Topic 1 – week 1 “Fads and trends will no doubt change, but principles are timeless. A principle based program will never steer you wrong.” (Ron Mckeefery, Vice President of Performance and Education for PLAE) Learning Objective 1) Define the 8 training principles relating each one’s importance to program design. Example exam question: “Explain what progression is and why it is important to consider when programming exercise?” Principles of training Rules/laws that govern the process of training and program design. Write these down! You’ll need them later 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Overload Progression Specificity Variety (variability or variation) Diminishing gains Take a second to think… Reversibility What would you say is the most important principle to Recovery consider when designing an Individuality exercise program? Principle #1: Overload The system must be exposed to a stress/stimulus of sufficient magnitude in order to stimulate adaptations. Overload Principle: examples • Example: I want to make my deltoids stronger, so I do lateral raises with my pencil…is there enough overload??? • What about a 15 lbs dumbbell for 1 rep? • What about 10 reps? • What about 10 reps for 3 sets? Principle #2: Progression The magnitude of the stress/stimulus must be constantly increased to ensure sufficient continued stress on the system. Constantly increasing stress…can you do this indefinitely??? • How do we actually apply progression in terms of exercise prescription? Principle #3: Specificity An organism will adapt in way that makes it more resistant to the specific stressor that was applied. Example: A client performs 40 min of heavy strength training and averages a HR at ~130 bpm over the session. A client performs 40 min of steady state running while maintaining a HR of ~130 bpm. Will each example result in the same aerobic fitness improvement??? The SAID Principle pecific daptation to mposed emands ADAPT: to modify and become adjusted to new conditions The type of demand placed on the body dictates the specific adaptation that will occur. We adapt via hormonal, neurological, and structural changes. This is why exercise physiology is important to know!!! Principle #4: Variety (Variability or Variation) If the stimulus applied is not varied, the organism’s ability to adapt will cease, and/or reverse. Everything works… but nothing works forever! Effective progression often requires strategic and appropriate variation. What does that mean??? Variation can be applied to ANY training variable! Principle #5: Diminishing Gains Training adaptations Time What is this graph telling us? Principle #6: Recovery Adaptations to the training stimulus occur during recovery from the exercise session • Amount of recovery required??? – depends primarily on the type and amount of the training stimulus…but not solely! What factors can you think of that might influence recovery from a training session? Principle #7: Reversibility Adaptations to the training stimulus will reverse in the absence of the stimulus. “if you don’t use it, you lose it” Why? The rate at which each adaptation reverses is dependent on the adaptation. Principle #8: Individuality What is it about humans that makes everyone respond differently to training??? Each client is different and thus will require an individualized approach to programming. ‘What works for one client might not work for another’ Guidelines serve as general guidelines that should result in a certain amount of training-related adaptations in most people. Legit quote from the NSCA Test your knowledge! I’ll give you a scenario, you tell me which principle is responsible. 8. Reminder: 1. Overload 2. Progression 3. Specificity 4. Variety 5. Individuality 6. Reversibility 7. Recovery Diminishing gains What principle is this talking about? The HERITAGE family study examine the response of 720 people to a 20 wk training program. • Results showed changes in VO2max ranging from nothing to doubling of aerobic fitness. • Initial fitness accounted for 1% of the differences • Sex 5% • Race <1% • Genetics 89% What principle is this…neglecting? • You have a client who wants to improve their 10 km run race time • Your programming for this client primarily involves cycling for cardio What principle is the blue line representing for: . 1) the steep part of the curve? 2) the plateaued part of the curve? What principle is this talking about? “I’m working out 5 days per week with weights and I’m not getting any results” SUMMARY • Training Principles – Be able to define…but ALSO: Identify principles within programs - what principle is being prioritized? - are any principles being neglected? Use principles when justifying your own programming decisions - what is your reasoning behind certain choices you’ve made? - if you can’t justify what you’re doing…does it belong there?