The Present Simple is formed from the infinitive without the particle to. In the third person singular it has the suffix –s/-es which is
pronounced [z] after vowels and voised consonants (plays, opens, reads, sees), [s] after voiceless consonants (looks, asks, works)
and [iz] after sibilants [s], [z](closes, places, teaches, wishes).
In writing the following spelling rules should be observed: a final “y" is changed into “i" if is preceded by a consonant and then -es
is added; to study- he studies, to try- he tries; but after a vowel “y" is kept unchanged and the suffix -s is added: to play-plays, to
stay – stays.
The interrogative and negative forms are built up analytically, by means of the auxiliary verb to do in the Present Simple and the
infinitive of the notional verb without the particle to: Do you work? Does he work? 1 don’t work. He doesn't work.
The Use of The Present Simple
The Present Simple is used :
1)To state simple facts in the present: I live in Kyiv
2) to denote customary, repeated actions, timetable in the present with such adverbials as every day, always, often, seldom, usually:
I get up at 7, The train leaves at 9 pm tomorrow
3)To state laws of nature, universal truths,something which is eternally true: Snow consists of water, Moscow is largest city in
4)to express a succession of action taking place at the time of speaking: Now I peel the apples, slice them and put into the dish
5)to express past actions:
a) in newspaper headlines, in the outlines of novels, plays, films: Dog Saves its Master
The Present Continuous
The Present Continuous is formed by means of the Present Simple of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb.
Participle I is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb;
The following spelling rules should be observed:
a) if a verb ends in a mute -e, the mute -e is dropped before adding the suffix -ing: to give – giving,
b) if a verb ends in a consonant preceded by a vowel rendering a short stressed sound, the final consonant is doubled before adding
the suffix -ing: to run – running.
In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject: Am I not reading ?
In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the auxiliary verb: I am not playing
The Use of The Present Continuous
The Present Continuous is used :
1) To denote an action going on at the time of speaking: He is playing piano now
2)When we talk about something which is happening ariund the time of speaking or period around the present with adverbs as today,
this season are used : I’m taking special courses in English
3)to express a continual process . In this case the adverbs always,ever , constantly are used : The sun is ever shining
4)to denote ations permanently characterizing thesubject and provoking certain emotions: He is always laughing at everything
5)to denote an action which take place in the near future: They are moving to Kyiv next Monday
6) when we talk about changing situations: The population of the world is rising very fast