SUMMATION FROM MODULE 1 TO 8 IN COMMUNITY HEALTH MODULE 1 The topic from module one is about the conceptual and historical roots of community and public health. The eras in the historical development of public health and ways that public health emerges in literature and the arts, current events, and everyone’s daily life. It tackles about the differences between Community and public health and the major concepts of public health. It tells us the importance of knowing the history in community and health and the major contributors, programs that will help in continuing the effectiveness and improving the health of everyone in the world. MODULE 2 The lesson that we have discussed from this module is all about the public health assessment process and serves as a road map to the rest of the manual. The community, several types of community health organizations: governmental, quasi-governmental, and nongovernmental, and its health. We learned to examine public health through its historical context and use this information in evaluating the current public issues and how can this help in improving and changing it for better use in healthcare of everyone. This module introduces the different values of each contributor, knowing the governmental agencies, the national health agency, the quasi-governmental health organization and the nongovernmental health agencies. Health, or its lack, for a community is the result of a large number of factors, often intertwined, that span the social, economic, political, physical, and environmental spheres. Virtually any community issue has an effect on, and is affected by, the overall health of the community as a whole, and therefore should be approached in a community context. Healthy Cities/Healthy Communities provides a philosophical framework for an inclusive, participatory process aimed at raising the quality of life for everyone, and creating a truly healthy community. MODULE 3 From the module 3, we have discussed the health field concept, which identified human biology, lifestyle, environment, and health care organization as the four principal determinants of health.This brought attention to the importance of public health and provided the basis for the health promotion movement. On health expenditure on medical care.The Health Field Concept was a major contributor to development of a new paradigm for public health. In this new articulation of health promotion, health protection, disease prevention including universal access to medical care, and long-term community care, are all of importance for population and individual health. There was also attention to the concept of vulnerable populations, based not only on individual behavioral, but also societal factors. We also have discussed the characteristics of the health field concept that has numerous qualities which make it an useful tool for examining, determining health problems. It also allows for a system of analysis in which any question may be investigated under the four aspects in order to determine their relative significance and interaction. The Concept's fourth feature is that it allows for further sub-division of factors. Individual risks for road deaths in the Lifestyle category can be classified as impaired driving, carelessness, failure to use seatbelts, and speeding. Finally, the Health Field Concept offers a new perspective on health, one that frees creative minds to recognize and explore previously unnoticed fields. MODULE 4 The topic that we have discussed from the module 4 is knowing the key public health concepts related to global health including: the demographic and epidemiological transitions, measures of health status, and the burden of disease. And applying principles of assessing and controlling environmental hazards that affect community health. And the concepts and principles of community health and the differences between community health and personal health. Personal health refers to the Individual actions and decision making that affect the health of an individual or their immediate family, refers to the mental, physical and social well-being of an individual. while Community health refers to the activities aimed at protecting or improving the health of a population or community. Ehancing and maintaining the health of the entire community or population. And the importance of the different factors that influence a community’s health which are: geography, environment, community size, and industrial development. Environmental factors -affect large groups that share common living or working spaces. Thus, they are key candidates as explanatory factors for health differences across geographic areas, such as countries. From knowing these factors we can be able to know on how we can eradicate the negative impact of it and improve personal and community’s health. MODULE 5 The topic in Module 5 addresses the innovation and community action for sustainable development and understanding the importance and goal of sustainable development that will enable all people throughout the world to satisfy their basic needs and enjoy a better quality of life without compromising the quality of life of future generations or securing the future states. It tells us the characteristics of grassroots innovation that shows a distinction of the characteristics of market based and grassroots innovations. One values the niche for its own sake intrinsic benefits, the other as a means to an end diffusion benefits. The distinction delineates ‘simple niches that is not seeking regime change from strategic niches, a seeds for wider transformation. The grassroots is a neglected site of innovation for sustainable development. The innovation literature describes the important role of innovative niches in seeding transitions in wider socio-technological regimes, but is rooted in analysis of commercial activities in the market economy. Grassroots innovations describe networks of activists and organisations generating novel bottom–up solutions for sustainable development; solutions that respond to the local situation and the interests and values of the communities involved. MODULE 6 In module 6, we talked about the importance of community health initiatives since a healthy community helps everyone in it. And one way to achieve a healthy community is through community health. It tackles about how we can plan and implement a community health program. A community health program are non profit, it is locally based education and treatment programs available typically to individuals who are living in poverty and/or do not have health insurance coverage. it seek funding through health department programs, donations, and government grants. Community health is a medical specialty that focuses on the physical and mental well-being of the people in a specific geographic region. It also tackle the public health pyramid, a framework to improve health, with purpose of interventions and with the ability to impact the most people including infrastructure services. Under this are: Direct healthcare services, enabling services, Population-Based Services and infrastructure service. I have also learned that there are 6 stages of community health program that are cyclical these are: Mobilize Community Support, Assess Needs and Resources, Determine Priorities & Plan the Program, Implementing the Program, Evaluate the Program, and Participate in Policy Development & Research. By addressing the structures and systems that characterize a spot by assisting the people who live and work there in making healthy choices the field of public health attempts to protect and enhance health. MODULE 7 The lesson is all about the importance of centralization and decentrqalization, the advantages and disadvantages of Centralization. the importance of agricultural services, the role that governments had assumed in their provision and the perceived need in the 1980s for institutional reform including a reduced role for central government in service provision. When an organization follows a centralized management structure, it can focus on the fulfillment of its vision with ease. Directing the organization's vision from the top allows for the smooth implementation of its visions and strategies. The use of advanced equipment reduces potential wastage from manual work and also helps guarantee highquality work. Centralized management resembles a dictatorial form of leadership where employees are only expected to deliver results according to what the top executives assign them. Employees are unable to contribute to the decision-making process of the organization, and they are merely implementers of decisions made at a higher level. The executives suffer from a lack of time to supervise the implementation of the decisions. Decentralization is the transfer of authority and responsibility for public functions from the central government to subordinate or quasi-independent government organizations or the private sector. Employees rely on the information communicated to them from the top, and there will be a loss in man-hours if there are delays in relaying the records. This means that the employees will be less productive if they need to wait for long periods of time to get guidance on their next project MODULE 8 The previous topic that we have discussed is all about Human Ecology, Demography and Epidemiology and the components of ecosystem. It tackles about the relation of the components of ecosystem and how it affects and contribute to human health. Human Ecology evolved as a branch of demography, sociology, and anthropology, addressing the social and cultural contexts of disease, health risks, and human behavior. Human ecology addresses the interaction of humans with and adaptation to their social and physical environment. Ecology enriches our world and is crucial for human wellbeing and prosperity. It provides new knowledge of the interdependence between people and nature that is vital for food production, maintaining clean air and water, and sustaining biodiversity in a changing climate. As a society, we depend on healthy ecosystems to do many things; to purify the air so we can breathe properly, sequester carbon for climate regulation, cycle nutrients so we have access to clean drinking water without costly infrastructure, and pollinate our crops so we don't go hungry. Studying and knowing these concept is importance because it matter for human health these provides benefit for human well-being and how essential it is for us to survive.