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Accounting is “the process of identifying, measuring and communicating economic information to
permit informed judgments and decisions by users of the information”
Three important activities
1. Identifying
2. Measuring
3. Communicating
Identifying is the process of analyzing events and transactions to determine whether or not they will be
Only accountable events are recognized. An accountable event is one that affects the assets,
liabilities, equity, income or expenses of an entity (journalized).
Non-accountable events are not recognized but disclosed only in the notes if they have
accounting relevance (memorandum entry).
Types of events or transactions:
1. External events (entity and other external party)
a. Exchange (reciprocal transfer)
b. Non-reciprocal (like donations, gifts, penalty)
2. Internal events (do not ilve external party)
a. Production
b. Casualty
Measuring lves assigning numbers, normally in monetary terms to the economic transactions and
Basis of measurement
Historical cost
Fair value
Present Value
Realizable value
Current cost
Inflation-adjusted costs
The financial statements are said to be a mixture of fact and opinion.
When measurement is affected by estimates, the items measured are said to be valued by
 Estimates of uncollectible amounts of receivables
 Depreciation and amortization
 Estimates of liabilities
Communicating is the process of transforming economic data into useful accounting information, such
as financial statements and other accounting reports, for dissemination to users. It also involves
interpreting the significance of the processed information.
The communicating process of accounting involves three (3) aspects:
1. Recording – journal entries
2. Classifying – postings in the ledger
3. Summarizing – preparation of FS and other accounting reports
Interpreting / financial analysis
The basic purpose of accounting is to provide information that is useful in making economic decisions.
Types of information provided by accounting
1. Qualitative information – expressed in numbers, units or quantities
2. Quantitative information – expressed in words
3. Financial information – expressed in money
Types of accounting information classified as to user’s needs
1. General purpose accounting information – designed to meet the common needs of most
statement users. (Philippine Financial Reporting Standards)
2. Special purpose accounting information – designed to meet the specific needs of particular
statement users. (Management accounting, tax basis accounting)
Information in the financial statements is not obtained exclusively from the entity’s accounting
Accounting as science and art
1. As social science, accounting is a body of knowledge which has been systematically gathered,
classified and organized.
2. As a practical art, accounting requires the use of creative skills and judgment.
Accounting is often referred to as a “language of business” because it is fundamental to the
communication of financial information.
Creative and critical thinking in accounting
The practice of accountancy requires the exercise of creative and critical thinking.
Creative thinking involves the use of imagination and insight to solve problems. It is most
important in identifying alternative solutions
Critical thinking involves the logical analysis of issues. It is most important in evaluating
alternative solutions
Accounting Concepts
Accounting concepts refer to the principles upon which the process of accounting is based. The term can
be used interchangeably with the following:
Accounting assumptions – fundamental concepts and principles that provide the foundation of the
accounting process
Accounting theory – is a logical reasoning in the form of a set of broad principles that:
Provide a general frame of reference by which accounting practice can be evaluated
Guide the development of new practices and procedures
Accounting theory comprises the Conceptual Framework and the Philippine Financial Reporting
Standards (PFRS).
Some of the concepts are implicit, meaning they are not expressly stated in the framework or PFRS but
are generally accepted because of their long-time use in the profession.
Examples of Accounting Concepts:
1. Double-entry system – each accountable event is recorded in 2 parts (debit and credit)
2. oncern assumption – entity does not expect to end its operations in the foreseeable future
(measurement basis is the mixture of costs and values).
3. Separate entity – the entity is viewed separately from its owners.
4. Monetary unit assumptions – amount is stated in terms of a common unit (Php)
5. Time period – calendar or fiscal
6. Materiality concept – information is material if its omission or misstatement could influence
economic decisions
7. Cost-benefit – the cost of processing and communicating information should not exceed the
benefits to be derived from it.
8. Accrual basis of accounting – income is recognized when earned rather than when cash is
collected and expenses are recognized when incurred rather than when cash is paid.
9. Historical cost concept – the value of an asset is determined on the basis of acquisition cost. This
concept is not always maintained as some PFRS require different measurement.
a. Inventory measured at net realizable value
b. Financial instrument measured at fair value
10. Concept of Articulation – all of the components of a complete set of financial statements are
interrelated. FS, notes and cash flows should be interrelated.
