Uploaded by Dennise France Moll


The topic from module one is about the conceptual and historical roots of community and public health.
The eras in the historical development of public health and ways that public health emerges in literature
and the arts, current events, and everyone’s daily life. It tackles about the differences between
Community and public health and the major concepts of public health. It tells us the importance of
knowing the history in community and health and the major contributors, programs that will help in
continuing the effectiveness and improving the health of everyone in the world.
The lesson that we have discussed from this module is all about the public health assessment process
and serves as a road map to the rest of the manual. The community, several types of community health
organizations: governmental, quasi-governmental, and nongovernmental, and its health. We learned to
examine public health through its historical context and use this information in evaluating the current
public issues and how can this help in improving and changing it for better use in healthcare of everyone.
This module introduces the different values of each contributor, knowing the governmental agencies,
the national health agency, the quasi-governmental health organization and the nongovernmental
health agencies. Health, or its lack, for a community is the result of a large number of factors, often
intertwined, that span the social, economic, political, physical, and environmental spheres. Virtually any
community issue has an effect on, and is affected by, the overall health of the community as a whole,
and therefore should be approached in a community context. Healthy Cities/Healthy Communities
provides a philosophical framework for an inclusive, participatory process aimed at raising the quality of
life for everyone, and creating a truly healthy community.
From the module 3, we have discussed the health field concept, which identified human biology,
lifestyle, environment, and health care organization as the four principal determinants of health.This
brought attention to the importance of public health and provided the basis for the health promotion
movement. On health expenditure on medical care.The Health Field Concept was a major contributor to
development of a new paradigm for public health. In this new articulation of health promotion, health
protection, disease prevention including universal access to medical care, and long-term community
care, are all of importance for population and individual health. There was also attention to the concept
of vulnerable populations, based not only on individual behavioral, but also societal factors. We also
have discussed the characteristics of the health field concept that has numerous qualities which make it
an useful tool for examining, determining health problems. It also allows for a system of analysis in
which any question may be investigated under the four aspects in order to determine their relative
significance and interaction. The Concept's fourth feature is that it allows for further sub-division of
factors. Individual risks for road deaths in the Lifestyle category can be classified as impaired driving,
carelessness, failure to use seatbelts, and speeding. Finally, the Health Field Concept offers a new
perspective on health, one that frees creative minds to recognize and explore previously unnoticed
The topic that we have discussed from the module 4 is knowing the key public health concepts related
to global health including: the demographic and epidemiological transitions, measures of health status,
and the burden of disease. And applying principles of assessing and controlling environmental hazards
that affect community health. And the concepts and principles of community health and the differences
between community health and personal health. Personal health refers to the Individual actions and
decision making that affect the health of an individual or their immediate family, refers to the mental,
physical and social well-being of an individual. while Community health refers to the activities aimed at
protecting or improving the health of a population or community. Ehancing and maintaining the health
of the entire community or population. And the importance of the different factors that influence a
community’s health which are: geography, environment, community size, and industrial development.
Environmental factors -affect large groups that share common living or working spaces. Thus, they are
key candidates as explanatory factors for health differences across geographic areas, such as countries.
From knowing these factors we can be able to know on how we can eradicate the negative impact of it
and improve personal and community’s health.
The topic in Module 5 addresses the innovation and community action for sustainable development and
understanding the importance and goal of sustainable development that will enable all people
throughout the world to satisfy their basic needs and enjoy a better quality of life without compromising
the quality of life of future generations or securing the future states. It tells us the characteristics of
grassroots innovation that shows a distinction of the characteristics of market based and grassroots
innovations. One values the niche for its own sake intrinsic benefits, the other as a means to an end
diffusion benefits. The distinction delineates ‘simple niches that is not seeking regime change from
strategic niches, a seeds for wider transformation. The grassroots is a neglected site of innovation for
sustainable development. The innovation literature describes the important role of innovative niches in
seeding transitions in wider socio-technological regimes, but is rooted in analysis of commercial
activities in the market economy. Grassroots innovations describe networks of activists and
organisations generating novel bottom–up solutions for sustainable development; solutions that
respond to the local situation and the interests and values of the communities involved.
In module 6, we talked about the importance of community health initiatives since a healthy community
helps everyone in it. And one way to achieve a healthy community is through community health. It
tackles about how we can plan and implement a community health program. A community health
program are non profit, it is locally based education and treatment programs available typically to
individuals who are living in poverty and/or do not have health insurance coverage. it seek funding
through health department programs, donations, and government grants. Community health is a
medical specialty that focuses on the physical and mental well-being of the people in a specific
geographic region. It also tackle the public health pyramid, a framework to improve health, with
purpose of interventions and with the ability to impact the most people including infrastructure services.
Under this are: Direct healthcare services, enabling services, Population-Based Services and
infrastructure service. I have also learned that there are 6 stages of community health program that are
cyclical these are: Mobilize Community Support, Assess Needs and Resources, Determine Priorities &
Plan the Program, Implementing the Program, Evaluate the Program, and Participate in Policy
Development & Research. By addressing the structures and systems that characterize a spot by assisting
the people who live and work there in making healthy choices the field of public health attempts to
protect and enhance health.
The lesson is all about the importance of centralization and decentrqalization, the advantages and
disadvantages of Centralization. the importance of agricultural services, the role that governments had
assumed in their provision and the perceived need in the 1980s for institutional reform including a
reduced role for central government in service provision. When an organization follows a centralized
management structure, it can focus on the fulfillment of its vision with ease. Directing the organization's
vision from the top allows for the smooth implementation of its visions and strategies. The use of
advanced equipment reduces potential wastage from manual work and also helps guarantee highquality work. Centralized management resembles a dictatorial form of leadership where employees are
only expected to deliver results according to what the top executives assign them. Employees are unable
to contribute to the decision-making process of the organization, and they are merely implementers of
decisions made at a higher level. The executives suffer from a lack of time to supervise the
implementation of the decisions. Decentralization is the transfer of authority and responsibility for
public functions from the central government to subordinate or quasi-independent government
organizations or the private sector. Employees rely on the information communicated to them from the
top, and there will be a loss in man-hours if there are delays in relaying the records. This means that the
employees will be less productive if they need to wait for long periods of time to get guidance on their
next project
The previous topic that we have discussed is all about Human Ecology, Demography and Epidemiology
and the components of ecosystem. It tackles about the relation of the components of ecosystem and
how it affects and contribute to human health. Human Ecology evolved as a branch of demography,
sociology, and anthropology, addressing the social and cultural contexts of disease, health risks, and
human behavior. Human ecology addresses the interaction of humans with and adaptation to their
social and physical environment. Ecology enriches our world and is crucial for human wellbeing and
prosperity. It provides new knowledge of the interdependence between people and nature that is vital
for food production, maintaining clean air and water, and sustaining biodiversity in a changing climate.
As a society, we depend on healthy ecosystems to do many things; to purify the air so we can breathe
properly, sequester carbon for climate regulation, cycle nutrients so we have access to clean drinking
water without costly infrastructure, and pollinate our crops so we don't go hungry. Studying and
knowing these concept is importance because it matter for human health these provides benefit for
human well-being and how essential it is for us to survive.