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Pillars of Traffic Management

Pillars of Traffic Management
What is Traffic Management?
Refers to the planning, organizing, directing and controlling the safe, economic and expeditious
movements of people and goods through traffic engineering, traffic education and traffic environment
in a transport system.
Purpose/ Objectives of Traffic Management
a. To ensure the community of a smooth, efficient and effective flow of traffic.
b. To safeguard lives and property.
c. To avoid vehicular accident and road mishap.
Pillars of Traffic Management
1. Traffic Engineering - Deals with the planning and geometric designs of streets and traffic control
devices to include traffic operation there on.
2. Traffic Education – Refers to the teaching and training of the drivers, pedestrians and
commuters to develop them to be courteous, disciplined and competent road users.
3. Traffic Enforcement – includes traffic direction and control, traffic investigation and
apprehension performed by the police and other agency with authority to induce voluntary
4. Traffic Environment – deals with potentially disastrous population explosion, change in urban
and rural environment, air pollution, water pollution and the effects of natural disaster as;
quake, typhoon, tsunami, storm landslide, flashflood and to include the manmade disaster.
5. Traffic Economics – the study how people choose to use the scarcity and limited productive
resources to produce comorbidities and distribute them for their consumption or satisfy human
wants. Progress and development of a certain place or areas is gauged on the kind of traffic
problem it encountered.
(Enactment of Laws – refers to law on traffic in which Congress are to attend, improve or replaced worn
out or need to give more weight or emphasis on the part of the law in order for enforcer to act give
better enforcement and admin fines.)
Traffic Engineering – is a branch of civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the
safe and efficient movement of people and goods on roadways.
Functions of Traffic Engineering
1. Fact finding surveys and recommendation of traffic rules and regulations.
2. Supervision and maintenance to the application of traffic control devices.
3. Planning of traffic regulations.
Objectives of Traffic Engineering
1. To achieve efficient, safe, free and rapid flow of traffic.
2. To prevent traffic accidents and casualties.
3. To present the role of traffic engineering in reducing the needs for police action and simplifying
police performance.
4. To show that good police action and performance makes engineering plans effective.
Traffic Education – comprises all means for public information and the safety education of both drivers
and pedestrians as to traffic laws and the use of traffic facilities and an adequate training program in
traffic control throughout the police unit.
Traffic Safety Education
Is the process of training road users in the avoidance and prevention of traffic related accidents.
Traffic Law Enforcement
Comprises of all police activities in connection with the direction of traffic, regulation and education of
drivers, determine potential offenders, constant patrol, giving of assistance in the prosecution of
offenders, investigation of accidents, follow-up complaints, requesting police action, warning,
summoning or arrest of violators, reporting of road hazards and obstruction.
Traffic Enforcement Action
1. Detection – detect through your personal knowledge that you have a traffic violation/ violation
or detect the initial violation.
2. Apprehension – lalapitan mo para ticketan or idedemanda
3. Prosecution – gather evidences regarding the violation
4. Adjudication – court
5. Penalization – may judgement na, may penalty na
Enforcement action is usual limited to:
Verbal or written warning;
Summon or citation requiring the offender to appear in court;
Arresting traffic violators for traffic violations not attended;
Suspension or revocation of license;
Payment of fines or civil damages, and
Prosecution of criminal offenses in relation to traffic.
Road ecology
Is the study of the ecological impacts (both positive and negative) of roads and highways (public
roads). These effects may include local effects, such as on noise, water pollution, habitat destruction/
disturbance and local air quality; and wider effects such as habitat fragmentation, ecosystem
degradation, and climate change from vehicle emissions.
Traffic Economy
This is the most recent of the pillars of traffic which deals with the benefits and adverse effects
of traffic to our economy.
Primarily, travelling operation is designed to expedite given locality, traffic adversely affect the
economic status of the commuting public.
The Important provision of RA 4136
RA 4136
is the law about Land Transportation Office
the law that covers all traffic rules and regulations, traffic registrations, motor vehicle
registrations and all traffic ordinances
this law was enacted way back 1964
lahat ng nakikita sa kalsada, lahat ng penalties, lahat ng mga traffic, lahat ay galling sa RA 4136
Violation of which is enforceable under traffic enforcement bureaus
Under sila ng RA 4136 at hindi na pwedeng baguhin pa ang batas na RA 4136
RA 4136 includes motor vehicles
What are the motor vehicles?