11. Full disclosure principle – sufficient detail to disclose matters that make a difference to users
12. Consistency concept – basis of accounting principles are applied consistently from one period to
the next. Changes in accounting policy should be made when required by PFRS and additional
13. Matching – costs are recognized as expenses when related revenue is recognized
14. Entity Theory – assets = liabilities + capital
15. Proprietary theory – assets – liabilities = capital
16. Residual equity theory assets – liabilities – preferred shares = common shares (book value
17. Fund theory – cash inflow minus cash outflow equals fund
18. Realization – the process of converting non-cash assets into cash or claims for cash
19. Prudence (conservatism) – caution in making estimates wherein assets or income are not
overstated and liabilities or expenses are not understated.
Financial accounting is governed by the Philippine Financial Reporting Standards (PFRS)
Common Branches of Accounting
1. Financial Accounting – structured representation of an entity’s financial position and results of
A complete set of financial statements consists of the following:
Statement of Financial Positions
Statement of Profit or Loss and Other Comprehensive Income
Statement of Changes in Equity
Statement of Cash Flows
Additional Statement of Financial Position (required only when certain circumstances occur)
2. Management Accounting (Management Advisory Services) – refers to the accumulation and
communication of information for use by the internal users or management.
3. Cost Accounting – systematic recording and analysis of the costs of materials, labor and
overhead incident to production
4. Auditing – is the process of evaluating the correspondence of certain assertions with established
criteria and expressing an opinion thereon.
5. Tax Accounting – the preparation of tax returns and rendering of tax advice.
6. Government accounting – accounting for government and its instrumentalities placing emphasis
on the custody of public funds, the purpose for which those funds are committed and the
responsibility and accountability of the individuals entrusted with those funds
7. Fiduciary accounting – refers to handling of accounts managed by a person entrusted with the
custody and management of property for the benefit of another
8. Estate accounting – accounting for the properties of deceased person
9. Social accounting – the process of communicating the social and environment effects of an
entity’s economic actions to the society.
10. Institutional accounting – accounting for non-profit entities other than government accounting
11. Accounting systems – installation of accounting procedure for the accumulation of financial data
and designing of accounting forms to be used in data gathering.
12. Accounting research – pertains to the careful analysis of economic events and other variables to
understand their impact on decisions.
Process of recording of accounts or transactions of an entity
Normally ends with the preparation of trial balance
Does not require the interpretation of the significance of the processed information
Accountancy – refers to the profession or practice of accounting
Four sectors in the practice of accountancy
1. Practice of Public Accountancy – involves rendering of audit or accounting related services to
more than one client on a fee basis
2. Practice in Commerce and Industry – refers to employment in the private sector in a position
which involves decision making requiring professional knowledge in the science of accounting
and such position requires that the holder thereof must be a certified public accountants.
3. Practice in Education/Academe – employment in an educational institution which involves
teaching of accounting, auditing, management advisory services, finance, business law, taxation
and other technically related subjects
4. Practice in the Government – employment or appointment to a position in an accounting
professional group in the government.
Accounting Standards
The Philippine Financial Reporting Standards (PFRSs) represent the generally accepted accounting
principles (GAAP) in the Philippines
The term “generally accepted” means that either:
1. The standard has been established by an authoritative accounting rule-making body ex: PFRS
2. The principle has gained general acceptance due to practice over time and has been proven to
be the most usefule ex: double-entry recording and other implicit concepts
Hierarchy of Reporting Standards
When selecting its accounting policies, an entity considers the following in descending order:
1. Philippine Financial Reporting Standards (PFRS)
2. In the absence of a PFRS that specifically applies to a transaction or event, management shall
use its judgment in developing and applying an accounting policy that results in information that
is relevant and reliable.
PFRS > Conceptual Framework > Pronouncements of other standard-setting bodies > accounting
literature and accepted industry practices
Selection of appropriate accounting policies is the responsibility of the entity’s management, the
proper application of accounting principles is most dependent upon the professional judgment
of the accountant.
