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Purposive Communication_2nd Semester Notes

Multimodal Texts
 a text combines two or more semiotic systems (linguistics, visual, audio, gestural,
spatial), it is considered multimodal. Semiotic is the study of meaning- making. It
explores signs and symbols as important components of communication.
Forms of Multimodal Texts
1. Paper- This form is print based, such as books, comics, posters, magazines.
2. Digital- It is computer-based like slide presentations, emails, eBooks, blogs, eposters, web pages, social media, animations, films, movies, and video games.
3. Live -It is a form of actual performance or an event.
Two or more of the following semiotic systems are included in the multimodal text.
1. Linguistic system- It refers to the linguistic components like vocabulary, structure, and
grammar of a text.
2. Visual system- It pertains to the color, vectors, and viewpoint in still and moving
3. Audio system. - This mode refers to the volume, pitch, and rhythm of music and
sound effects of a presentation.
4. Gestural system- It denotes the movement, facial expression, and body language of
the characters.
5. Spatial system- It indicates proximity, direction, position of layout, and organization of
objects in space.
Critical Reading and Listening
 Multimodal text requires readers and listeners to become critical readers and
Critical Reading of Multimodal Texts
 Critical reading is the process of reading that goes beyond the comprehension of
a text.
Critical Reading involves:
1. Carefully considering and evaluating a reading text;
2. Identifying the strengths and implications of the text;
3. Identifying the weaknesses of the text; and
4. Looking at the image and deciding how the reading fits into the greater academic
1. Who created the message?
2. Is the source reliable?
3. Was it by a news organization, a public citizen, an editorial team of a scientific
journal, or an advertiser?
1. What does the message say (Subject, Main point, support)?
2. Is the information fair and logical?
3. What points of view are shared in the message? Which ones are left out/
4. What images or sounds catch your attention?
1. What type of text is used to deliver the message?
2. What are the advantages and limitations of the text formal?
1. Who is the target audience of the message?
2. How might other people interpret the message of the text?
1. What is the purpose of the message?
2. Who controls the transmission of this message?
What is the Message?
 Messages refer to any form of communication (information, feelings, and ideas).
Understanding Different Types of Text
 A text can come in any form and be any kind of writing. Letters, adverts, userguides, emails, postcards, notes and magazine articles are all different types of
a. An advert is written to persuade you to buy something.
b. A user-guide is instructive and is written to tell you how to use something (such as a
video recorder or washing machine).
c. A formal (business) letter might be written to inform you about school dates.
d. A personal letter might be written by a friend, describing a holiday.
Understanding Different Types of Text
Factual Text - Endeavor to inform, instruct, or persuade through the use of facts and
- Factual text informs the reader about the particular subject. They should give
useful information and focus on facts
- Examples of the Factual text are new reports, interviews, recipes, records of
history, instruction, FAQs etc.
Classification of Factual Text
Factual Description
-the differences between the factual recount and factual description, factual
description is also known as the teller of a subject with an opinion of others but saying
facts and to inform readers about the social world.
- for example, the dog has four legs, two ear, and a tail. it eats dog food, drink
water, and it can be a baby. as you notice the example is saying an opinion and a fact
the words the dog with four legs two ear and a tail. drink water is a fact and the words it
eats dog food, and it can be a baby. are an opinion because the dog can eat the food of
human and some of the people wants dog to be their security in their houses
- additionally factual description is a passage from a textbook, non-fiction
-it also uses technical terms, descriptive language, auxiliary verbs, time
connectives, and present tense.
-when you encountered such factual descriptions always remember the purpose
of it is to tell or to share any information with facts.
Factual Recounts
- Recount text is a text which retells events or experiences in the past
- Recounts focus on retelling events and are generally intended to inform and/or
- Always remember when you heard the word factual recount or see a factual
recount writing example. It is based on the experience of a person to describe the
past and retell the events in order what happened in the past events.
- For example, journals, historical texts, and past news.
- Past tense, action verbs, Emotive language, descriptive language, and time
connectives this wants factual recounts to use to create journals, etc.
Information Report
- when we talk about the information report it is all about explaining topics using
facts, to provide necessary information for the audience.
-when evaluating an essay if you encountered an information report look at the
point that is not used to argue a point. it is just giving fact information about the subjects.
- for example, scientific text, geographical text, magazines, reference books, etc.
- additionally, when writing an information report we use technical terms, auxiliary verb,
generic category, cause, and effect connectives, and present tense to support the report.
Instructional/ procedural text
- a procedural text instructs your audience on how to complete a specific task.
- Generally, this then falls into two categories. How to make something and how to
do something.
- The purpose of procedural text is to provide sequenced information or direction
so that people can successfully perform activities in safe, efficient, and
appropriate ways.
Common forms of procedural texts are.
Directions – how do I get somewhere?
Instructions – how do I do something?
Recipes – how do I cook something?
Rules for game – how do I play this?
Manuals – how do I operate this?
Agendas – what are we doing?
-when we say procedural recount, it is all about sharing or retelling something which is
-the differences between procedure and procedural recount, the procedure is giving us a
command to achieve the goal we want to achieve, and the procedural recount is retelling
past events like documentaries of World War 2.
-factual recounts use the past tense, action verb, adverbs, subject-specific vocabulary,
and time connectives.
Explanation text
– are pieces of the writing that explain something.
- They might tell you how or why something happens or give information on
how to do something.
- Examples: information book or leaflets, recipes, guide and manuals.
- We do usually encounter explanations and when we describe it words we
- Explanation is the way how we explain something like questions and
directions but for the better understanding when we say explanation it is to
describe the what, when, where, who, how, and how things are done.
- for example, how do volcanoes form? how an earthquake affects the
people in the community?
- Additionally, when writing an explanation use present tense, auxiliary
verbs, technical terms, descriptive language, and time connectives to
support the explanation writing and to avoid causing trouble.
Persuasive Text
- A persuasive text is a form of non-fiction writing that aims to convince the
reader of a certain point of view. Adverts and newspaper columns are good examples of
persuasive text.
Persuasive text can be used and found in a variety of publications, such as:
Newspaper columns, advertising campaigns, academic essays, reviews,
brochures and campaign flyers
Classification of Persuasive Text Discussion text
– Discussion text type give the for and against the positive and negative, or the
good and bad points.
- It can be oral or written form
- The purpose of discussion is to present to the audiences’ different opinions
on the topic and, at the end your opinion.
- Examples: talk back radio, debates, current affairs interviews, essay,
newspaper, articles.
Literary Text Type
Literary text - A literary text is a piece of writing, such as a book or poem that has the
purpose of telling a story or entertaining, as in a fictional novel.
- Its primary function as a text is usually aesthetic, but it may also contain
political messages or beliefs
Examples of literary text
Fiction, Nonfiction, Manuscripts, Poetry, contributions to collective works
Classification of a literary text
Narrative - are writings that tell a story. These stories may be fictional or non-fictional.
- The purpose of a narrative is to engage the reader in a tale that includes a
clear beginning, middle, and end.
Poetry - is literature that evokes a concentrated imaginative awareness of experience or
a specific emotional response through language chosen and arranged for its meaning,
sound, and rhythm.
