Scientific Inquiry and Lab Design Test Review Key Words Observation Constant Dependent variable scientific method Inference Quantitative control variable independent variable Qualitative hypothesis Concepts and Ideas 1. What is the scientific method? What is its purpose? 2. What is a hypothesis? What needs to be included in this part of the experiment? 3. What is the difference between observation and inference? 4. Indicate whether the following statements are observations of inferences: a. The truck has leather heated seats so it must be expensive b. The car is black and has tinted windows c. The car has tinted windows so it is a police car d. The container is filled to the 250 mL mark e. The caterpillar did not eat the moth because it is not a carnivore f. I can jump high in tennis shoes because they have rubber soles g. The sun rose at 6:45 am this morning _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 5. What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative observations? 6. Indicate whether the following observations are quantitative or qualitative: a. The gummy worm increased by 2 inches. ___________ b. There were four dogs in the group. ___________ c. The dogs were small. ___________ d. The patient complained of aches and pains. ___________ e. The patient had a temperature 102 degrees. ___________ f. The chimp identified 12 pictures correctly. ___________ g. The parrots range from bright green to dark red. ___________ h. The balloon increased in size from 5 inches to 8 inches around. ___________ i. The birds were young. ___________ j. The rock sample consisted of 25 grams of quartz ___________ k. The rock sample was reddish brownish. ___________ l. The sample with the baking soda appeared bubbly ___________ m. The leaves on the first plant specimen appeared healthier. ___________ 7. What is a variable? 8. What is a control? What is its purpose? 9. What is a constant? What is its purpose? Do experiments have more than one constant? 10.What is the difference between an independent and dependent variable? 11.Read through the following examples and identify the independent, dependent, and any constants: a. Does heating a cup of water allow it to dissolve more sugar? Temperature of the water is measured in degrees Centigrade. Amount of sugar is measured in grams. Independent Variable Constants Dependent Variable b. Does fertilizer make a plant grow bigger? Amount of fertilizer measured in grams, quantities of water measured in milliliters. Independent Constants Dependent c. How fast does a candle burn? Time measured in minutes. Height of candle measured in centimeters at regular intervals of time (for example, every five minutes) Independent Constants Dependent 12.Be able to read a graph and discuss any trends and identify the independent and dependent variables. Use your assignment to help you review and practice. 13.For the following question generate a hypothesis: Question: How can the amount of caffeine affect how long it takes you to complete a task? Hypothesis: (proper form) 14.List 3 variables that affect how many apples would be growing on an apple tree.