Accounting standard setting bodies and other relevant organizations
1. Financial Reporting Standards Council (FRSC) – official accounting standard setting body in the
Philippines created under the Philippine Accountancy Act of 2004.
2. Philippine Interpretations Committee (PIC) – predecessor of FRSC with the role of reviewing the
interpretations of the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC)
3. Board of Accountancy – professional regulatory board to supervise the registration, licensure
and practice of accountancy in the Philippines.
4. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) – is the government agency tasked in regulating
corporations and partnerships, capital and investment market and the investing public.
5. Bureau of Internal Revenue – administers the provisions of the National Internal Revenue Code.
These provisions do not always reflect the goals of financial reporting. However, they do at
times influence the choice of accounting methods.
6. Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) – influences the selection and application of accounting
policies by banks and other entities performing banking functions
7. Cooperative Development Authority (CDA) – influences the selection and application of
accounting policies by cooperatives.
US GAAP (Statement of Financial Reporting Standards) – Federal Accounting Standards Board
2005 full adoption of IFRS
o Primarily brought about by increasing acceptance of IFRSs world-wide and increasing
internationalization of businesses thereby increasing the need for a common financial
reporting standards that minimize inconsistencies of financial reporting among nations.
International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is the standard-setting body of the IFRS Foundation
with the main objectives of developing and promoting global accounting standards.
The accounting standards used in the Philippines are the PFRS, which are based on the IFRSs. The PFRSs
are comprised of the following:
1. PFRSs
2. PASs
3. Interpretations
Financial reporting standards continuously change primarily in response to users’ needs.
Conceptual Framework
Sets out the concepts that underlie the preparation and presentation of financial statements for
external users.
The Conceptual Framework is not a PFRS and therefore does not prescribe any measurement or
disclosure requirement. If there is a conflict between a PFRS and the Conceptual Framework, the
requirements of the PFRS will prevail.
Hierarchy of reporting standards
a. PFRSs
b. Judgment
When making the judgment:
 Management shall consider the following:
o Requirements in other PFRSs dealing with similar transactions
o Conceptual Framework
 Management may consider the following:
o Pronouncements issued by other standard-setting bodies
o Other accounting literature and industry practice
The Conceptual Framework deals with the following:
Objective of financial reporting
Qualitative characteristics of useful information
Definition, recognition and measurement of financial statement elements
Concepts of capital and capital maintenance
Objective of financial reporting
“The objective of general purpose financial reporting is to provide financial information about
the reporting entity that is useful to existing and potential investors, lenders and other creditors
in making decisions about providing resources to the entity.”
 Foundation of Conceptual Framework
Primary Users of Financial Reporting
1. Existing and Potential Investors
2. Lenders and Other Creditors
 These users cannot demand information directly from reporting entities and must rely on
general purpose financial reports for their financial information needs.
 Lenders > extend loans; Creditors > other forms of credit
 The concern of primary users is the entity’s prospects for future net cash inflows.
General purpose financial reports provide information on a reporting entity’s:
a. Financial position – information on economic resources (assets) and claims against the reporting
entity (liabilities and equity).
b. Changes in economic resources and claims – information on financial performance and other
transactions and events that lead to changes in financial position.
Economic resources and Claims
Information on economic resources and claims help users assess the entity’s:
a. Financial strengths and weaknesses
b. Liquidity and solvency
c. Needs for additional financing and how successful it is likely to be in obtaining that financing
 Liquidity > ability to pay short-term; solvency > ability to meet long term obligations
Current ratio; asset-liability matching
Economic resources and claims
 Helps users assess the entity’s ability to produce return from its economic resources.
o Return provides an indication on how well management has efficiently and effectively
used the entity’s resources.
 Variability of the return helps users in assessing the uncertainty of future cash flows.
o For example, significant fluctuations in reported profits may indicate financial instability
and uncertainty on the entity’s ability to generate cash flows from its operations.
Qualitative Characteristics
The qualitative characteristics of useful financial information identify the types of information that are
likely to be most useful to the primary users in making decisions using an entity’s financial report.