Drama- in literature refers to the performance of written dialogue and stage action. It’s a
literary genre that allows actors to act out a writer’s words directly to an audience.
Different types of drama in literature.
Comedy - Comedies are usually humorous plays
Farce - A farce is a type of broad comedy. It depends less on a narrative storyline
and more on physical humor, sight gags, and silly jokes
Opera - Operas are dramas in which the characters sing each line rather than
Melodrama - When you hear drama, you probably think of melodrama.
Melodramas tell a
serious story in serious ways.
Tragedy - is a branch of drama that treats in a serious and dignified style the
sorrowful or terrible events encountered or caused by a heroic individual. For
example, Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare
Ex: In the media, professional evaluators are everywhere, whether they be film
critics, literary critics, political commentators, comedians, talk-show hosts, or even the
writers themselves. In college, the task of evaluating texts, films, and products, and
services is no foreign affair. Many professors require students to evaluator (or review)
a number of different things in order to familiarize themselves with different texts in
their discipline and other materials.
How to Evaluate Texts and Other Materials Use the following steps to introduce and
discuss your text:
a. Read/View the text/material one time without interruption.
b. Summarize the text/material
c. List the good qualities/facets of the text
d. List the not-so-good qualities/facets of the text
e. Compare and contrast the text/material to other existing texts/material with similar
characteristics, if needed or applicable. Ask: How is it reminiscent, similar, or different to
the other texts/materials?
f. Discuss your overall interpretation/feelings about the text/material.
g. Comment on how the text is superior/inferior/better/worse compared to other
texts/materials in the same genre (or which are similar).
It is important to critically evaluate the images you use for research, study, and
presentations. Images should be evaluated like any other source, such as journal
articles or books, to determine their quality, reliability, and appropriateness.
A. Content Analysis
a. What do you see?
b. What is the image about?
c. Are there people in the image? What are they doing? How are they presented?
d. Can the image be looked at in different ways?
e. How effective is the image as a visual message?
B. Visual analysis
a. How is the image composed? What is in the background, and what is in the
b. What are the most important visual elements in the image? How can you tell?
c. How is the color used?
d. Can the image be looked at in different ways?
e. What meanings are conveyed by design choices?
C. Contextual information
a. What information accompanies the image?
b. Does the text change how you see the image? How?
c. Is the textual information intended to be factual and inform, or is it intended to
influence what and how you see?
d. What kind of context does the information provide? Does it answer the
questions Where, How, Why, and For whom was the image made?
D. Image source
a. Where did you find the image?
b. What information does the source provide about the origins of the image?
c. Is the source reliable and trustworthy?
d. Was the image found in an image database, or was it being used in another
context to convey meaning?
E. Technical quality
a. Is the image large enough to suit your purposes?
b. Is the color, light, and balance true?
c. Is the image a quality digital image, without pixelation or distortion?
d. Is the image in a file format you can use?
e. Are there a copyright or other use restrictions you need to consider?
Communication aids are medium, equipment, devices, and techniques of
communication that can help establish effective communication.
- A communication aid is also a person’s ability to communicate more successfully
with others.
The following are different visual aids that we could use in our presentation to have an
effective way of delivering and presenting our ideas.
Artifacts or Props
- These are objects that are handmade by humans
- These are usually cultural and historical items.
- This gives the audience an idea of how an object looks like in full details.
Can be seen or touched
These are useful to clarify ideas and leaves an impact to the audience.
To inform and show your audience about an idea.
For example, you want to give an insight, or you want to show the proper way of
preparing a camping bag. In order to demonstrate this, you will bring the
materials like bag, clothes, toiletries and etc. then proceed with the
Art or technique of producing images on a surface, usually on a paper.
Diagrams, sketches by means of marks, ink, graphite, chalk, charcoal, or crayon.
They can be designed to visualize or illustrate your points exactly
Compensate for what they lack in reality.
- Useful for summarizing large blocks of information.
- Sheets of information in the form of a table, graph, or diagram.
- Viewer can easily understand the presentation.
Flip Chart
Large sheets of paper usually positioned on a tripod or an easel.
Useful and flexible way of recording information during presentation
- Provides excellent means of engagement
- Record information as you go along, keeping one main idea to each sheet.
Audience would have easier understanding about statistical trend and patterns.
Bar graph, line graph, pictograph, can be used for complex series of numbers
this helps your audience understand the meaning and your interpretation of the
numbers presented.
These are miniature representation of an object
Sometimes, the object we want to present is too large, and unavailable, a model
can be a perfect way to represent this object.
- For example, you want to demonstrate how bicycles work with the chains and
pedals. You can’t bring a bicycle inside a room; it would take too much space
inside the room. A model of a bicycle built with cardboards can be an alternative
for it. With that, you can still present and discuss bicycles without having to bring
a large object inside.
Multimedia Presentation
Presentation that includes slides, sound, videos, images, or digital
- It combines the elements of text audio, graphics and video communication which
allows you to integrate a variety of visual aids.
Paper Handouts
Printed materials given to inform or provide additional information to your
- Paper handouts will help the audience follow your presentation especially when
you have a detailed discussion.
- When giving handouts, we must also consider the time of passing them around.
- Handouts given too early, may provide distraction
- You can discuss and highlight the missing details vocally.
Pictures captured using a camera.
In the absence of an object or model, this would be a great alternative.
These photographs must be large enough to be seen by the audience to be
The most commonly used form of visual aid.
It is a software that allows you to create anything from basic slide shows to
complex and engaging presentations, however, be careful in using this kind of
communication aid, here are some of the Do’s and Don’ts when creating a
PowerPoint Presentation:
use a big enough font (minimum
make it so small you can't read it
keep the background simple
use a fussy background image
use animations when appropriate
but don't over-do the animation - it gets distracting
make things visual
use endless slides of bulleted lists that all look the
As a speaker, body language and gestures are also considered as visual aids.
Showing gestures can help the audience identify and emphasize what you’re
trying to convey such as how a conductor conducts and leads an orchestra, or
how a teacher points to the word or statement written on the board.
These are inexpensive, easy to create, and produce strong visual images.
These are images or photographs printed on transparent plastic or glass which
can be viewed using a projector.
Sometimes we discuss or present natural phenomenon or dangerous events that
happened in different parts of the world. A video would be the best visual aid for
- For example, you are discussing about tsunamis and earthquakes, a model
would take up too much time and money to build, the best alternative for it is to
look for a video about the natural phenomenon so that your audience can
visualize how it happens.
White or black board
Large board with a smooth, typically dark surface attached to a wall.
Can be useful to present sequence of ideas or routines.
Rather than expecting your audience to listen and follow your spoken description,
you can write complex terminology and processes on the board to help your
audience take accurate notes.
- Make sure your penmanship is legible to avoid confusions and
LCD Projector
Type of video projector for displaying video, images or computer data on a
screen or other flat surface.
Usually seen in lectures and seminar trainings, which allows to display text,
audio, graphics, or video on a flat surface.
This is more entertaining, and it increases the chance that the audience will
understand the lessons.
- Composing and sending electronic messages.
- Typically consists of alphabetic and numeric characters.
- Quicker, easier, and more effective terms of communication
Video Conferencing
Allows users in different locations to hold meetings.
