Noun/Verb/Expres sion Translation Definition Example A 1. Abiotic Resources Resources which are considered abiotic and therefore not renewable. Zinc ore and crude oil are examples of abiotic resources. The three-year program focuses on the study of biotic and abiotic resources, energy efficiency in forestry agriculture, renewable energy, the impact of climate change and quality of agricultural products. 2. Abiotic Factors Abiotic factors, also called abiotic components are non- Weight shall be given to adaptation, growth, biotic living factors that impact an ecosystem. and abiotic factors of importance. 3. Adaptation An adaptation, or adaptive trait, is a feature produced by DNA or the interaction of the epigenome with the environment. Adaptation is as natural as evolution. 4. Adaptive Radiation Adaptive radiation refers to The subsequent adaptive the adaptation (via genetic mutation) of an organism which enables it to successfully spread, or radiate, into other environments. radiation was spurred by a lack of competition and a wide variety of niches. Algae is a term used to describe a large, diverse group Algae if cultivated on land in ponds or photobioreactors. 5. Algae of eukaryotic, photosyntheti c organisms. 6. Allopatric Speciation Allopatric speciation is speciation that happens when two populations of the same species become isolated from each other due to geographic changes. This separates populations of some of the species in areas with different climates, forcing them to adapt, possibly giving rise to allopatric speciation. 7. Ammonification Ammonification is part of the five-step nitrogen cycle, The process of ammonification converts which is crucial for providing living organisms with the essential nitrogen that they need. Ammonification itself takes place thanks to the existence of decomposers, which break down animal and plant cells into simpler substances, making organic nitrogen, which is the way nitrogen is contained in compounds in living organisms, into inorganic ammonia (NH3) or ammonium ions (NH4+). nutrients available in the ecosystem. Artificial selection or selective breeding describes the human selection of breeding pairs to produce favorable offspring. This applies to all organisms – from virus to 8. Artificial Selection Some have thought that artificial selection could not produce new species. four-footer, and from pet to food source. Artificial selection aims to increase the productive or esthetic value of an organism to our advantage. B 9. Benthos The benthos is comprised of all the organisms that live at The benthos species include Crustacea, Oligochaeta, the bottom of a body of standing or running water. The layer that the benthos occupy is called the benthic Diptera and Bivalvia. zone, which is the lowest layer of a lake, sea, stream, or river. 10. Biodiversity Biodiversity is a term which describes every It would make a good start to the UN's International living organism within a single ecosystem or habitat, including numbers and diversity of species and all environmental aspects such as temperature, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels and climate. Biodiversity can be measured globally or in smaller settings, such as Year of Biodiversity. ponds. 11. Biogeochemical Cycle A biogeochemical cycle is one of several natural cycles, in which conserved matter moves through the biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem. The role of particles from biogeochemical cycle of O2 and transition metals in the processes of self-purification has been proved. 12. Biogeography Biogeography refers to the distribution of Founder populations are essential to the study of various species and ecosystems geographically and throughout geological time and space. island biogeography and island ecology. 13. Biomimicry Biomimicry is the science of applying nature-inspired designs in human engineering and invention to solve human problems. People who are just learning about this stuff, biomimicry means respecting the wisdom of all species. 14. Biotic and Abiotic Factors A biotic factor is a living thing that has an impact on another population of living things or on the environment. Abiotic factors do the same thing, but they are non-living. Together, biotic and abiotic Genetical amelioration of poplar and willow species of high productivity and resistance to biotic and abiotic factors factors make up an ecosystem. To survive, biotic factors need abiotic factors. In turn, biotic factors can limit the kinds and amounts of biotic factors in an ecosystem. 15. Biotic Factors Biotic factors are the living parts of an ecosystem. Among the biotic factors, that prevailed (52,5 %), the insects represented 43 %, mushrooms 2,5 % and rodent mamnalia 7 %. 16. By-product A useful and marketable Propolis was a by-product product or service that is not of beekeeping. the primary product or service being produced. C 17. Carbon Cycle The carbon cycle is the cycle by which carbon moves through our Earth’s various systems. Identify each process of the carbon cycle and type each term in the title boxes. 18. Carrion Carrion is dead animal That smell is irresistibly matter, which may also be actively decaying. attractive to flies which feed on carrion, and they flock here. Carrying capacity is the number of organisms that an ecosystem can sustainably support. An ecosystem’s carrying capacity for a Traverses with a retractable rod - differ low weight at heavy carrying capacity. 19. Carrying Capacity particular species may be influenced by many factors, such as the ability to regenerate the food, water, atmosphere, or other necessities that populations need to survive. 20. Certification The procedure by which third party gives written Agricultural holding is applying equivalence based assurance that a product, on national or regional process, or service conforms environmental certification to specific requirements. schemes. 