The Conceptual Framework classifies the qualitative characteristics into the following:
1. Fundamental qualitative characteristics – these are the characteristics that make information
useful to users. They are consist of the following:
a. Relevance
i. Materiality concept
b. Faithful Representation
i. Completeness
ii. Neutrality
iii. Free from error
2. Enhancing qualitative characteristics – these are the characteristics that enhance the usefulness
of information. They consist of the following:
a. Comparability
b. Verifiability
c. Timeliness
d. Understandability
Information is relevant if it is capable of making difference in the decisions made by the users.
 Information is material if omitting, misstating or obscuring it could reasonably be expected to
influence decisions that the primary users of a specific reporting entity’s general purpose
financial statements make on the basis of those financial statements.
The Conceptual Framework states that materiality is an ‘entity-specific’ aspect of relevance, meaning
materiality depends on the facts and circumstances surrounding a specific entity. Accordingly, the
Conceptual Framework and the Standards do not specify a uniform quantitative threshold for
materiality. Materiality is a matter of judgment.
Faithful Representation
The information provides a true, correct and complete depiction of what it purports to represent.
Faithfully represented information has the following characteristics:
a. Completeness – all information necessary for users to understand the phenomenon being
depicted are provided. These include:
o Description of the nature of the item
o Numerical depiction (monetary amount)
o Description of the numerical depiction (historical cost or fair value)
o Explanations of significant facts surrounding the item
b. Neutrality – information is selected or presented without bias
c. Free from error – this does not mean that the information is perfectly accurate in all aspects. It
means there are no errors in the description and in the process by which the information is
selected and applied.
o If the information is an estimate, that fact should be described clearly, including an
explanation of the process used in making that estimate.
Information is comparable if it helps users identify similarities and differences between one information
and another information that is either provided by the same entity but in another period (intracomparability) or by other entities (inter-comparability).
 Although related, consistency and comparability are not the same. Consistency refers to the use
of the same methods for the same items. Comparability is the goal while consistency is the
means of achieving that goal.
Information is verifiable if different users could reach an agreement as to what the information purports
to represent.
 Direct verification - involves direct observation (counting of cash, inventory of supplies)
 Indirect verification – recalculating using the same formula (checking the inputs in the cash
ledger and recalculating the ending balance)
Information is timely if it is available to users in time to be able to influence their decisions.
Information is understandable if it is presented in a clear and concise manner.
 Understandability does not mean that complex matters should be excluded because this would
make information incomplete and potentially misleading. Accordingly, financial reports are
intended for users:
o Who have reasonable knowledge of business activities and
o Who are willing to analyze the information diligently
Underlying Assumption
The underlying assumption in financial reporting is going concern. It is assumed that the entity has
neither the intention nor the need to end its operations in the foreseeable future.
The Elements of Financial Statements
 Financial statement portray the effects of transactions and events by grouping them into broad
Financial Position
 the elements directly related to the measurement of financial position are assets, liabilities and
“An asset is a resource controlled by the entity as a result of past events and from which future
economic benefits are expected to flow to the entity”.
Essential Elements in the definition of asset
a. Control – means the entity has the exclusive right over the benefits of an asset or the ability to
prevent others from accessing those benefits
o Substance over form concept
i. Ownership or possession is not always necessary for control to exist (ex. Asset
acquire through bank financing)
ii. Physical form is not necessary for an asset to exist. (ex. Receivables and
iii. The presence or absence of expenditure is not necessary in determining the
existence of an asset. (ex. Donations)
b. Past Events
o Resources for which control is yet to be obtained in the future do not qualify as assets in
the past event. (ex. Mere intention to acquire vehicles)
c. Future Economic Benefits
o ‘Future” means the resource is expected to provide economic benefit over more than
one accounting period. Expense for current period only.
o “Economic benefits” means the potential of the resource to provide the entity, directly,
indirectly with cash and cash equivalents.