Faster and more secured way of communication with the teams or other
colleagues without having to move to a single location. It is more convenient and
hassle-free way of holding meetings.
Device that translates sound vibration in the air into electronic signals.
Speaker will be easily heard by the audience and it fights the physical noise such
as the vibration of aircon inside the room or other loud backgrounds.
COMMUNICATION AIDS FOR PWDs (People with Disability)
These are also called Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC),
which replaces spoken communication with various ranges of techniques such
as, gesture, signs, symbols, word boards, communication boards and books, as
well as Voice Output Communication Aids (VOCAs).
- Voice Output Communication Aids (VOCAs) or also known as the
speech-generating devices (SGDs), refers to a device that translates or
inputs speech for those people who have communication disorders. These
devices may operate through buttons, touchscreens, and texts.
Some VOCAs use paper or laminated ‘overlays’ with words or symbols to
represent messages which have been recorded. These are called ‘static’
overlays; the symbols/messages do not change.
Other VOCAs display the words or symbols on a screen, like a computer.
These ‘dynamic’ displays change depending on what the user selects e.g.
they might select a button named ‘Places’ which will take them to a page
of places they might like to go.
One example of these SGDs is the device used by the famous author and
scientist, Stephen Hawking. With Hawking’s disease, he was not able to
communicate just like how we normally communicate. He used SGD as
his medium of communication with the use of a computer system that was
programmed with Hawking's cheek muscle movement.
Another example is Tiktok’s famous talking dog who uses buttons to
communicate with her owner.
There are 2 types of AAC System:
We have the Unaided Communication and Aided Communication wherein.
Unaided Communication
This type of AAC System refers to the non-verbal cues such as gestures,
expressions, American Sign Language (ASL), and the like.
- This communication relies on overall body language and does not use any
communication devices or tools to convey a message.
Aided Communication
This type of AAC System requires equipment unlike unaided communication that
can range from low-tech and high-tech methods, or an object.
- This communication mainly uses simple aids or low-tech aids, or called as paperbased materials, which do not make use of technological devices to
- Unlike unaided communication, that uses body language and such, aided
communication makes use of pictures, symbols, visual representations, tables,
boards or a combination with words.
- In terms of hi-tech communication, this includes the devices we have which are
called electronic communication aids. Computers, phones, SGDs are some of
the examples that can be used in aided communication in the form of high-tech
We use communication as our means of connecting with people, chatting with
our peers, interacting with our teachers, waving to your bus mates goodbye, or
patting your friend on the back. We use these different styles of communication
on a daily basis. However, not everyone can understand and has the ability to act
accordingly with these actions like normal people do.
People who experience cerebral palsy, stroke and/or head injury, people who
have problems with speech development, or people with ASD need different
means to convey their messages properly, hence they use communication aids
as their medium of communication.
Designing Posters, Billboards, and Tarpaulins
Print advertisements like posters billboards and tarpaulins are mediums of
communication whose purpose is, more often than not, persuasion. You are
posting these mediums because you wanted people to look at it and take action
of believing the idea or buying the product.
Here are guidelines to help you design your message:
1. Start with a good idea.
A good idea comes to those who research, brainstorm, and listen.
2. Use your life as motivation.
Some of the great ideas spur from personal experiences of people.
3. Do good in using the medium.
Find a medium that you feel comfortable with and do good at working with it.
4. Dirty your hands.
Do not be afraid to get messy when working on your design. Use your hands to
explore possibilities.
5. Remember the “rules of fives” of advertising.
The rule of five of advertising would tell you that the subject of the design should
have the same impact whether from a distance of 50 feet or 5 feet.
6. Love the brand
When you love somebody, it is easy to find all the good things in that person. The
same thing applies if you love the product.
7. Use of the magic of scales and proportion.
Scales can alter the impact of a design. Enlarging the image of the file against an
innocent child for an advocacy poster on dengue will create a bigger impact than
using texts.
8. Forget conventions
Do understand that if you design a poster or tarpaulin, chances are it will be
posted beside other posters or tarpaulins so make it stand out – think out of the
COMMUNICATION is the process of passing information from one person to
another. The purpose of communication understands of information.
The FOUR BASIC TYPE OF SPEECH are: to inform, to instruct, to entertain, and to
There are three various purposes of communication given below, including with
their key points, distinct categories, and some situational examples.
Involve a knowledgeable speaker transferring some of their knowledge to their
Key points:
A Speaker should be very knowledgeable about the topic
The topic can be the range from a detailed method to an abstract concept
Narrower topics makes comprehensible speeches.
Practice any speech multiple times
Four distinct categories of topic:
o Things, people or places
o Methods
o Events
o Ideas
Situational Examples of Informative Communication
1. College professor lecturing on a specific topic during a class.
2. Guest speaker presenting information to a group of students about how to apply for
3. Company president presenting information about last quarter's sales to a group of
board members.
4. Pastor teaching a class about the meaning behind Holy Communion in the Christian
5. Doctor talking to a group about ways to avoid heart disease.
A Speaker attempts to persuade the audience to adopt his/her position in relation
to a topic. It includes an attractive source, a message containing convincing arguments,
or efforts to make the topic seem personally relevant to the audience.
Key points:
Intends to persuade the audience to adopt the position of the speaker
to know your audience.
An appeal to used to show the characters of the speaker and make him/her
more credible.
The core of a persuasive speech is pair appealing to and audience feelings.
Situational Examples of Persuasive Communication
1. A teenager attempting to convince her parents that she needs to be able to stay out
until 11pm instead of 10pm.
2. A student council president trying to convince school administrators to allow the
students to have a dance after the final football game of the season.
3. A lawyer giving a closing argument in court, arguing about whether the defendant is
innocent or guilty of the crime.
Argumentative communication helps to learn to clarify thoughts and articulate
them honestly and accurately and to consider the ideas of others in a respectful and
critical manner.
Key points:
An argumentative communication purpose is to persuade a particular audience to
understand the other side of the argument in order to support a new belief or
This happen when a person is trying to justify his/her standpoint by supporting
facts and not just by emotions.
Examples of Argumentative Communication
Argumentative written texts
Argumentative Speech
Court Hearing
Situational Examples of Argumentative Communication
1. President presents an argument for why Congress should approve military action,
laying out reasons and evidence to support such a move.
2. Teenage girl presents an argument to her parents regarding why she needs a cell
phone that will allow her to text and use the internet.
3. Lawyer presents an argument in his opening statement that details why his client is
4. Businessman writes a proposal for a new product line, arguing that the new line will
be popular and will make the company money.
However, the PRINCIPLE PURPOSE OF A SPEECH will generally fall into one of
four basic types:
An informative speech is one in which the speaker relays knowledge to an
audience on a specific topic. There are four distinct categories of topic: things, people,
or places, methods, events, ideas
Speeches about Objects for the purposes of this type of informative speech,
anything that is visible and tangible is considered an object. Object speeches seek
to impart knowledge about this object to the audience.