21. Characterization Characterization aggregates classified environmental interventions/aspects within an environmental impact category. Research involving materials processing and characterization with a diversity of applications. 22. Characterization Factor A factor that describes the relative harmfulness of an environmental intervention within one environmental Since the early days of the petroleum industry, some physical properties of crude oil were used to define impact category. characterization factors for classification of crude oil with respect to hydrocarbon types. A cladogram is a diagram used to represent a hypothetical relationship between groups of animals, called a phylogeny. A cladogram is not, however, an evolutionary tree because it does not show how ancestors are related to descendants, nor 23. Cladogram does it show how much they have changed; nevertheless, many evolutionary trees can be inferred from a single cladogram. 24. Classification Classification attributes are environmental interventions/aspects listed in an environmental Classification of radioactive waste is related to safety aspects of their management. inventory/environmental effects register according to environmental impact categories. 25. Close-loop Recycling A recycling system in which a product made from one type of material is recycled into a different type of product (e.g. used 'Close loop recycling' means recycling a waste product into the same product. newspapers into toilet paper). 26. Community A biotic community, also known as a biota or ’biocoenosis’, is the group of organisms that live together and interact with each other within an environment or habitat. Communities consist of a group of different species, which partake in direct and indirect biotic interactions, such as predator-prey interactions, herbivory, parasitism, competition and mutualisms. 27. Co-Product A marketable by-product from a process that can Wheat gluten is produced as a co-product of the starch technically not be avoided. This includes materials that may be traditionally defined as waste such as industrial scrap that is subsequently used as a raw material in a different manufacturing process. production. 28. Continuous Improvement 29. Conservation Biology 30. Consumer The process of enhancing an These requirements serve as environmental management system to achieve improvements in overall environmental performance in line with an organization's environmental policy. the basis of Continuous Improvement efforts towards improved products and services for the Customer. Conservation biology is a discipline that focuses on Ecology is an academic subject that covers topics protecting and restoring the Earth’s biodiversity. such as animal ecology, conservation biology, and ecological theory. Consumer is a category that belongs within the food chain of an ecosystem. Consumers are unable to make their own energy, and instead rely on the consumption and digestion of producers or other consumers, or both, to survive. D 31. Deciduous Forest A deciduous forest is a biome dominated by deciduous trees which lose their leaves seasonally. The Earth has temperate deciduous forests, and tropical and subtropical deciduous forests, also known as dry forests. 32. Deciduous Trees Deciduous trees lose their leaves at the end of their growing season. Usually, conifers are used for making, but deciduous trees are also found. 33. Decomposer A decomposer is Excess oxidation reagent an organism that decomposes, or breaks down, organic material such as the remains of dead organisms. Decomposers include bacteria and fungi. is decomposed with sodium disulphite. Density dependent factors affect a population through increasing or decreasing Typically, density dependent factors are biological factors used by birth and death rates, in a way that is directly related to the density of the population. the population as a resource. Density independent factors, in ecology, refer to any influences on a population’s birth or death rates, regardless of the population Density independent factors vary depending on the population, but always affect the population the same regardless of its size. 34. Density Dependent Factors 35. Density Independent Factors density. 36. Depletion The result of the extraction of abiotic resources (nonrenewable) from the environment or the extraction of biotic resources (renewable) faster than they can be renewed. Resource Depletion EF impact category that addresses use of natural resources, either renewable or non-renewable, biotic or abiotic. 37. Directional Selection A directional selection is a force in nature that causes Directional selection can also be compared a population to evolve towards one end of a trait spectrum. to disruptive selection, or a selection that causes an increase in both extremes of a trait spectrum. In biology, a domain refers It should be noted that while to the largest of all groups in the three domain system is the classification of life. widely accepted and taught, it has been contested by a number of scientists. 38. Domain E 39. Eco-Efficiency The relationship between economic output (product, service, activity) and environmental impact added caused by production, consumption and disposal. Eco-efficiency criteria should be built into all project appraisal processes. 40. Ecological Niche In ecology, a niche is the role or job of a species in a habitat. An ecological niche describes how a species interacts with, and lives in, its habitat. 41. Ecological Pyramid An ecological pyramid is a graphical representation of the relationship between different organisms in an ecosystem. The ecological pyramid shows how the different trophic levels in a food web relate to each other. 42. Ecological Succession Ecological succession is a term developed by botanists to describe the change in The concept of ecological succession arose from a desire to understand how structure of a community of different species, or ecosystem. large and complex ecosystems like forests can exist in places known to be recently formed, such as volcanic islands. 