FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE • Simile: a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid (e.g., as brave as a lion). • Metaphor: A metaphor is a figure of speech that is used to make a comparison between two things that aren't alike but do have something in common. Unlike a simile, where two things are compared directly using like or as, a metaphor's comparison is more indirect, usually made by stating something is something else (e.g., She is a snake). • Extended Metaphor: An extended metaphor is a version of metaphor that extends over the course of multiple lines, paragraphs, or stanzas of prose or poetry. Extended metaphors build upon simple metaphors with figurative language and more varied, descriptive comparisons (e.g., Life is like eating a grapefruit. First, one breaks its skin; then one takes a few bites to get used to its taste, and finally one starts enjoying its flavor. The dark is an unknown and scary black blanket, a place of nightmares). • Personification: the attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something non-human, or the representation of an abstract quality in human form. "the book provides a sustained account of how literary personification works" • Onomatopoeia (“klanknabootsing”): Onomatopoeia is the process of creating a word that phonetically imitates, resembles, or suggests the sound that it describes. Such a word itself is also called an onomatopoeia. Common onomatopoeias include animal noises such as "oink", "meow", "roar" and "chirp". • Oxymoron: a figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction (e.g., faith unfaithful kept him falsely true). • Paradox: A paradox is a seemingly contradictory statement, which actually makes sense or contains some truth (e.g., This is the beginning of the end). • Hyperbole: Hyperbole is the use of exaggeration as a rhetorical device or figure of speech. • Allusion: an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference. "an allusion to Shakespeare" • Idiom: a group of words established by usage as having a meaning not deducible from those of the individual words (e.g., over the moon, see the light). • Imagery: Part of the figurative language in a literary work, whereby the author uses vivid images to describe a phenomenon. • Symbolism: Symbolism is a literary device that uses symbols, be they words, people, marks, locations, or abstract ideas to represent something beyond the literal meaning. The concept of symbolism is not confined to works of literature: symbols inhabit every corner of our daily life. • Alliteration: In literature, alliteration is the repetition of identical initial consonant (medeklinkers) sounds in successive or closely associated syllables within a group of words, even those spelled differently. For example, Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. • Assonance: Assonance, or “vowel rhyme,” is the repetition of vowel (klinkers) sounds across a line of text or poetry. For example, the light of the fire is a sight. • Irony: As a literary device, irony is a contrast or incongruity between expectations for a situation and what is reality. This can be a difference between the surface meaning of something that is said and the underlying meaning. It can also be a difference between what might be expected to happen and what actually occurs. • Anaphora (Repetition): In poetry, repetition is repeating words, phrases, lines, or stanzas. Repetition is used to emphasize a feeling or idea, create rhythm, and/or develop a sense of urgency. • Sarcasm: Sarcasm is an ironic or satirical remark tempered by humor. Mainly, people use it to say the opposite of what's true to make someone look or feel foolish. • Pun (a play on words): a joke exploiting the different possible meanings of a word or the fact that there are words which sound alike but have different meanings. "the Railway Society reception was an informal party of people of all stations (excuse the pun) in life" • Euphemism (Understatement): Making an understatement minimizes the severity of a situation, draws in the reader and can be used to make others feel better. An understatements can also add a touch of humour to something quite serious. • Epithet an adjective or phrase expressing a quality or attribute regarded as characteristic of the person or thing mentioned (e.g., "old men are often unfairly awarded the epithet ‘dirty’"). • Synecdoche Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which a part is used to represent the whole, or the whole is used to represent a part (e.g., Britain won gold at the Winter Olympics).