A PROCESS is the manner in which something is created, made, done, or
works. An informative speech about a process then describes how something is
made, done, or works. Processes could include anything from how the modern
Electoral College works to how an ice cream sandwich is made on the factory
line. Informative process speeches work to help your audience both understand
the process, and possibly be able to replicate the process for themselves (if
Any occurrence that happens is regarded as an "event.” A speech about an
event then, describes the occurrence in full: the time, date, location, and
circumstances of that occurrence. Like all informative speeches, event speeches
must also serve a purpose. You may talk about how the Battles of Lexington and
Concord came to be known as the "shot heard 'round the world," or describe the
experience of your first week at college. In either case, your speech must have a
purpose to it.
Concepts refer to ideas, beliefs, theories, attitudes, and/or principles. When
speaking about concepts, you may have to find concrete ideas in order to make
abstract ideas more relatable and tangible to your audience. Whether discussing
the theory of the origins of the universe to whether there's any truth to the phrase
"love at first sight," concept speeches break down complex ideas into
manageable chunks of understanding for your
Some examples of informative speeches:
A teacher telling students about earthquakes
A student talking about her research
A travelogue about the Tower of London
A computer programmer speaking about new software
A persuasive speech works to convince people to change in some way: they
think, the way they do something, or to start doing something that they are not currently
doing. It is a specific type of speech in which the speaker has a goal of convincing the
audience to accept his or her point of view. The speech is arranged in such a way as to
hopefully cause the audience to accept all or part of the expressed view audience.
Persuasion is NOT similar to coercion because it does not utilize actions that
would cause damage or danger to a person. It employs freedom to choose. Persuasive
communication is an effective
Some examples of persuasive speeches:
 Become an organ donor
 Improve your health through better eating
 Television violence is negatively influencing our children
 Become a volunteer and change the world
Argumentative speech is the first part of persuasive public speaking.
Argumentative speeches are often about hot topics, and they encourage the audience
to change their views or opinions on a topic. The speaker shows an obvious problem at
the beginning of the speech and then moves on to show proof of that problem and then
suggests a solution in the body. The conclusion sums up the speech's main idea and
supporting points and should leave the audience ready to make a decision based on
what they just heard.
When delivering an argumentative speech, the speaker must be careful to use
facts rather than emotions to support the chosen claim, and it's important to avoid bias.
The argument should appeal to rational intellect by finding a common ground to
enable the audience to fully understand the topics.
Argument should anticipate the ethical, religious, social and political beliefs and
feelings of the audience
Argument should appeal to the sense of right and wrong, justice and fair play
The primary purpose of a speech to entertain is to have the audience relax,
smile and enjoy the occasion. The speech should have a central theme or a focus. A
series of jokes will NOT work well for this type of speech. It aims to amuse and delight
people. Offers lighter moments to people to make them run away from the usual
humdrums of everyday life.
Speech writing checklist (Peterson 205)
Give a dramatic twist to normal issue
Perform dialogues and metaphors
Tell a personal experience and interrelate humorous anecdote to the main theme
Give mocking comments on perfectly ordinary things, persons, places, values or
Purpose of Entertaining Speech:
 Crowd pleaser
 Hold attention
It is a way to stir up people's higher-order values and plant positive and valid
ideals in life. Inspirational speaker is a speaker who makes speeches intended to
motivate or inspire an audience. An Inspirational speech is written to persuade, or
convince the listeners, that they can succeed.
This might involve relating optimistic and uplifting stories, or anecdotes, based on
faith or real life situations taken from the lives of ordinary or famous people from history,
sports, politics and the Business world.
The objective of an inspirational speech is to provide the listener with the desire
and confidence to pursue difficult goals to maximize their own potential.
The main elements to writing a successful and effective Inspirational speech are
to convey your credibility as a speaker and your passion for the subject:
In still optimism to make the audience believe in what you are saying
Goals must be positive and the audience must believe that they are achievable
Convey the subject with enthusiasm, passion and conviction to appeal to the
emotions of the audience
Inspire the audience with a 'Can Do' approach
As you read through the various speeches, you will learn how and where these
speeches are used. Along with the name of the speeches, their description has also
been provided. Take a look.
When an individual receives a kind of award or prize, an acceptance speech is
given. Here, the speech usually comprises the individual sharing praises for people
who supported him/her to reach this far and genuinely feel thankful and/or
appreciative of the award.
As the name suggests, this speech is given to congratulate a married couple on
reaching such an incredible milestone in their life and marriage together. The speech
is quite informal in nature as mostly family and friends are the ones who deliver it.
Anniversary speeches are pretty short and mostly include special moments and
memories about the couple.
This speech is usually given by the birthday boy/girl. It is an informal affair which
includes family and friends as guests. A birthday speech can also be given by family
members and/or friends in which the speech mostly has a special salutation
where everyone (guests) raise their glasses to wish the birthday boy/girl.
This speech is delivered to students who are graduating from the university. The
commencement ceremony, where the degrees and/or diplomas are being handed
to the students, the speech is presented by an important, more noticeable figure
from the community.
This speech is designed and delivered in such a way that the audience can be
shown how to do certain things. The use of visual aids and printed material is
necessary so that the audience can follow the speaker as he/she moves along the
As the name suggests, an entertaining speech is given by the speaker in order to
amuse the audience. The speech is the means for laughter and pleasure where
the speaker uses jokes and anecdotes. Basically, these speeches are to be
enjoyed to the fullest.
Eulogies are given at a funeral service when someone has recently passed
IMPORTANT ELEMENTS of a eulogy are to let the audience know how you knew
the deceased, to share a personal story or two that sheds a positive light on the
character of the person, and to let the family members and friends of the deceased
know how much their loved one contributed to you or the community and how he or
she will be missed.
This speech is given in the honor of an individual who is moving away to
another place. The reason can be many for this move such as marriage, career,
etc., and the speech is supposed to tell that individual that everyone is going to miss
him/her after their departure.
As the name suggests, this speech is given by a student, in high school,
college, or university at the time of graduation. The speech is presented in front
of the graduating class, teachers and professors, family members, and friends. A
graduation speech should be short, concise, entertaining, and unique where the
speaker touches few important incidents from the past and talk about the upcoming
and unknown future.
This speech, as the name suggests, is prepared and delivered in a short amount
of time. The speaker doesn't have the liberty of time and has to come up with the
content to be spoken at the speech within minutes. An impromptu speech is one of
the different styles of speeches for high school and university students, as well as
In this speech, the speaker collects ideas, facts, and helpful information to
support the speech. An informative speech educates the audience about an
important subject and tries to give the audience complete information about it.
This speech, as the name would highlight, the speaker persuades or convinces
the audience that anything they put their mind to in life, they will succeed. The
speech is given to inspire the audience and instill confidence in them by presenting
uplifting stories. The attitude throughout the speech is basically of "can do".
As the name suggests, the introduction speech is given by the speaker to introduce
the speaker for the day and his/her subject. Through this speech, the audience
becomes well aware of who the speaker is and what will be covered in the speech
given by him/her.
A memorized speech is given at formal events. The speech is first written and then
the speaker memorizes it word-for-word as it has to be delivered in the same
manner. The speaker doesn't use notes or index cards to remind him/her of the
speech as it is memorized.