43. Ecology Ecology is the branch of Ecology is the study of these biology that studies how forces, what produces them, organisms interact with their and the complex relationships between environment and other organisms. organisms and each other, and organisms and their non-living environment. 44. Ecosystem An ecosystem or biome describes a single environment and every living (biotic) organism and non-living (abiotic) factor that is contained within it or characterizes it. An ecosystem embodies every aspect of a single habitat, including all interactions between its different elements. 45. Emission One or more substances released to the water, air or 3M Air Emission Reduction Program is launched. soil in the natural environment. 46. Environment Surroundings in which an organization operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, humans, and their interrelations. Environment protection and preservation represent another important issue, especially for undeveloped countries. 47. Environmental Effect Any direct or indirect An environmental effect is impingement of activities, products and services of an organization upon the environment, whether adverse or beneficial. the consequence of an environmental intervention in an environmental system. Any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting An environmental impact addresses an environmental problem. 48. Environmental Impact from an organization's activities, products or services. 49. Extinction Extinction is a term applied to a known species, of which there are no known living individuals. Some species which have suffered extinction are known only from their fossilized remains. 50. Extirpation Extirpation (also known as ‘local extinction’) describes Unlike extinction, whereby a species no longer exists the situation in which a species or population no anywhere, extirpation means that at least one longer exists within a certain geographical location. other population of the species still persists in other areas. The loss of water from the soil both by evaporation and by transpiration from the plants growing in the soil. Irrigation is unlikely to lead to salinity build up provided that total annual precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration. Fauna is a term which refers Fauna was first used as a to all of the animal life within a specified region, time period, or both. biological term by naturalist Carl Linnaeus, as a term which described the animals of a region, as opposed to the plants. 53. Fabric filter A cloth device that catches dust particles from industrial emissions. Fabric filters are efficient dust collectors. 54. Fertilizer Materials such as nitrogen Fertilizer is sprinkled with and phosphorus that provide nutrients for plants. Commercially sold fertilizers may contain other chemicals or may be in the form of processed sewage sludge. earth to avoid nitrogen loss. A treatment process, under the control Filtration of liquids through a membrane permeable only of qualified operators, for removing solid (particulate) matter from water by passing the water through porous media such as sand or a manmade filter. The process is often used to remove for small molecules. 51. Evapotranspiration F 52. Fauna 55. Filtration particles that contain pathogenic organisms. 56. Flocculation The process by which clumps of solids in water or sewage are made to increase in size by biological or chemical action so that they can be separated from the water. Mixers ensure maximum contact between nonadhering particles and the flocculation agents. An electrical device that detects the presence of I borrowed a Geiger counter to check levels at home. G 57. Geiger counter certain types of radioactivity. 58. Generator A facility or mobile source that emits pollutants into the air or releases hazardous wastes into water or soil. 59. Greenhouse effect The warming of the Earth’s Volcanic carbon emissions atmosphere caused by a would then restart a buildup of carbon dioxide or warming cycle due to the 60. Groundwater The Generator's our only source of power. other trace gases; many scientists believe that this buildup allows light from the sun’s rays to heat the Earth but prevents a counterbalancing loss of heat. greenhouse effect. The supply of fresh water found beneath the Earth’s Groundwater is also used as a source of drinking water. surface (usually in aquifers), which is often used for supplying wells and springs H 61. Habitat The place where a population (e.g., human, animal, plant, or microorganism) lives, and Habitat destruction is the third way in which human activities are damaging life's diversity. its surroundings, both living and nonliving 62. Harmful Algal Bloom An algal bloom is defined as the rapid growth or accumulation of algae in aquatic ecosystems. The presence of harmful algal blooms leads to fish die-offs, fish sickness, and human sickness when affected organisms are consumed. 63. Hazardous wastes By-products of society that can pose a substantial or potential hazard to human health or the environment Such routines include collecting hazardous wastes and spillage that are sent to specialized waste deposits when improperly managed. for recycling. Metallic elements with atomic number greater than 20, such as mercury and lead. They can damage living things at low concentrations and tend to accumulate in the food Heavy metals are present in the environmental factors from this area and significantly affect local ecosystems and human health. 64. Heavy metals chain. 65. Herbicide A chemical pesticide designed to control or destroy plants, weeds, or grasses. Herbicide can be used in whole or between rows. Can be used to manage foliar fertilizer or for plant protection against diseases and pests. 