G8 BIOLOGY Formative Assessment CH21 Life over life Topic 1 The origin of life NAME G8 BIOLOGY Formative Assessment CH21 NAME G8 BIOLOGY Formative Assessment CH21 NAME G8 BIOLOGY Formative Assessment CH21 NAME Key content Fill in the blanks with the words from the boxes: Microorganisms Vital force s-shaped Nonliving matter Organisms Spontaneously Broth Air Louis Pasteur Francesco Redi Biogenesis Spontaneous generation Microscope disproved Early scientists believed that life arose from (18) ______________________ through a process they called (19) ______________________. In 1668, the Italian physician (20) ______________________ conducted an experiment with flies that (21) ______________________ this idea. At about the same time, biologists began to use an important new research tool, the (22) ______________________. They soon discovered the vast world of (23) ______________________. The number and diversity of these organisms was so great that scientists were led to believe once again that these organisms must ave arisen (24) ______________________. By the mid-1800s, however, (25) ________________ was able to disprove this hypothesis once and for all. He set up an experiment, using flasks with unique (26) ______________________ necks. These flasks allowed (27) ____________, but no organisms, to come into contact with a broth containing nutrients. If some (28) ______________________ existed, as had been suggested, it would be able to get into the (29) ______________________ through the open neck of the flask. His experiment proved that organisms arise only from other (30) ______________________. This idea is called (31) ______________________, and it is one of the cornerstones of biology today G8 BIOLOGY Formative Assessment CH21 NAME Topic 2 Theory of evolution by nature selection Vocabulary Wright down the Chinese /Korean word in the blank, and find the definition for the word from the sentence below English Word Chinese/Korean Word Definition 1. Spontaneous Generation 2. Biogenesis 3. Controlled Experiment 4. Fossil 5. Geologic Time Scale 6. Precambrian Time 7. Paleozoic Era 8. Mesozoic Era 9. Cenozoic Era 10. Natural Selection 11. Overpopulation/Overproduction 12. Variation 13. Adaptation A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. Preserved evidence of an organism The first 4 billion years of the Earth The theory that states that Living things come from the non-living things A chart that expresses the Earth’s history A theory of evolution The second era of phanerozoic eon The theory that states that living things come from the non-living things. Individuals with in a species are different. The first era of phanerozoic eon A series of experiment that has only one independent variable The third era of phanerozoic eon Organisms make more offspring than the environment can support Individuals with advanced traits that can survive to have offspring. G8 BIOLOGY Formative Assessment CH21 NAME Key content Charles Darwin proposed the theory of ________________________. According to this theory, the organisms produce more offspring than that can survive. In his book, Darwin explained that evolution occurs by means of natural selection. _________________________________ is the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than other members of the same species. Darwin identified a number of factors that affect the process of natural selection: overproduction, competition, and variations. ________________________________ is when most species produce far more offspring than can possibly survive. In many species, so may offspring are produced that there are not enough resources like food, water and living space for all of them. For example, each year a female sea turtle may lay more than one hundred eggs. If all of the turtles survived, then the ocean would be full of turtles, but this doesn’t happen. Why? Because food and other resources are limited, the offspring must compete with each other to survive. This is called ___________________. This doesn’t usually involve direct physical fights between members of a species. Some turtles may fail to find enough to eat, and only a few turtles will survive. You know that members of your family have different traits. Any difference between the individuals of the same species is called a ___________________. For example, some newly hatched sea turtles are able to swim faster than other turtles. evolution inheritance overproduction genes competition Natural selection mutation variation G8 BIOLOGY Formative Assessment CH21 1. Draw lines to match the terms with their meanings. 2. Look at the drawing below a What will happen to the population of mice over time? b Why will this happen? NAME G8 BIOLOGY Formative Assessment CH21 NAME 3. The population of birds in the drawing have lived by a lake for a long time. The birds cannot fly but wade into the water and pick up small creatures that are buried just under the bottom of the lake. During the course of 40 years, the water level in the lake slowly rose. What inherited variation is shown in the drawing above? a On the drawing below, draw in how you would expect the inherited variation of that characteristic to have changed after 50 years. b How would Darwin explain the evolution of this species at this lake? G8 BIOLOGY Formative Assessment CH21 NAME 4. The fossils of the animals that evolved into horses are found in different layers of rock. The picture shows the fossils of the skulls of the animals that evolved into modern horses. Different types are found in different layers. a Which skull belongs to a modern horse? b The second-oldest type of animal that evolved into a horse was called Mesohippus. Which skull is from this animal? c Write down one way in which the skulls changed over the millions of years it took for the horse to evolve. G8 BIOLOGY Formative Assessment CH21 NAME 5. Tiges are adapted to hunting animals such as sambar deer. Put the letter of the statement below in the boxes on the tiger and sambar deer to show how they are adapted for survival. a. Eye on the side of its head so it can see behind b. Forward -facing eyes to spot prey and judge how far away it is. c. Powerful legs to help run fast d. Mele can use antlers for protection e. Fur colour to match the surroundings for camouflage. f. Fur pattern to provide camouflage g. Powerful legs to help run fast h. Sharp claws to grab prey i. Large ears to hear danger j. Large sharp teeth to rip flesh.