As the name suggests, a motivational speech is given to motivate and convince
people to believe in something or point of view. Let it be any subject, the
audience is given the main reason or problem about the same, is presented with the
benefits, and then is provided with the much required motivation to pursue it fully.
During this speech, the speaker provides valuable and factual information about
the subject where the audience is meant to think, act, and believe in a
particular ideology. The persuasive speech basically shows positive or negative
side of the subject at hand and gives the audience the necessary information to
make their educated deductions.
Retiring from a job, particularly one where you have had some longevity is often a
bittersweet event. People look forward to retirement but, also, there is a sense of
loss and change. This speech highlights the milestone in that individual's work
life and end of career. Filled with laughter and sadness, the retirement speech is a
good way to appreciate the individual's hard work and dedication to his/her work.
A toast in itself is a speech given at events such as birthdays, anniversaries, and
weddings. The speaker has a drink in his/her hand and says a few words that
identifies and presents goodwill to that particular occasion, event, or person.
This speech pays tribute or praises the individual who is either dead or alive.
The speaker develops admiration, respect, and knowledge about the person for
whom the speech is given.
- You will be able to develop your talents in this area if you continually strive to
improve them. You will be able to effectively form solid business relationships with
individuals with whom you work collaboratively.
Four Types of Communication in the Workplace to Increase Efficiency and
In the workplace, it is common to incorporate visual communication in order to
share ideas that relate to the business, provide information to those that work in
the company, and to outline specific points that need to be emphasized for the
success of the business. Examples of this type of communication include specially
designed signs, electronic communication, documents, and even presentations.
Written communication is also quite important when it comes to the workplace.
This form of communication involves either writing or typing out information, facts,
figures, and other types of necessary information in order to express ideas
among those in a business. Examples of this type of communication include reports,
evaluations, emails, instant messages, physical and electronic memos, training
materials, and other types of documents that are similar in nature. In the workplace, this
is a flexible type of communication as it could be formal or informal - depending on the
message(s) that are being expressed.
Advantages of Written Communication:
Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and
rules for running of an organization.
It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where record
maintenance is required.
It assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in case of oral
communication, it is impossible to fix and delegate responsibilities on the grounds
of speech as it can be taken back by the speaker or he may refuse to acknowledge.
Written communication is more precise and explicit.
Effective written communication develops and enhances an organizational
It provides ready records and references.
Legal defenses can depend upon written communication as it provides valid
Disadvantages of Written Communication:
Written communication does not save upon the costs. It costs huge in terms of
stationery and the manpower employed in writing/typing and delivering letters.
Also, if the receivers of the written message are separated by distance and if
they need to clear their doubts, the response is not spontaneous.
Written communication is time-consuming as the feedback is not immediate.
The encoding and sending of message takes time.
Effective written communication requires great skills and competencies in
language and vocabulary use. Poor writing skills and quality have a negative
impact on organizational reputation.
Too much paper work and e-mails burden is involved.
Verbal communication is a core component when it comes to the overall success
of a business. Verbal means that certain sounds, specific languages, and the
spoken word may be used. In today's world, there is a large diversity of individuals
that make up the standard workforce.
Advantages of Oral Communication:
There is high level of understanding and transparency in oral communication
as it is interpersonal.
There is no element of rigidity in oral communication. There is flexibility for
allowing changes in the decisions previously taken.
The feedback is spontaneous in case of oral communication. Thus, decisions
can be made quickly without any delay.
Oral communication is not only time saving, but it also saves upon money and
Oral communication is best in case of problem resolution. The conflicts,
disputes and many issues/differences can be put to an end by talking them over.
Oral communication is an essential for teamwork and group energy.
Oral communication promotes a receptive and encouraging morale among
organizational employees.
Oral communication can be best used to transfer private and confidential
Disadvantages/Limitations of Oral Communication:
Relying only on oral communication may not be sufficient as business
communication is formal and very organized.
Oral communication is less authentic than written communication as they are
informal and not as organized as written communication.
Oral communication is time-saving as far as daily interactions are concerned, but
in case of meetings, long speeches consume lot of time
and are unproductive at times.
Oral communications are not easy to maintain and thus they are unsteady.
There may be misunderstandings as the information is not complete and may
lack essentials.
It requires attentiveness and great receptivity on part of the receivers/audience.
Oral communication (such as speeches) is not frequently used as legal records
except in investigation work.
When this occurs, it means that a physical manner of communication is being
used to share ideas and meanings among others. The physical activities may include
the way that you move your body, the tone that is displayed when it comes to the
tone of an individual's voice, and touching.
KINESICS: It is the study of facial expressions, postures & gestures. Did you
know that while in Argentina to raise a fist in the air with knuckles pointing outwards
expresses victory, in Lebanon, raising a closed fist is considered rude?
It is the study of the role of eye contact in non verbal communication. Did
you know that in the first 90 sec - 4 min you decide that you are interested in
someone or not. Studies reveal that 50% of this first impression comes from nonverbal communication which includes oculesics. Only 7% of comes from words that we actually say.
It is the study of touching. Did you know that acceptable level of touching
vary from one culture to another? In Thailand, touching someone's head may be
considered as rude.
It is the study of measurable distance between people as they interact. Did
you know that the amount of personal space when having an informal
conversation should vary between 18 inches - 4 feet while, the personal distance
needed when speaking to a crowd of people should be around 10-12 feet?
It is the study of use of time in non-verbal communication. Have you ever
observed that while AN employee will not worry about running a few minutes late to
meet a colleague, a manager who has a meeting with the CEO, a late arrival will be
considered as a nonverbal cue that he / she does not give adequate respect to his
It is the study of variations in pitch, speed, volume, and pauses to convey
meaning. Interestingly, when the speaker is making a presentation and is looking for
a response, he will pause. However, when no response is desired, he will talk faster
with minimal pause.
Your physical appearance always contributes towards how people perceive
you. Neatly combed hair, ironed clothes and a lively smile will always carry more
weight than words.
Remember, what we say is less important than how we say it as words are
only 7% of our communication. Understand and enjoy non-verbal communication as
it helps forming better first impressions. Good luck!
 Downward
 Upward
 Lateral
 Diagonal
 External
Communication that flows from a higher level in an organization to a lower
level is a downward communication. In other words, communication from
SUPERIORS TO SUBORDINATES in a chain of command is a downward
Providing feedback on employees performance
Giving job instructions
Providing a complete understanding of the employees job as well as to
communicate them how their job is related to other jobs in the organization.
Communicating the organizations mission and vision to the employees.
Highlighting the areas of attention.
Organizational publications, circulars, letter to employees, group
meetings etc. are all examples of downward communication.
Communication that flows to a higher level in an organization is called upward
communication. It provides feedback on how well the organization is functioning.
Grievance Redressal System, Complaint and Suggestion Box, Job
Satisfaction surveys etc.
Examples: -performance reports, employee attitude surveys, letters
from employees, employee-manager discussions etc.
communication between peers, between MANAGERS AT SAME LEVELS or
between any horizontally EQUIVALENT organizational members.
It is time saving.
It facilitates co-ordination of the task.
It facilitates co-operation among team members.
It provides emotional and social assistance to the organizational members.
It helps in solving various organizational problems.