66. Horticulture Horticulture is the field of study which concentrates on Horticulture studies both the science behind the garden gardening, and the plants and biological systems which make up a garden. and the aesthetics which make it appealing to look at. . A body of water or sludge confined by a dam, dike, floodgate, or other barrier. Before the impoundment of the two basins, specific plants are planted. I 67. Impoundment 68. Indirect discharge 69. Infiltration Introduction of pollutants from a nondomestic source The systems can be designed for both direct and into a publicly owned waste treatment system. Indirect dischargers can be commercial or industrial facilities whose wastes go into the local sewers. indirect discharge. The penetration of water through the ground surface into subsurface soil or the penetration of water from Infiltration is caused by two forces: gravity and capillary action. the soil into sewer or other pipes through defective joints, connections, or manhole walls. A pesticide compound specifically used to kill or control the growth of insects. Intavir Insecticide acting against leaf beetles, aphids, thrips and other pests. 71. Keystone Species Keystone species are those which have an extremely high impact on a particular ecosystem relative to its population. Keystone species are also critical for the overall structure and function of an ecosystem, and influence which other types of plants and animals make up that ecosystem. 72. Kingdom In the study of taxonomy, the rank of kingdom is just The four commonly recognized Kingdoms below domain, as seen on the image below. All of life, thought to come from a single origin, can be broken down into lower levels of classification, such as a kingdom or phylum. are Protista, Animalia, Plan tae, and Fungi. 70. Insecticide K L A limiting factor is a resource or environmental Limiting factors are theorized under Liebig’s condition which limits the growth, distribution or abundance of an organism or population w ithin an ecosystem. Law of the Minimum, which states that “growth is not controlled by the total amount of resources available, but by the scarcest resource”. The littoral zone in an aquatic ecosystem (river, lake, sea) can be defined by the presence of sunlight at It is found in the littoral zone, living inside submerged timber, pilings, driftwood, and in the hulls the sediment level, and the corresponding growth of partially-submerged to fully-submerged aquatic plants. of wooden boats. Macroevolution refers to the concept of large-scale evolution that occurs at the Macroevolution can be used to describe the differences between two closely related level of species and above. but distinct species, such as the Asian Elephant and the African Elephant, which cannot mate due to the barriers imposed by reproductive isolation. Marine biology is the study of marine ecosystems, marine organisms, and A career in marine biology could lead to studying marine life, such as human interactions with these environments and species. this great white shark and the fish that surround it. 77. Marine Ecosystem Marine ecosystems can be defined as the interaction of plants, animals, and the marine environment. The marine ecosystem refers to the oceans and seas and other salt water environments as a whole 78. Mass Extinction Mass extinction is an event in which a considerable One of the oldest mass extinctions, this extinction 73. Limiting Factor 74. Littoral Zone M 75. Macroevolution 76. Marine Biology portion of the world’s biodiversity is lost. event occurred nearly 450 million years ago. 79. Monophyletic Monophyletic, or monophylogeny, is a term used to describe a group of organisms that are classified in the same taxon and share a most common recent ancestor. A monophyletic group includes all descendants of that most common recent ancestor. 80. Mutualism Mutualisms are defined as interactions between organisms of two Mutualisms may involve either the exchange of resources, such as shelter, different species, in which food and other nutrients, or each organism benefits from they may involve the the interaction in some way. exchange of services, such as protection, transportation or healthcare. N 81. Natural Selection Natural selection is a pressure that causes groups of organisms to change over Natural selection is constantly influencing the evolution of species. time. 82. Niche The niche of an organism is the functional role that it plays within an ecosystem. The niche of an organism within an ecosystem depends on how the organism responds and reacts to the distribution and abundance of these factors, and in turn how it alters the factors. 83. Nitrogen Cycle The nitrogen cycle refers to the cycle of nitrogen atoms through the living and nonliving systems of Earth. The nitrogen cycle is vital for life on Earth. Through the cycle, atmospheric nitrogen is converted to a form which Nitrates (NO3) in the aquarium are the last in the chain of chemical compounds in the nitrogen cycle. plants can incorporate into new proteins. Nuclear fallout is a destructive, long-term consequence following large-scale releases of radioactivity into the environment. The size of the area affected by nuclear fallout is entirely dependent on the type and quantity of radiation exposure. An omnivore is an organism that can feed on both plant and animal Although a species as a whole may be omnivores, not all members of the sources. species must be omnivores. An organism is a single individual, or being. While it may have many separate parts, the organism cannot survive without the parts, as the parts cannot survive without the organism. Photosynthesis is the Photosynthesis releases biochemical pathway which converts the energy of light into the bonds of glucose molecules. oxygen into the atmosphere, while respiration, decay, and combustion remove it from the atmosphere. 