It is a power
The standards of regulating movements on roads, streets and highways are found in traffic laws,
rules and regulations.
In the Philippines, the mass of traffic laws, rules and regulations have their source in laws,
Presidential Decrees (P.D.s), Executive Orders (E.0.s), Letters of Instructions (L.O.Is). Administrative
Orders and Implementing Memoranda and other Special Laws relative to traffic operation and traffic law
enforcement. As a traffic law enforcer, it is essential that you should be familiar with these rules and
In addition, traffic signs, pavement markings, and other control devices are traffic law
themselves. Violations of such constitute misdemeanor or infraction of law.
A. Sources. The following are the basis for the traffic regulations and prohibitions in the country:
1. Republic Acts (R.A.s)
a. R.A. 4136 dated June 20, 1964. This is the basic law regulating land transportation in the
Philippines. It has repealed Act No. 3992 (The Revised Motor Vehicle Law). Further, as amended
by R.A. Nos. 5715, 6374, PD Nos. 382, 843, 896, 1057, 1934, 1950, 1958, BP Blg. 43, 74 and 398.
b. R.A. 6539. The Act which is known as the "? Carnapping Act of 1972", the act preventing and
penalizing carnapping.
c. R.A. 5448. Act imposing a tax on privately owned passenger automobiles, motorcycles and
scooters, and a science stamp tax, to constitute a special science fund defining the programs,
projects and activities of science agencies to be financed therefrom and for other purposes.
d. R.A. 8749. Also known as the "Clean Air Act" which regulates emission of toxic gases of both
gasoline and diesel engines and bans the use of leaded gas for gasoline engines.
e. R.A. 8750. It provides for the attachment of seat belts for all types of motor vehicles and
imposes penalty for the non-compliance thereof.
f. R.A. 7924. The Act creating the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority, defining its
powers and functions, providing funds therefor and for other purposes.
g. R.A. 8794. The Act imposing penalties on overloaded motor vehicles.
h. R.A. 10586 - An Act penalizing persons driving under the influence of alcohol, dangerous
drugs, and similar substances, and for other purposes. It also repealed the mandatory drug
testing of driver's license applicants.
2. Presidential Decrees (P.D.s)
a. P.D. No. 96. Regulating the use of sirens, bells, horns, etc.,, by prohibiting the attachment of
any siren, horn bell, etc. on motor vehicles which produce unusual or startling sounds as well as
blinkers and other similar devices unless the vehicle belongs to the AFP, NBI, LTO, PNP, BJMP,
Hospitals and Fire Departments and are specifically intended for use in emergencies.
b. P.D. No. 101. Expediting the methods of prescribing, redefining or modifying the lines and
modes of operations of public utility motor vehicles in the Philippines.
c. P.D. No. 207. Declaring as part of the laws of the Philippines the Vienna Convention on Road
Traffic, Signs and Signals.
d. P.D no. 612 Requiring compulsory insurance for all types of motor vehicles against third party
liability as an additional pre - requisite for registration by the LTO.
e. P.D. 1686 Imposing a tax equipped with air conditioner.
f. P.D. 1181. Providing for the abatement of air pollution from motor vehicles and for other
g. PD. 1605. Granting the Metropolitan Manila Commission certain powers related to traffic
management and control in Metropolitan Manila providing penalties, and for other purposes
h. P.D. 98. Regulating the issuance of license plates of all motor vehicles.
i. P.D. 109. Modifying P.D. 98.
j. P.D. 1729. Authorizing the Bureau of Land Transportation to dispose of impounded motor
vehicles unclaimed by owners for a certain period of time.
k. P.D. 1730. Declaring the syndicated printing, manufacture, distribution, possession or use of
fake official Bureau of Land Transportation forms, documents, plates and stickers as offenses
involving economic sabotage.