It is a means of information sharing
It can also be used for resolving conflicts of a department with other department
or conflicts within a department.
sharing of information among DIFFERENT STRUCTURAL LEVELS within a
business. In the same way that CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TEAMS are becoming more
common, since it can maximize the efficiency of information exchange. It is also
refers to communication that CROSSES BOTH LEVEL and FUNCTIONS and
department, where staff members from different department, irrespective of their
reporting relationship interact with one another within the organization.
. The manager of the company directly communicate to the any workers,
similarly the workers can also communicate with the manager for making inquiry or
submitting of any confidential information.
Communication that takes place between a MANAGER AND EXTERNAL GROUPS
such as suppliers, vendors, banks, financial institutes etc.
For instance - To raise capital the Managing director would interact with the
Bank Manager.
Effective Communication is significant for managers in the organizations so as to
perform the basic functions of management, i.e., Planning, Organizing, Leading and
Communication promotes motivation by informing and clarifying the
employees about the task to be done.
Communication is a source of information
Communication also helps in socializing.
As discussed earlier, communication also assists in controlling process.
They use the simplest way of expressing i.e., WRITTEN CORRESPONDENCE. A
written correspondence in the business world is the business correspondence.
Any communication in the FORM OF THE LETTER is correspondence.
1. Maintaining a Proper Relationship
2. Serves as Evidence
3. Create and Maintain Goodwill
4. Inexpensive and Convenient
5. Formal Communication
6. Helps in the Expansion of Business
It refers to the correspondence between the individuals, departments, or
branches of the SAME ORGANIZATION.
EXAMPLE: a memorandum, promotion letter, letter of dismissal, letter of
approval, written reprimand, formal requests, and notice to explain.
It refers to the correspondence BETWEEN TWO INDIVIDUALS. These are NOT of
external correspondence.
EXAMPLE: Customer and suppliers, banks, educational institutions,
government departments come under this category.
It refers to the correspondence on ROUTINE MANNERS. A correspondence made
for inquiries, orders, replies, acknowledgments, invitation, and appointment letters
are routine correspondence.
It refers to the correspondence RELATED TO THE SALE. Sales letters, sales
reports, invoice, and confirmation of orders are sale correspondence. Delivery letters,
statement of accounts etc. are also some of its examples.
It refers to the correspondence based on EMOTIONAL FACTORS. Letters of the
request, recommendation, and congratulations are personalized correspondence.
Letter of introduction, granting and the refusal of terms are some of its examples.
It refers to the communication of common matter to a LARGE NUMBER of
PERSONS or firms. Circulars, notices of tenders, change of address, an opening of
the new branch come under this category. An introduction of new products is also its
line- street address. Second line- your City, state, and zip code. Third line- the date the
letter was written (1-2 spaces)
INSIDE ADDRESS - It contains the NAME OF RECIPIENT, title of recipient, name of
company, address of the company, and the city, state and zip code. (1-2 spaces)
BODY – (Intro)(body)(ending) (double space) (2 space)
COMPLIMENTARY CLOSURE - write, respectfully yours, very respectfully yours, truly
yours, very truly yours, sincerely, sincerely yours, or vice versa. The complimentary
close begins with a capital letter and ends with a comma. (2-3 spaces)
SIGNATURE – Printed name and signature
ENCLOSURES – PS. Post Script
--- All components of
the letter are aligned to the
--- All the first
sentences of the paragraphs
--- It is the MOST
--- Heading, Dateline,
Complimentary Close, and
Signature are aligned to the
other components are retain and
written in the same manner.
--- SAME with the
--------BUT---------- all the first
sentences in the paragraphs
--- The OTHER
and written just like the Full
Cover Letter is also known as an APPLICATION LETTER or a one-page document that
provides a clear and concise idea about why the candidate is the best person for the
job. It is usually SENT TOGETHER WITH THE RESUME as it introduces the work
history of a job seeker, professional skills, and personal interest in applying for a job.
1. HEADINGS where you write your address as a sender. You can also include your
name and contact details. After that, you need to leave 1-2 spaces for the Dateline.
For example :
Maria Georgianne Marfori
San Luis, Quezon City
09099999999 | meganmarfori@gmail.com
2. DATELINE where you write the day and the format of the date must complete from
month, date, comma, and year. After that, you need to leave 1-2 spaces for the Inside
For Example :
January 10, 2021
3. INSIDE ADDRESS or RECIPIENT'S ADDRESS where you write the address of the
receiver or the one who receives the letter together with his position as well as the
name and address of the company below. After that, leave 1-2 spaces if you want to
add an Attention Line if you know the hiring manager.
For example :
Elizalde Enterprises
Ayala Avenue, Makati City
4. ATTENTION LINE or it is a part of the receiver's address in the letter on an envelope
which name the person to whom the letter should handed to but it is not necessary to
add the attention line especially, if you don't know the hiring manager or personnel.
After that, leave 1-2 spaces again for the Salutation.
For example :
Board of Management
5. SALUTATION or a greeting expression that needs in a letter to be more formal. You
need to use a COLON INSTEAD of COMMA in the end of salutation because it is the
most formal
way of ending a salutation.
For example :
- Madam:
- Sir:
Optional :
6. SUBJECT LINE is the portion of the letter where you tell the recipient what is
your subject.
 It is not necessary to add a subject line in a business letter.
For example : Cover Letter
--- 1-2 spaces
7. BODY of the Cover letter which contains the message.
(First Paragraph)
- Tell something what you learn and where you’ve read the advertisement about job
- Tell something about being the right person that the company is looking for.
(Second Paragraph)
- Tell your background and experiences.
(Third Paragraph)
- Tell your skills, strengths, and passions that will fit together in the job position.
(Closing Paragraph)
- End your letter with a call of action or ask something if you want the recipient or
leader to contact you and learn about you.
--- 2-3 spaces
8. COMPLEMENTARY CLOSE or a signoff phrase shows your respect and
appreciation for the person who is considering the request in your letter or email.
For example :
- Respectfully yours,
- Truly yours,
- Sincerely,
--- 2-3 spaces
- Write your name in a capital letters and write below the Applicant.
- Sign your overprinted name.
For example :
• Business Letters
• Business Memo
• Business Email
• Business Faxes
- is the basic means of communication between two companies or two parties.
- form of WRITTEN COMMUNICATION between a sender and a receiver used to
transact business
- MOST business letters have a FORMAL TONE
Cover Letter
Complaint Letter
Congratulatory Letter
Application Letter
Job Promotion Letter
Inquiry Letter
Product Order Confirmation Letter
Letter of Gratitude
Appreciation Notes
Short for Business Memorandum or it is a short document used to transmit
information within an organization.
1. Bring attention to problems
2. Solve the problems.
• LESS FORMAL than letters BUT should MAINTAIN a PROFESSIONAL or a compact
•MEMO: (title centered at the top of the page)
•TO: (readers names and job titles or you can generalize the readers)
•FROM: (your name and job title)
•DATE: (write a complete month and current date)
•SUBJECT: (what the memo is about, highlighted in some way, specific and concise.)
•BODY summarize purpose in using short and concise sentences usually into the three
•CLOSING – or the ending statement of tge Business Memo.
