How do we study the past? Historians • Someone who studies the written record • Diaries, census records, newspapers, etc. Archaeologists • Someone who studies the material record • Artifacts, objects, tools, etc. Maps • Maps can tell us about the geography of the time • Borders • What the world looked like for the people at that time Important things to keep in mind when studying maps Maps Who made the map? Why was the map made? What is on the map? What is not on the map? Images • Photographs and paintings offer unique perspective of history • Values • What everyday life was like Important things to keep in mind when studying images Images Who made the image? Why was the image made? What is the image of? What is the image telling us? Artifacts • Show us what everyday life was like • What were they doing during the day • What was important to them • What did they eat • How did they make food, clothes, etc. Important things to keep in mind when studying artifacts Artifacts Certain types of artifacts don’t last long Somethings might be missing, or they just didn’t have them What are the objects telling us? Documents • Show us what people were thinking and feeling • Diaries, records, newspapers, books, etc. • What was the reaction to a certain event • What did they do during everyday life Important things to keep in mind when studying documents Documents Who wrote it? Why was it written? What are they trying to get across to the reader? Firsthand account Primary Sources Created by someone who was there They give you an idea about what people alive at the time saw or thought about the event. Keep in mind that a primary source reflects only one point of view and may contain a person’s bias (prejudice) toward an event. Secondhand account Created by someone who was not there Secondary Sources They include written information by historians or others AFTER an event has taken place •Although they can be useful and reliable, they cannot reflect what people who lived at the time thought or felt about the event. they can represent a fairer account of the event because they can include more than one point of view or may include information that was unavailable at the time of the event.