MEASURING BUSINESS INCOME: RECORDING ADJUSTMENTS 2 Hello! 3 WHY? Purpose of adjustment: 1. To reflect the proper amount of income realized and expenses incurred during the accounting period. (Calendar year- ends Dec 31; Fiscal year- period of 12 months but ends on a date other than Dec 31) 2. To show a fairly measure of the assets, liabilities and owner’s equity. Adjusting process is made in order to comply with the generally accepted accounting principles regarding revenue recognition and matching principles. 4 The two accounting methods commonly used in practice to measure business income and expenses are (1) accrual basis and (2) cash basis. Accrual basis accounting recognizes transactions as they occur. Income is recognized when earned and expenses are recognized when incurred. Cash basis accounting recognizes income only when cash related to income is collected and expenses are recognized only when paid. 5 “The great difference between those who achieve and those who fail is concentration.” -Atty. Rigoberto Gallardo, CPA 6 Accounts that need to be adjusted: ⊸ Adjustment for the expiration of prepaid expenses. (Prepayments) ⊸ Adjustment for the realization of income collected in advance. (Pre-collections) ⊸ Adjustment for the accrued expenses or expenses incurred but not yet paid. (Accruals) ⊸ ⊸ Adjustment for the accrued income. (Accruals) ⊸ Provision for bad debts. (Estimated uncollectible accounts) ⊸ Ending inventory (applicable to merchandising and manufacturing businesses) ⊸ Bank account reconciliation. Provision for depreciation. (Depreciation & Amortization) 7 Prepayments Adjustment for Prepaid Expenses 8 Prepayments are advanced payments of business expenses or supplies to be used in a business operation. Prepaid expense is expenses paid in advance but this said expense is not yet incurred at the time of payment. The account is an asset and as it expires it becomes an expense. ASSET METHOD EXPENSE METHOD The original entry made is charged to an asset account. The original entry made is charged to an expense account. 9 Example: On October 31, 20XX, Joe Marts Enterprise paid in advance an insurance premium for ₱12,000 covering a period of one year. On December 31, 20XX, the financial statements are about to be prepared and adjusting entry should be made. 10 Asset Method: Initial Journal Entry Prepaid Insurance 12,000 Cash 12,000 Adjusting Journal Entry Insurance expense 2,000 Prepaid insurance 2,000 11 Analysis: Required prepaid insurance (₱12,000 x 10/12) Recorded prepaid insurance ₱10,000 (12,000) Decrease in prepaid insurance (₱2,000) In using asset method, the intention of the adjustment is to know the expired portion of the prepayments done. 12 Expense Method: Initial Journal Entry Insurance expense 12,000 Cash 12,000 Adjusting Journal Entry Prepaid insurance 10,000 Insurance expense 10,000 13 Analysis: Required insurance expense (₱12,000 x 2/12) Recorded insurance expense ₱2,000 (12,000) Decrease in insurance expense (₱10,000) In expense method, the intention of the adjustment is to know the unexpired portion of the prepayments done. 14 Precollections Adjustment for the realization of income collected in advance or Deferred (unearned) Income 15 Pre-collections (also known as deferred revenue) are advance collections of business from customers. Common types of pre-collected income are rent collected in advance, interest received in advance, miscellaneous income received in advance. INCOME METHOD LIABILITY METHOD The original entry made is charged to an income account. The original entry made is charged to a liability account. 16 Example: On October 1, 20XX, Kings Court Pension House received in advance a rent income of ₱60,000 covering a period of one year. On December 31, 20XX, the financial statements are about to be prepared and adjusting entry should be made. 17 Income Method: Initial Journal Entry Cash Rent Income 60,000 60,000 Adjusting Journal Entry Rent Income Unearned rent 45,000 45,000 18 Analysis: Required rent income (₱60,000 x 3/12) Recorded rent income ₱15,000 (60,000) Decrease in rent income (₱45,000) In using income method, the intention of the adjustment is to know the unearned portion of the deferred income received. 19 Liability Method: Initial Journal Entry Cash Unearned rent 60,000 60,000 Adjusting Journal Entry Unearned rent Rent income 15,000 15,000 20 Analysis: Required unearned rent (₱60,000 x 9/12) Recorded unearned rent ₱45,000 (60,000) Decrease in unearned rent (₱15,000) In liability method, the intention of the adjustment is to know the earned portion of the deferred income received. 