3. Letters of Instruction (L.O.I.s)
a. L.O.I. No. 43. Providing for the removal of all impediments on roads, streets and highways
such as constructions, stalled or parked vehicles and other movable property that obstruct free
passage. This LOI abrogated city or municipal ordinances governing the disposition of traffic on
city and municipal streets throughout the country.
b. L.O.I. No. 112. Prohibiting freight and cargo trucks from using roads, highways and bridges
whose load capacities are in excess of specific allowable limits.
C. L.O.I. No. 229. Requiring all motor vehicle owners, users, or drivers to have in their possession
at all TIMES while driving at least one (1) pair of early warning device (EWD) for use when the
vehicle is diabled on roads, streets and highways or other emergencies compelling the vehicle to
be on stop position.
d. L.O.I. 716. Every motor vehicle to equip at a pair of early warning device.
e. L.O.I. 551. Directing the law implement the Pollution Control Program.
f. LOI. 853. Calling for the National Tripartite Conference to consider the establishment of viable
labor management relations based upon the "boundary" system in land transportation
g. L.O.I. 1009. All owners of private motor vehicles who desire to stop operating or using their
number plates and registration certificates to surrender to BLT.
h. L.O.L. 1071. Owners and/or operators of motor vehicles are authorized to pay the annual
premiums for the insurance of their motor annual premiums for the insurance of their motor
vehicles on quarterly basis.
4. Department Orders (D.O.s)’
a. DOTC D.O. 88-305. Rules of pleadings, practice and procedure for appeals on franchising, fare
rates charges and other related matters pertinent to Land Transportation Public Utilities.
b. D.O. 93-693. Revised Schedule of Administrative Fees and charges of the Land Transportation
5. Administrative and Special Orders
a. Administrative Order No. VIII, S-1968, LTC. Requiring the towing and impounding of stalled
motor vehicles on public highways and the imposition of corresponding fees thereof.
b. Administrative Order No. 1, S-1973, LTC. Prescribing guidelines and procedures in the
implementation of PD No. 96.
c. Administrative Order No. 1, S-1975, LTC. Laying down specific rules of action in the imposition
of uniform fines and penalties for violation of the provisions of RA 4136.
d. Special Order No. 101-IRM, LTC. Enumerating and identifying various city streets where
parking is prohibited.
6. Memorandum Circulars
a. LTC Memorandum to All Patrol Officers, Deputies and Agents dtd 09 august 1975. Directing
that motor vehicle whose loads are rice, cereals, fertilizers and other prime commodities are not
to be apprehended and stopped on roads and highways except only in cases of serious
b. LTC Memorandum Circular No. 33, dated 12 September 1972. Providing guidelines in the
apprehension of illegally parked motor vehicles.
c. LTC Circular No. 15, dated 19 January 1972 Regulating and laying instructions in the use of
Special Commemorative Motor Vehicle Plates.
d. M.C. 94-199. Aide-memoir regarding retention and authority by LTO to register motorized
tricycles under R.A. 4136, and guidelines to implement devolution of LTFRB's Franchising
Authority over TC's per R.A. 7160 issued by DOTC.
e. M.C. 94-188. Issuance of driver's license to disabled persons.
f. M.C. 92-146. Re-implementation of LOI 229, as amended by LOI 479 directing the installation
of early warning devices of motor vehicles.
g. M.C. 94-192. Diesel smoke emission test for motor vehicles.
h. M.C. 90-020. Directing all public land transportation service operators and drivers to display in
any conspicuous place of their vehicles the authorized fare matrix for the specific route granted
them to avoid conflict.
i. M.C. 93-011. Enjoining all public utility operators to use garage instead of public places or side
streets in parking their vehicles.
j. M.C. 94-002. Sanctions on operators arising from the violations of their drivers.
k. M.C. 94-209. Clarificatory guidelines for the registration operation of new private vehicles
particularly in the use of conduction sticker.
7. Executive Orders (E.O.S)
a. E.O. 125. Reorganizing the DOTC, defining its powers and functions and for other purposes.
b. E.O. 266. Providing for two service units in the Office of the Asst. Sec. for Land Transportation
in the DOT (Law Enforcement Service-LES and Traffic Adjudication Service-TAS), defining the
powers and functions thereof and for other purposes.
c. E.O. 202. Creating the Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB).
d. E.O. 248. Empowering the Land Transportation Commission to control and supervise the
operations of motor vehicle driving schools.
