than the techniques available to organizations such as churches, labor unions, and political parties. Expulsion is usually the most powerful technique available to such organizations to secure compliance with their rules, etc. For the employee, it is the loss of his job. Aside from imprisonment and deportation, there are many other sanctions available to the law, including denial or revocation of license, confiscation of property, imposition of civil liability for certain kind of conduct, dissolution of organizations, and denial of privileges. A sanction is remedial if the object is the indemnification of the person who has suffered damages or injury from a violation of law, and penal if the object is the punishment of the violator; and Before the law "operates" against an individual, various procedural steps are required. Thus, the individual must ordinarily be given a hearing and a fair opportunity to show why he should not, for example, be ordered to pay money to a claimant, or be deprived of his liberty. Such steps are commonly referred to as "due process" of law. Organs of social control other than those provided by law are generally not required to comply with such procedures in acting against individuals except when their rules provide therefor. 6. What are the classifications of law? - The methods for classifying law are many. For our purposes, it would be best to consider the main classifications of law, first, as to its purpose, and second, as to its nature. As to its purpose: (A) Substantive law or that portion of the body of law creating defining and regulating rights and duties which may either be public or private in character. An example of substantive private law is the law on obligations and contracts; and (B) Adjective law or that portion of the body of law prescribing the manner or procedure by which rights may be enforced or their violations redressed. Sometimes this is i called remedial law or procedural law. The provision of law which those actions for the recovery of real property says shall be filed with the Regional Trial Court of the region where the property or any part thereof lies, is an example of private adjective law. - Rights and duties are useless unless they can be enforced. It is not enough, therefore, that the state regulates the rights and duties of all who are subject to the law; it must also provide legal remedies by which substantive law may be administered. Hence, the need for adjective law. - The adjective law in the Philippines is governed by the Rules of Court promulgated by the Supreme Court and by special laws As to its subject matter: (A) Public law or the body of legal rules which regulates the rights and duties arising from the relationship of the state to the people. - - An example of public law is criminal law, the law which defines crimes and provides for their punishment. In legal theory, when a person commits a crime, he violates not only the right of the individual victim but primarily that of the state because the crime disturbs the peace and order of the state. Also included are international law or that law which governs the relations among nations or states; constitutional law or that which governs the relations between the state and its citizens; it establishes the fundamental powers of the government; administrative law or that which governs the methods by which the functions of administrative authorities are to be performed; and criminal procedure or that branch of private law which governs the methods of trial and punishment in criminal cases. (B) Private law or the body of rules which regulates the relations of individuals with one another for purely private ends. The law on obligations and contracts comes under this heading because it deals with the rights and obligations of the contracting parties only. The state, however, is also involved in private law; it enforces private law but simply as an arbiter and not as a party. - Included in private law are civil law, commercial or mercantile law, and civil procedure. Civil procedure is that branch of private law which provides for how private rights may be enforced. 7. Define law on obligations and contracts. - The law of obligations and contracts is the body of rules which deals with the nature and sources of obligations and right and duties arising from agreements and the contracts.