 Make a COURTEOUS closing statement such as “Thank for your
cooperation”, “Thank for your consideration” and etc.
•You can also include a REFERENCE INITIALS or the initials of the sender of the
business memo and followed by the initials of the typist.
For example :
•There is NO COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE such “Respectfully yours,” or other letter-like
- Business emails are a pillar of modern communication and has become the main way
that many business professionals communicate.
These are the two that you need to remember when writing a business email.
1. Find Your Business Email Audience
•Use a formal email style:
- if it’s required in your organization
- if the recipients aren’t well known to you
- when sending an email to someone who is above you in authority such as your boss
or a teacher
•Use an informal email style:
- if it’s encouraged in your organization (your boss and others use an informal style)
- for a business colleague who is well-known to you and/or on friendly terms
- for personal emails that may contain both business and non-business topics.
2. Know the Structure of a Business Email
• All good business emails should have at least these parts:
1. SUBJECT LINE – specific the topic of the letter,
2. SALUTATION – greeting expression in a letter.
3. BODY TEXT – main message of the email.
4. SIGNATURE – write your name, your position, company name, and contact details.
• FAX is an important tool commonly used in the business world and it is used as a
fast moving hard copy of a document. It’s important in business as a form of evidence,
documenting urgent business situations.
• • It is short for FACSIMILE and sometimes called tele copying or the telephonic
transmission of scanned-in printed material (text or images), usually to a telephone
number associated with a printer or other output device.
• Business Fax messages consist of:
1. A Cover sheet
2. A letter or attached documents
3. The fax form should state the number of pages being sent.
- Use Standard business letter format for the sake of clarity as the attachment.
-Use standard size stationery for attachments.
+ Date
+ Time
+ To: Recipient’s name
+ From: Sender’s name
+ Sender’s phone number
+ Sender’s fax number
+ Subject description
+ Message text
+ Leave at least one line between each heading.
REPORT – It is a written document that provides information, describing the findings of
some individual or group.
STUDENT-LABORATORY REPORT – This report is written to describe and analyze
the laboratory experiment that explores in scientific concepts.
CASE STUDY – This type of report investigates the underlying concepts that focus on a
specific person, organization, or event that is both descriptive and exploratory.
RECOMMENDATION REPORT – A recommendation report is created to suggest or
recommend possible solutions to a problem to meet a needs.
PROGRESS REPORT – This report is a document that contains information about the
progress or update on a specific project.
FEASIBILITY STUDY/REPORT – this type of report seeks to identify the possible
strengths, and weaknesses of the proposed project, or an entire organisation or
MEMORANDUM – A memorandum report or commonly known as “memo”, is a written
report prepared for a person, committee, organization and etc. to provide them with
information on a specific subject.
INCIDENT REPORT – is the process of collecting, recording, and managing an
incident, such as an injury, property damage, or security problem.
ACCIDENT REPORT – Process of collecting, recording, and managing a serious injury,
property damage, or security problem.
SALES REPORT – A sales report, often called a sales analysis report, is a document
that sums up a company’s sales operations.
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS REPORT – These reports are typically used during
refinancing procedures in addition to providing homeowners with extra information
about their homes.
ELECTRICAL REPORT - or Electrical Installation Condition Report is an official
document that’s created after an inspection of a property’s electrical installation.
DEMOGRAPHIC REPORT – A demographic report is a document that offers
information on the population based on criteria such as age, race, and gender.
PERIODIC REPORT – This report is submitted on a regular basis for the goal of
keeping track of data.
TRADE REPORT – Trade reporting is the practice of notifying the proper regulator of a
security trade or concern.
SERVICE REPORT – this report’s main goal is to keep track to the quality of the
product or the service.
OPERATION REPORT – Operational reporting is a technique for documenting the ins
and outs of a company’s day-to-day deliverables, which are frequently related to
WORK REPORT – this report is a document that includes a summary of the work
progress as well as recommendations on work-related issues.
CONSTRUCTION REPORT – this report serve as a running tally or list of the project’s
FAILURE REPORT – The failure report is a procedure for determining the underlying
cause of a product’s or equipment’s failure.
INDUSTRIAL-RESEARCH REPORT – Industrial research is defined as deliberate
research or critical examination aiming at acquiring new information and skills in order
to generate new products
EVALUATIVE REPORT – This report is a written document that describes how the
program or project was observed and evaluated.
COMPLETION REPORT – is a document made for the formal closing of the a project.
EXAMINATION REPORT – from its name “examination” this report is about the
examination done my the examiner.
INSPECTION REPORT – is created to identify all the possible problems or loopholes
that the property or project have.
SPECIAL REPORT – is conducted by a single person or by a group, committee,
subcommittee, or commission that provides facts or information that is either detailed or
Proposals come under many different guises. They range from casual, one-page
memos to multiple –volumes that are hundreds of pages long. Usually, a proposal is a
document written by a person, business, or agency who wishes to perform a job or
solve a problem for another person, business, or agency and receive funding or money
for the proposed task.
There is no fix format or form of the progress report but most of them have the
following parts.
Indicate the purpose and contents of the proposal. Mention prior contact with
the recipient, or how you found out about the project. Give an overview of the
contents of the proposal.
Discuss the background of the project – the problem or opportunity that has
brought about this proposal.
State what you propose to do about the problem, how you plan to help the
readers take advantage of the opportunity, how you intend to help them with the
Discuss the benefits of doing the proposed object, the advantages that come
from approving it.
Describe exactly what the completed project would consist of, what it would look
like, how it would work –describe the results of the project.
Discuss or describe what the finished product will look like, how it will work (in
the case of the report project, describe the report in terms of page count,
graphics, audience, contents, etc.
Either here or in the benefits section, discuss the likelihood of the full benefits of
the projects – particularly if it’s a business venture.
Provide a schedule, including major milestones or checkpoints in the project.
Briefly list your qualifications for the project: provide a mini-resume of the
background you have that makes you right for the project.
Costs and fees
List the costs of the project, the resources you’ll need to the project
Create a closing for the proposal, in which you urge the reader to contact you,
possibly review the benefits of doing the project and having your organization do
the work.
Is a human activity based on intellectual application in investigation of matter. It is a tool
of searching for a theory, and for solving a problem.
The word research is derived from the French rechercher, to search closely where
“chercher” means “to search”; and is literally means “to investigate thoroughly”.
Other definitions are given by some writers:
Research is systematic, formal, rigorous, and precise process employed to
gain solutions to problems and/or to discover and interpret new facts and
relationships (Waltz and Bausell, 1981).
Research is the process of looking for a specific answer to a specific question
in an organized, objective, reliable way (Payton, 1979).
Research is the systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical investigation of
hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural
phenomena (Kerlinger, 1973).
Research is to search again, to take another more careful look, to find out
more (Selltiz, et al., 1979).
Research is a systematic quest for undiscovered truth (Leedy, 1974).
Research is a systematic attempt to provide answers to questions (Tuckman,
The most common type library research report, thesis, baby thesis, and dissertation,
but there are many more. There are many types and names of research, and it depends
on the institution, purpose, and method. The following are some of the types of research
according to method ( Gay and Airasian, 2003).