88. Plant Plants are multicellular organisms in the kingdom Plantae that use photosynthesis to make their own food. There are over 300,000 species of plants; common examples of plants include grasses, trees, and shrubs. 89. Population A population is the number of organisms of the same species that live in a particular geographic area at the same time, with the capability of interbreeding. A local population can be confined to a spatially small area, i.e., the fish in one pond. 84. Nuclear Fallout O 85. Omnivore 86. Organism P 87. Photosynthesis R The riparian zone is one of many different biomes, The riparian zone is identified as the area which represent different communities of flora and fauna. immediately adjacent to running, fresh water. 91. Speciation Speciation is a process within evolution that leads to the formation of new, distinct species that are reproductively isolated from one another. Read a modern classic book on evolution and speciation. 92. Species A species is a group of organisms that share a genetic heritage, are able to interbreed, and to create offspring that are also fertile. Different species are separated from each other by reproductive barriers. 93. Stabilizing Selection Stabilizing selection is any selective force or forces which push Stabilizing selection is a descriptive term for what happens to an individual a population toward the average, or median trait. trait when the extremes of the trait are selected against. symbiosis is an evolved interaction or close living relationship between organisms from different species, usually with benefits to one or both of the individuals involved. Mutualisms are a form of symbiosis in which both symbiotic partners benefit from the interaction, often resulting in a significant fitness gain for either one or both parties. A threatened species is any species which is vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered. The International Union for Conservation of Nature, or IUCN, is commonly referenced as a leading organization in determining if a species can be considered a threatened species or not. 90. Riparian Zone S 94. Symbiosis T 95. Threatened Species Tonicity is the concentration In biology, the tonicity of of a solution as compared to the environment compared 96. Tonicity another solution. to the cell determines how water moves across the semipermeable membrane. 97. Trophic Level A trophic level is the group of organisms within an ecosystem which occupy the same level in a food chain. There are five main trophic levels within a food chain, each of which differs in its nutritional relationship with the primary energy source. 98. Treatment, Storage, Site where a hazardous Treatment facilities use substance is treated, stored, or disposed of. TSD facilities are regulated by ADEQ under RCRA various processes (such as incineration or oxidation) to alter the character or composition of hazardous wastes. A tank located at least partially underground and designed to hold gasoline or Our services cover both above-ground and underground storage other petroleum products or chemicals. tanks. Any of the following hazardous wastes (batteries, pesticides, mercurycontaining equipment and lamps) Universal wastes are hazardous wastes that are widely produced by households and many different types of businesses. A mandatory vehicle emissions testing and repair program administered by ADEQ in metropolitan Phoenix and Tucson to reduce vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Maryland’s Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program (VEIP) is an important component of the State’s plan to improve air quality. or Disposal Facility (TSDF) U 99. Underground Storage Tank (UST) 100. Universal Waste V 101. Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program 102. 103. Ventilation Visibility The potential of the atmosphere to disperse Ventilation grilles are mounted in walls, doors and airborne pollutants, such as smoke from a prescribed fire. It is based on both the transport winds and the mixing height. interior partitions. A measure of how far and how well an observer can see through the atmosphere. Visibility is probably less than 10m. The water cycle or The most basic step of the hydrologic cycle describes the complex systems that allow water to move across the Earth and atmosphere. water cycle is the change of state of water as a liquid, gas or solid in the atmosphere. Any significant accumulation of water. The network shall consist of sites selected from a range of surface water body types present within each ecoregion. The failure to fully implement existing policy is preventing the Union from achieving adequate air and water quality standards. W 104. 105. Water Cycle Water Body 106. Water Quality Standards ADEQ-adopted and EPAapproved ambient standards for water bodies. The standards prescribe the use of the water body and establish the water quality criteria that must be met to protect designated uses. 107. The land area that drains The watershed follows the into a stream; the watershed for a major river may encompass a number of smaller watersheds that ultimately combine at a common point. main ridge of the mountain in direction north-west to south-east. Air pollution caused by emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, Solid fuel fireplaces and wood-burning stoves, so popular in private homes, Watershed 108. Wood-burningstove Pollution total suspended particulates, and polycyclic organic are nevertheless not a good solution for an matter from wood-burning stoves. apartment. Zonation refers to the patterns that are observed in a community over a distance, based on the distinct fauna and flora found along the area. The density of the hydrographic network is relatively high. An altitudinal zonation can be noticed depending on the natural factors, the highest density being in the Z 109. Zonation mountain area (0,5 - 0,8 km/km2), decreasing in the Subcarpathians and reaching 0,3 km/km2 in the plain area.