8. Other Special Laws, Statutes, etc.
a. Batas Pambansa Blg. 344 (B.P. 344). Act to enhance the mobility of disabled persons by
requiring certain buildings, institutions, establishments and public utilities to install facilities and
other devices.
"Sec. 1, Par. 2. In the case of the parking place of any of the above institutions,
buildings, or establishments, or public utilities, the owner or operator shall reserve
sufficient and suitable space for the use of disabled persons."
"Sec. 2. In case of public conveyance, devices such as the prominent display of
posters, stickers shall be used to generate public awareness of the rights of the disabled
and posters understanding of their special needs. Discriminating against disabled
persons in the carriage or transportation of passengers is hereby declared unlawful."
b. Memorandum Unnumbered Dated July 13, 1992. Early Warning Device (EWD) not a
requirement for registration. C. SC Bars Lawmen from Removing Car Plates (187 SCRA 432)
In the Philippines, Traffic Law Enforcement is governed by R.A. 4136. All other traffic ordinances
by local government units are based on this law or act and/or these ordinances should not contradict
any provisions of said law/act. For comprehensive reading and understanding, please see the appended
R.A. 4136.
A. Words and Phrases Used in R.A. 4136. As used in this Act, the following words and phrases are
defined for better and common understanding:
1. Motor Vehicle. Shall mean any vehicle propelled by any power other than muscular power
using the public highways, but excepting road rollers, trolley cars, street-sweepers, sprinkles,
lawn mowers, bulldozers, graders, fork-lifts, amphibian trucks, and cranes if not used in public
highways, vehicles which run only on rails or tracks, and tractors, trailers and traction engines of
all kinds used exclusively for agricultural purposes.
Trailers having any number of wheels, when propelled or intended to be propelled by
attachment to a motor vehicle shall be classified as separate motor vehicle with no power
2. Passenger Automobiles. Shall mean all pneumatic tire vehicles of types similar to those
usually known under the following terms: touring car, command car, speedster, sports car,
roadster, jeep, cycle car (except motor wheel and similar small outfits which are classified with
motorcycles), coupe, landaulet, closed car, limousine, cabriolet, and sedan.
The distinction between "passenger truck" and "passenger automobile" shall be that of
common usage: Provided that a motor vehicle registered for more than nine passengers shall be
classified as "trucks". Provided further, that a truck with seating compartment at the back not
used for hire shall be registered under special "S" classification. In case of dispute, the
Commissioner of LTO shall determine the classification to which any special type of motor
vehicle belongs.
3. Articulated Vehicle. Shall mean any motor vehicle with a trailer having no front axle and so
attached that part of the trailer rests upon the motor vehicle and a substantial part the weight
of the trailer and of its load is borne by the more vehicle. Such trailer shall be called as "semitrailer."
4. Driver. Shall mean every and any licensed operator of a motor vehicle.
5. Professional Driver. Every and any driver hired for driving or operating a motor vehicle,
whether for private use or for hire to the public. Any driver driving his own motor vehicle for
hire is a professional driver.
6. Owner. The actual legal owner of a motor vehicle, in whose name such vehicle is duly
registered with the LTO.
The owner of a government-owned motor vehicle is the head of the office or the chief
of the Bureau to which the said motor vehicle belongs.
7. Dealer. Every person, association, partnership, or corporation making, manufacturing,
constructing, assembling, remodeling, or setting up motor vehicles; and every such entity acting
as agent for the sale of one or more makes, styles, or kinds of motor vehicles, dealing in motor
vehicles, keeping the same in stock or selling same or handling with a view to trading same.
8. Garage. Any building in which two or more motor vehicles, either with or without drivers, are
kept ready for hire to the public, but shall not include street stands, public service stations, or
other public places designated by proper authority as parking spaces for motor vehicles for hire
while awaiting or soliciting business.
9. Gross Weight. The measured weight of a motor vehicle plus the maximum allowable carrying
capacity in merchandise, freight and/or passengers, as determined by the Commissioner of the
10. Highways. Every public thoroughfare, public boulevard, driveway, avenue, park, alley and
callejon, but shall not include roadway upon grounds owned by private persons, colleges,
universities, or other similar institutions.