21 Accruals Adjustment for Accrued Income and Expense Adjustment for Accrued Interest 22 The term “accrual” as used in accounting, means to recognize (to accrue) revenue earned regardless of when it was collected, and to record expenses incurred whether paid or not. Accrued income arises when goods have been decreased or services have been rendered but no payment have been collected or if there is payment, such collection is not yet recorded. Accrued expenses are items of expense which have been incurred and not yet due for payment at the end of the period. 23 IIllustration Accrued Income: Oliveros Company rendered service on account, ₱4,500. Journal Entry: Accounts Receivable Service Income ₱4,500 ₱4,500 24 25 IIllustration Accrued Expense: Company employees are paid every week. On December 31, 20XX, four days salary of an office employee for ₱382/day have accrued. Journal Entry: Salaries & Wages ₱1,528 Accrued Salaries & Wages ₱1,528 26 27 Adjustment for Accrued Interest Normally, notes issued to supplier bear an interest which is payable either quarterly, monthly or yearly. When the payment of interest arrived and no actual payment is done, then accrued interest is arising. Basic formula: P x R x T whereas: P- principal amount R- interest rate T- time (normally in years, months (12) or days (360) 28 Example: Regina Estillero issued promissory notes to the supplier, ₱10,000, 10% payable every January 31, dated October 1, 20XX. 29 IIllustration Accrued Interest: ₱10,000 x 10% x 3/12 = ₱250.00 Journal Entry: Interest expense Interest payable ₱250 ₱250 30 Depreciation Provision for Depreciation 31 Depreciation is the allocation of the cost (depreciate cost) of tangible assets used in business over its estimated useful life in years in accordance with the systematic and rational allocation expense principle of accounting. Examples include buildings, equipment, furniture and automobiles. Formula: Annual depreciation expense (SL) = acquisition cost – salvage value/ estimated useful life in years 32 Acquisition cost is the historical cost. It usually includes the purchase price and other incidental cost to acquire and prepare the fixed asset for its intended use. Salvage value refers to the scrap or residual value of the fixed asset at the end of its useful life. Estimated useful life is the estimated economic life of the fixed asset. 33 Example: On January 1, 20XX, Computromix acquired a computer with an invoice price of ₱47,000, and transportation cost and installation cost of ₱1,000 and ₱2,000, respectively. The computer is intended for office use. It was estimated to have a useful life of five years and a salvage value of ₱5,000. 34 Depreciation: Initial Journal Entry Office equipment Cash 50,000 50,000 Adjusting Journal Entry Depreciation expense 9,000 Accum. depreciation- office equipment 9,000 35 Estimated Uncollectible Accounts Provision for Bad Debts or Estimated Doubtful Account 36 When accounts receivables are already long overdue, some portion will be adjusted as “uncollectible accounts,” “bad debts”, or “doubtful accounts.” Determining uncollectible account expenses depends on the intention for which the financial statement prepared is submitted. If the financial statement is for BIR purposes, the only allowed method is the direct method. But if the FS is for general-purpose reporting, the allowance method shall be used. DIRECT METHOD ALLOWANCE METHOD Recording uncollectible accounts records bad debts expense only when a specific accounts receivable is ascertained to be worthless. This method is also known as “actual write-off method” because the worthless accounts receivable is removed from the books of accounts by writing it off. Records bad debts expense even if the uncollectible is only estimated. This method does not remove the amount of deemed uncollectible account, but only provides for allowance to reduce it at the end of the period. 37 Example: The following transactions of the Highland Enterprises: 1. Total sales on account, ₱50,000. 2. Amount estimated to be uncollectible, ₱6,000. 3. Actual amount ascertained to be worthless and was eventually written-off, ₱2,000. 38 1. To record sales on account. 2. To record estimated amount uncollectible. 3. To record actual amount ascertained to be worthless. 39 Thanks! Any questions?