“A liability is a present obligation of the entity arising from past events, the settlement of which is
expected to result in an outflow from the entity of resources embodying economic benefits”
Essential Elements in the definition of liability
a. Present obligation arising from past events – means that at the reporting date, the entity has
the responsibility to perform some act because of an obligating event that has already
Legal obligation – an obligation that results from a contract, legislation or other
operation of law
Constructive obligation – an obligation that results from an entity’s actions that create a
valid expectation from others that the entity will accept and discharge certain
o Intention to purchase inventory (no obligation)
o Irrevocable contract to purchase an inventory (creates liability)
o Assumed acceptable of repairs in the future (constructive)
b. Outflow of economic benefits – settling an obligation normally requires the entity to:
o Pay cash
o Transfer non-cash assets
o Render a service
o Replace the obligation with another obligation
o Convert the obligation to equity
 The Conceptual Framework’s definition of a liability encompasses a broad approach to
identifying the existence of a liability, such that a liability may exist:
o Even if the obligee (payee) is not specifically known
o Even if the amount of the liability is not definite (ex. Provisions)
“Equity is the residual interest in the assets of the entity after deducting all its liabilities”
The elements directly related to the measurement of performance are income and expenses.
“Income is increases in economic benefits during the accounting period in the form of inflows or
enhancements of assets or decreases of liabilities that result in increases in equity, other than those
relating to contributions from equity participants”.
Income includes both revenue and gains.
a. “Revenue arises in the course of the ordinary activities of an entity and is referred to by a variety
of different names including sales, fees, interest, dividends, royalties and rent”
b. “Gains represent other items that meet the definition of income and may, or may not, arise in
the course of the ordinary activities of an entity”.
 Revenues and gains are normally presented separately in the financial statements as knowledge
of them is useful in making economic decisions.
“Expenses are decrease in economic benefits during the accounting period in the form of outflows or
depletions of assets or incurrences of liabilities that result in decrease in equity, other than those
relating to distributions to equity participants”.
 Capitalizable costs – recognized as assets
 Period costs or revenue expenditures – expensed immediately in the period they are incurred
Expense recognition principle
The following principles are applied when recognizing expenses:
1. Matching concept (direct association of cost and revenues)
 Costs that are directly related to the earning of revenue are recognized as expenses in the
same period the related revenue is recognized. (ex. Commissions)
2. Systematic and rational allocation – costs that are not directly related to the earning of revenue
are initially recognized as assets and recognized as expenses over the periods their economic
benefits are consumed, using some method of allocation. (ex. Depreciation, prepayments).
3. Immediate recognition – costs that do not provide or cease to provide future economic benefits
are expensed immediately (ex. Obsolete properties, impaired receivables)
“Measurement is the process of determining the monetary amounts at which the elements of the
financial statements are to be recognized and carried in the balance sheet and income statement”.
Basis of measurements
Historical Cost
Current Cost
Realizable value (settlement
Present value
For Assets
This is the amount of cash paid
or the fair value of the
consideration given to acquire
them at the time of their
This is the amount of cash that
would have to be paid if the
same asset was acquired
This is the amount of cash that
could currently be obtained by
selling the asset in an orderly
This is the discounted value of
the future net cash inflows
expected to be derived from the
For Liabilities
This is the amount of proceeds
received in exchange for the
obligation or the amount of
cash expected to be paid to
settle the liability
This is undiscounted amount of
cash that would be required to
settle the obligation currently.
This is the settlement value or
the undiscounted amount of
cash expected to be paid to
satisfy the liabilities in the
normal course of business
This is the discounted value of
the future net cash outflows
expected to be paid to settle
the liability
Concepts of Capital and Capital Maintenance
Two Concepts of Capital
a. Financial Concept of Capital – capital is regarded as the invested money or invested purchasing
power. Capital is synonymous with equity or net assets.
b. Physical concept of capital – capital is regarded as the entity’s productive capacity ex. Units of
output per day.
 The choice of an appropriate concept is based on the user’s needs.
 The concept chosen affects the determination of profit.
o Financial capital maintenance – profit is earned if the net assets at the end of the
period exceeds the net assets at the beginning of the period, after excluding any
distributions to and contributions from owners
o Physical capital maintenance –profit is earned only if the entity’s productive
capacity at the end of the period after excluding any distributions to and
contributions from owners during the period.