11. Parking or Parked. Shall mean that a motor vehicle is parked or parking if it has been brought
to a stop on the shoulder or proper edge of a highway, and remains inactive in that place or
close thereto for an appreciable period of time.
A motor vehicle which properly stops merely to discharge a passenger or to take in a
waiting passenger, or to load or unload a small quantity of freight with reasonable dispatch shall
not be considered as parked, if the motor vehicle again moves away without delay.
12. Tourist. A foreigner who travels from place to place for pleasure or culture.
B. Selected Provisions of R.A. 4136. The following provisions of R.A. 4136 are the most common rules
and regulations violated by road users. For further readings and clarifications, please read the appended
RA 4136.
1. Exceeding Registered Capacity (Overloading). Passengers, freight or cargo load of a motor
vehicle should not be more than its registered carrying capacity. Conductors of public utility
trucks or buses are held liable for the overloading of vehicles under their charge.
All passenger automobiles for hire are required to have the registered passenger
capacity marked plainly and conspicuously on the sides thereof in letters and numerals not less
than 5 cms. in height. Motor trucks for passenger or freight, private or for hire, shall have the
registered passenger of freight gross and net weight capacities marked plainly and
conspicuously on the sides thereof in letters and numerals not less than 5 cms. in height (Sec.
2. Cargo Carrying Devices. The construction of devices for carrying cargo at the rear or sides of
truck may be allowed, subject to the approval of the Commissioner, but the total net weight of
the device, including cargo, must not exceed 100 Kilos (Sec. 32,a).
3. Riding on Running Board. It is strictly prohibited except for conductors collecting passenger
fare (Sec. 32.c).
4. Riding on Top of the Motor Vehicle. Passengers shall not be allowed to ride on top of motor
vehicles, but baggage or freight may be carried on top of the truck, provided that the weight
thereof is not more than 20 kilos per square meter distributed in such a way as not to endanger
passengers or the vehicle's stability (Sec. 32,b).
5. Required Motor Vehicle Accessories. Every motor vehicles when operated on a traffic way
should have the following specified accessories (See Art IV, Sec 34, para a-i of RA 4136 as
appended for the specifications of these accessories):
a. Tires of MVs
b. Brakes
(b-1) Horns
c. Headlights
d. Taillights
e. Stop Lights
f. Motorcycle and Other vehicle lights
g. Lights When Parked or Disabled
h. Windshield Wiper
i. Use of Red Flag
j. Mufflers
6. Hitching on to a Vehicle. The following practices prohibited:
a. Hanging on to or riding on the outside or rear end of any vehicle.
b. Holding on to any moving vehicle whether on foot or otherwise.
c. Driver allowing any person to hang on to or ride outside of or at the rear end of the
vehicle (Sec. 51).
7. Driving While under the Influence of Liquor or Other Prohibited Drugs (Sec. 53).
8. Obstruction of Traffic. Obstruction of traffic by operating a motor vehicle in such a manner as
to obstruct, block, or impede the passage of another vehicle is prohibited. This prohibition
applies even when discharging or loading passengers (Sec. 54).
9. Duties of Driver in Case of Accident. In the event that any accident should occur as a result of
the operation of a motor vehicle upon a highway, the driver shall observe the following:
a. Stop immediately.
b. Show his driver's license to inspecting traffic law enforcer.
c. Give his true name and address, including that of the owner of the vehicle.
d. Assist injured persons.
e. Take measures to protect belongings of passengers.
f. Report the accident (Sec. 55).
10. When could a driver leave the area of accident without being held liable for HIT-ANDRUN?
a. His life is in imminent danger of being harmed by other person/s by reason of the
b. He surrenders to proper authority; and
c. He summons the assistance of a physician or nurse to aid the victim
R.A. 4136, mandates that all motor vehicles shall be registered by its owner before the
designated District Offices of the Land Transportation Office. Law enforcement officers should keep
themselves abreast with the proper procedures of registering motor vehicles for them to easily identify
unregistered motor vehicles or motor vehicles having expired registrations.