1. Historical research
It is involved with the study of past events. It is the critical investigation of events,
developments, and experiences of the past, the careful weighing of evidence of the
validity of sources of information on the on the past and the interpretation of the
weighed evidence. The difference between this type of research and others is that the
focus is the past. Data are gathered through the collection of original documents or
interviewing eye witnesses.
2. Qualitative research
It is also referred to as ethnographic research, is involved in the study of current events
rather than past events. It involves the collection of extensive narrative data (nonnumerical data) on many variables over an extended period of time in a naturalistic
setting. Participant observation, where that researcher lives with the subjects being
observed is frequently used in qualitative research. Case studies are also used in the
last type of research mentioned.
3. Descriptive research
It involves collecting data in order to test hypotheses or answer questions regarding
the subjects of the study. In contrast with the qualitative approach the data are
numerical. The data are typically collected through a questionnaire, an interview, or
through observation.
In the descriptive research, the investigator reports the numerical results for one or
more variables on the subjects of the study.
4. Correlational research
It attempts to determine whether and as to what degree, a relationship exists between
two or more quantifiable (numerical) variables. However, it is important to remember
that although there is a significant relationship between two variables, it does not
follow that one variable causes the other. When two variables are correlated, you can
use the relationship to predict the value on one variable for a subject if you know the
subject’s value on the other variable. Correlation implies prediction but not causation.
The investigator frequently uses the correlation coefficient to report the results of
correlational research.
5. Causal-comparative research
It attempts to establish cause-effect relationships among the variables of the study.
The attempt is to establish that the values of the independent variable have a
significant effect on the dependent variable. This type of research usually involves
group comparisons. The groups in the study make up the values of the independent
variable: for example, gender (male versus female) preschool attendance versus no
preschool attendance, or children with a working mother versus children without a
working mother. These could be the independent variables for the sample studies
listed below. However in causal-comparative research, the independent variable is not
under the experimenter’s control, that is, the experimenter can’t randomly assign the
subjects to a gender classification (male or female) but has to take the values of the
independent variable as they come. The dependent variable in a study is the outcome
6. Experimental research
It is like causal-comparative research attempts to establish cause-effect relationship
among the groups of subjects that make up the independent variable of the study,
but in the case of experimental research, the cause (the independent variable) is under
the control of the experimenter. That is, the experimenter can randomly assign
subjects to the groups that make up the independent variable in the study. In the
typical experimental conditions that constitute the independent variable of the study
and then measures the effect this group membership has on another variable, i.e. the
dependent variable of the study.
7. Action research
It is a methodology that combines action and research to examine specific questions,
issues, or phenomena through observation and reflection, and deliberate intervention
to improve practice.
8. Applied research
It is a research undertaken to solve practical problems rather than to acquire
knowledge for knowledge sake.
9. Basic research
It is an experimental and a theoretical work undertaken to acquire knowledge for
knowledge sake.
10. Clinical trials
These are research studies undertaken to determine better ways to prevent, screen
for, diagnose, or treat diseases.
11. Epidemiological research
It is concerned with the description of health and welfare in populations through the
collection of data related to health and the frequency, distribution, and determinants
of disease in populations, with the aim of improving health.
12. Evaluation research
It is a research conducted to measure the effectiveness or performance of a program,
concept, or campaign in achieving its objectives.
13. Literature review
It is a critical examination, summarization, interpretation, or evaluation of existing
literature in order to establish current knowledge on a subject.
PLAGIARISM is a combination of stealing and lying about it afterwards. It means using
others’ work and misrepresenting that work as your own without giving the author credit:
this includes ideas, words, data, computer programming, or any other creative endeavour.
An extreme example would be copying or purchasing an entire paper and submitting it
as your own. Less extreme would be submitting a paper you have written for credit in
another course without prior permission from your instructor. A more common example
would be copying another author’s phrases, sentences, ideas, or arguments without citing
the source.
Complete plagiarism- Submit another authors work in your name. The severe form of plagiarism
where a researchers takes a manuscript or study that someone else created and, submits it under
his or her name. It is equivalent to intellectual theft and stealing.
Sourced-based plagiarism- Reference an incorrect or non-existent source. A researcher uses a
secondary source of data or information but only cites the primary source of information. The
consequences of this type of plagiarism can be grave, particularly when it comes to medical
research, because it can be adversely affect clinical decisions.
Direct plagiarism- Copy text from another document word-to-word. A word-from-word
transcription of a section of someone else’s work without attribution and without quotation
marks. The deliberate plagiarism of someone else’s work is unethical, academically, dishonest,
and grounds for disciplinary actions, including expulsion.
Self or auto plagiarism- Reuse a major part of your own work without attribution. Commonly
describe as recycling or reusing one’s own specific words from previous publish text. In short
self plagiarism is any attempt to take any of your own previous published text, papers, or
research results and make it appear brand new.
Mosaic plagiarism- Interlay someone else’s phrase or text within your work. Occurs when a
student borrows phrases from a source without using quotation marks, or finds synonyms for the
authors language while keeping to the same general structure and meaning of the original.
Accidental plagiarism- Unintentional paraphrasing or copying due to neglect. That occurs when
a writer fails to follow proper scholarly procedures for citation without an explicit intent to cheat.
Inaccurate authorship- authorship instead of acknowledgment to contributors vice-versa. Also
known as misleading attribution, a inaccuracies in how student cite authors of an academic
piece. This is because the authors of the piece have been not given due credit by the student,
therefore the content has been misused and plagiarized.
Ten Golden Rules to Avoid Plagiarism
1. If you didn't write the paper yourself, don't hand it in. (Don't buy, commission,
download, or borrow papers from other sources, or write a paper with a friend and
each submit it as your own work.)
2. Get written permission from your instructor before turning in a paper you have used
for another course. (For example, if you have written a paper in a Russian history course
dealing with some aspect of the Soviet Union and then the next year take a Political
Science course covering the same country and period, you should not submit that
paper again to your Political Science professor without permission.)
3. You must give credit in a citation, footnote, or endnote whenever you use more than
three words from another source (this will appear in your text within quotation marks)
or whenever you use someone else's idea, even when phrased in your own words.
4. When taking notes or downloading from another source, copy all of the bibliographic
information right beside the information.
5. When taking notes or downloading, make sure you immediately put quotation marks
around any words or phrases copied directly from the source.
6. When taking notes and paraphrasing an idea, look away from the source, write your
paraphrase, check back to ensure that you have not used the original words, then circle
your paraphrase to indicate that it is in your own words. You will still need to provide
the accurate reference citation for the idea, so write down all of the bibliographical
material right then and there.
7. Never cut and paste text to create a paper from several quoted sources, supplying
only your own introduction and conclusion. This is a patchwork quilt, not an essay.
8. Quote all the words that you have copied. A common type of plagiarism occurs when
students quote a sentence or two, include a citation, then continue on copying the
words from the source without quotation marks, implying that these were the
students' own summarizing words. (This is wrong even with a concluding citation).
9. Never fake a citation or reference in your reference list in order to pad your research
10. When engaged in a group project, always get detailed instructions from your professor
about ownership of work. When writing individual papers resulting from collaborative
group work, give credit in citations for ideas generated by other members of the