On the other hand, motor vehicle owners as well as drivers should be aware of the provisions on
motor vehicle registration to avoid unnecessary delays and penalties whenever registration related
apprehensions occur. Again, for complete information, see the appended R.A. 4136.
A. Classification of Registered Motor Vehicles
1. Private (not for hire) - These are motor vehicles used for the personal use of their
2. Public Utility Vehicles (PUV a.k.a. for hire) - These are registered primarily for the
conveyance of passengers and other commercial goods, i.e., passenger jeepneys, taxi
cabs, etc.
3. Government - These are motor vehicles owned by government offices and are used for
official purposes only.
4. Diplomat - These are issued to foreign diplomats and consuls assigned in the
B. Plate Numbers - Upon registration, motor vehicles are assigned with plate numbers. The letter and
numeral prefixes as well as the assigned colors are based on the date and place of registrations and
purpose of the registered motor vehicle.
1. Private or not for hire MVs - Green with white background on newer vehicles, the first letter
usually indicates the region where the vehicle is registered. For example "N", the vehicle is
registered in the National Cap (NCR).
2. Public Utility Vehicles or for-hire MVs - Black with yellow background usually begin with either
the letter "N" or “P" or "T" or "U" in NCR. Since 1995, they always have either “V”, "W", "X", or
"Y" in the middle of the letter block. Older license, plates starting with "N" and "P" may have
other letters in the middle of the block, although the "V" "W" "X" "Y" letters are also present
(from late 70s NVA-101 to early 1995 NYZ-999)
3. Government MVS - Red (maroon) with white background - usually starts with letter "S."
4. Diplomatic or other exempted MVs - Blue characters on a white background plates reserved for
diplomats, embassy and consulate officials, country ambassadors and some expatriates such as
scientists and researchers at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), in the form of five
or six digits.
a. Ambassadors' plates are always "1000" and have the country they represent at the
bottom of the plate. These plates have a small decal on the bottom left part with a
b. 1001 - 9999: a small decal on the bottom left part, displayed as "DC" for "diplomatic
corps" 10000 - 25999: embassy vehicles - a small decal on the bottom left part displayed
as "OEV" for "other exempted vehicle"
5. Trailers - These have Yellow or green plates that mostly have either "U" (Private) or "7" (For
Hire) in the middle of the letter block.
6. Electric vehicles - orange plates are used (white symbols on orange background).
7. Motorcycles - Private motorcycles have green characters on a white background with the letters
"MC" stamped on the upper left-hand corner next to the registration sticker. Usually in the
format AA 1111, but with the rise in the number of motorcycles on the road, the 1111 AA
format has also come into use.
8. Tricycles - Private has Green characters on a white background with the letters "MC" stamped
on the upper left hand corner next to the registration sticker. This is very rare since tricycles are
usually bought for for-hire. For the public utility, it has black characters on a yellow background
with the letters "TC" stamped on the upper right-hand corner next to the registration sticker.
Department of Tourism (DOT) accredited vehicles - These are usually tour buses and airport
taxis which are issued with plates that look similar to those of private vehicles, but have yellow
highlights mixed with the green color and share the same first letter of current PUVs plates. A
must special sticker indicating that they are DOT-accredited is placed on the rear windows.
Optional Motor Vehicle Special Plates (OMVSP) - A project of the LTO since 2004, in the form of
3-letter 2-number. e.g. DGD 24
Personalized (Vanity) plates - Anyone desiring to have his own personalized must consider the
a. Uniqueness - the plate does not have a registered duplicate anywhere else in the
b. It should not have the same format as government vehicles.
c. Price –
(1) Premium Edition (Ex. 111 ABC) - PhP 15,000.00
(2) Select Edition (Ex. DARLIT) - PhP 10.000.00
Commemorative plate - These special plate numbers are issued for specific purposes such as
fund-raising for government projects and programs.
C. Dimensions and medium.
1. Tagalog: plaka which measures 390 x 140 mm
2. Characters are stamped on an aluminum plate which is then applied with reflectorized paint.
3. Previously, numerous watermarks of the Land Transportation Office (LTO) logo as well as a
small logo of the plate manufacturer were stamped on the plate which was replaced in 2003
with a reflectorized, printed color sticker of the statue to Jose Rizal.
4. In 2008, all plates are produced by a sole, privately funded manufacturer in Manila.
5. Slogan on the bottom plate usually reflects the goals campaign of the incumbent President
which was began under President Fidel V. Ramos.
a. Fidel V. Ramos - "Philippines 2000"
b. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo - "Matatag na Republika" (Strong Republic)
6. Until 2004, plates also bore the word "Pilipinas" at the bottom
7. Common Inscription
a. PILIPINAS (the most common inscription; 1981-1995, 2001, 2002-2003, 2004-present)
b. PHILIPPINES 2000 (1995-2000)
c. ANGAT PINOY 2004 ("Raise Pinoy 2004"; 2000-2001)
d. PERLAS NG SILANGAN ("Pearl of the Orient”; 2001 – 2002)
e. MATATAG NA REPUBLIKA (2003-present)
8. Typeface. Numerous typefaces are used but the current typeface was first implemented in
1981 which is loosely based on the Australian license plate system variations on the font design
since then.
D. Geographical Designations of Plate Numbers. Geographical designations of registered motor vehicles
can be determined by the beginning letter.
"A" - Region I (Ilocos Region) and COR (Cordillera Region)
"B" - Region II (Cagayan Valley Region)
"C" - Region III (Central Luzon Region), Superseded by "R" in 2003
"D"-Regions IV-A (CALABARZON) and IV-B (MIMAROPA), Superseded by "V" in 2000
"E" - Region V (Bicol Region)
"F" - Region VI (Western Visayas Region
"G" - Region VII (Central Visayas Region), Superseded by "Y" in 2004
"H" - Region VIII (Eastern Visayas Region)
"J" - Region IX (Zamboanga Peninsula) and ARMM
"K" - Regions X and XIII (Northern Mindanao and CARAGA)
"L" - Region XI (Davao Region)
"N"- NCR, 1981-1982, 2009-2010 (with increments of "I", "O", and "Q")
"P" - National Capital Region, 1982-1991, 2010-2011 (with increments of "T", "O", and "Q")
"R" - Region III (Central Luzon Region), overflow Series for Private since 2003
"S" - Government-owned (Red Plate) Vehicles
"T" - National Capital Region, 1991-1995, 2011-2012 (with increments of "I", "O", and "Q").
"U" - National Capital Region, 1995-1997, 2012-present (with increments of "I", "O", and "Q")
"V" - Regions IV-A (CALABARZON) and IV-B (MIMAROPA), overflow Series for private since 2000
"W"- National Capital Region, 1997-2001
"X" - National Capital Region, 2001-2005
"Y" - Region VII (Central Visayas Region), overflow series for Private since 2004
"Z" - National Capital Region, 2005-2009
E. Approximate Year of Issuance
1. National Capital Region
PB, PC, PD 1984 PD, PE, PF 1985 PF, PG
TG, TH, T3, TK, TL
UA(A-B), TS, UA(C-onwards), UB, UC, UD, UE
UP, UR, US, UT, UU, WA, WB 1998 WC, WD, WE, WF
ZH, Z), ZK, ZL
ZT, N-(I), N-(O), N-(Q), NI
NO, NO, P-(I), P-(O), P-(Q), PI
PO, PQ, T-(I), T-O), T-(Q), TI
2012 TO, TQ, UI, U-(I)
2013 UO
NOTE: (Wikipedia) I, O and Q are previously not used to d confusion with the numbers "1" &
"O". But with the exhaustion of the "Z" series in 2009, they are already used by reverting to the old "N"
series. A new serial scheme is implemented using these characters, instead of the third letter coming
into series (e.g. after ZAA-999 has been reached, ZAB-101) the middle letter is the one being replaced
(e.g. after NAI-999 series has been exhausted, NBI-101 will follow). After all the possible combinations
with I, O and Q as third letter for the same starting letter have been used, I, O and Q are used as middle
letters and the third letter is being replaced (e.g. After NZQ-999 has been used, NIA-101 will follow), if
the reverted letter is exhausted (e.g. After PQZ-999 has been used, TAI-101 will follow)
e.g. NIA-101, NQZ-544, PXO-296, POQ-481, TIW-529, TQH-924, UIP-207, UMI-615, UOR-814,
2. Provincial Plate Numbers
Region I/CAR
AA, AB, AC (A-N)
Region II
BA, BB (A-N)
Region III
Region IV
DA, DB, DC, DD, DE, DF, DG (A-V)
Region V
EA (A-U)
Region VI
FA, FB, FC (A-S)
Region VII
GA, GB, GC, GD (A-D)
Region VIII
HA (A-M)
Region IX/ARMM
Region X/XIII
Region XI
LA, LB, LC (A-E)
Region XII
MA (A-W)
Region I/CAR
AC (P-onwards), AD, AE
Region II
BB (P-onwards), BC
Region III
CJ (F-onwards), CK, CL, CM, CN, CP, CR (A-E)
Region IV
DG (W-2), DH, DJ, DK, DL, DM, DN, DP DR, DS, DT
Region V
EA (V-Z), EB, EC
Region VI
FC (T-onwards), FD, FE
Region VII
GD (E-onwards), GE, GF, GG, GH, GJ, GK
Region VIII
HA(P-onwards), HB
Region IX/ARMM
Region X/XIII
KB(M-onwards), KC
Region XI
LC(F-onwards), LD
Region XII
Region I/CAR
AE, AF (A-D)
Region II
Region III
CR (F-onwards), CS, CT, RA, RB, RC, RD, RE, RF, RG, RH, RJ
Region IV
VA, VB, VC, VD, VE (A-E)
Region V
Region VI
FE, FF, FG (A-M)
Region VII
Region VIII
Region IX/ARMM
Region X/XIII
Region XI
Region XII
"2010 - Present"
Region I/CAR
Region II
Region III
Region IV
VE (F-onwards), VF
Region V
Region VI
FG (N-onwards), FH
Region VII
Region VIII
Region IX/ARMM
Region X/XIII
Region XI
Region XII
F. Schedule of Registration - Registration of motor vehicles should be done annually which follows the
numerical suffixes of their plate numbers.
Last Digit of Plate Number
Middle Digit of Plate Number
1 - Jan 6 – Jun
2 - Feb 7 - Jul
3 - Mar 8 - Aug
4 - Apr 9 - Sep
5 - May 0 - Oct
Weekly Deadline (working days
of the month only)
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28
29 30 31
Note: Vehicles may be registered one month in advance of weekly deadline. For motorcycles, use the
3rd digit.
Example: Plate Number - TNG 984
The above motor vehicle shall be registered in April every year because the last digit is "4" and
the day of registration falls in April 15-21 since the middle digit is "8".
G. Letter Prefixes on Plate Numbers. The letter prefixes indicates:
1. Place of initial registration of the motor vehicle;
2. Year of initial registration and the possible year model of the registered motor vehicle could be
determined from the order of the letter prefixes, i.e., the higher the letters the later the year of
registration and year model of the motor vehicle.
Example: Vehicle 1 - PLT 255
Vehicle 2 - TNU 636
Between the above motor vehicles, Vehicle 1 was registered earlier than Vehicle 2 and
possibly, Vehicles 2's model is later than Vehicle 1.
H. Protocol Plate Numbers. These are special plate numbers for high-ranking government officials as
manifestation of courtesy towards them or their respective positions or officers. These plates are blue D
or DD plates reserved for the top government officials of the Republic of the Philippines.
1 – President
2 - Vice President
3 - Senate President
4 - Speaker of the House of Representatives
5- Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
6 - Cabinet Secretaries
7 - Senators
8 - Representatives (Congressmen)
9 - Associate Justices of the Supreme Court
10 - Presiding Justice and other Justices of the Court of Appeals, Solicitor-General (OSG formerly
11 - Chairman of the Commission on Elections
12 - Cabinet Undersecretary
13 - None currently
14 - Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and Chief of the Philippine National
16 - Regional Trial Court Judges
17 - First Level Courts (Metropolitan Trial Court, Municipal Trial Court, Municipal Trial Court in
Cities and Shari'ah Circuit courts), added by Memorandum Order No. 297 signed by President
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on March 2, 2009