Is the South African grade 8 and 9 Social Sciences Curriculum Promoting the Democratic Values of the South African Constitution? By Khethakuthula Lindokuhle Nduduzo Ndumo Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Education Honours (Social Science Education) at the University of KwaZulu-Natal Supervisor: DR Maserole Christina Kgari-Masondo October 2018 Declaration I Khethakuthula Lindokuhle Nduduzo Ndumo (214534031), Declare that this research project contains work as of my own ideas and thoughts as reported I acknowledged other authors work I utilized in backing up my work with evidence as I referenced their ideas. Where I used other authors work or sources as direct without making any changes, I acknowledged their work by using direct quotation marks and referencing their accepted wisdom. The research report has not been submitted for any other purposes either than the fulfillment of honours degree in education. The research project has not been submitted to any other institution either than the University of KwaZulu-Natal. __________________________ Khethakuthula Lindokuhle Nduduzo Ndumo As the supervisor of the candidate I hereby accept the submission of the project for examination ___________________________ Maserole Christina Kgari-Masondo October 2018 DEDICATION This work is dedicated to all who aim to improve the quality of the South Africans Education. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to take this opportunity to thank my mother Lucy Philisiwe Ndumo, my uncle Eric Ndumo, my late grandmother for raising me the way you did. You taught me discipline and loyalty, and without your teaching I would not have been able to be where I am today. This world is full of challenges from spiritual to physical challenges, but with uMvelinqanga, Idlozi lami, and iNkosi uShembe uNyazi lweZulu I am able to overcome such challenges each and every day, I therefore say Mvelinqanga, Dlozi lami, and Nkosi uShembe Nyazi lweZulu thank you for protecting me on this earth. My sincere appreciation goes to my academic supervisor DR Kgari Masondo, Thank you for believing in my ideas and encouraging me to worker harder every day, without you this work would not exist. Nontobeko Msomi you have been with me since day one, I thank god for your presence in my life. To the South African government, on behalf of all the learners you have sponsored through financial aid schemes, thank you. You efforts are appreciated. ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper was to find out if the South African government is using the Social Sciences grade 8 and 9 curriculum to spread the democratic values of the constitution. After extensive analysis of the policies that underpin the South African education, analysis on of the curriculum itself, and the leaner’s textbooks. It was found that the Social Sciences grade 8 and 9 is promoting the democratic values of the South African constitution. This qualitative research study which falls under the interpretivism paradigm used a desktop analysis research style to acquire the required data to answer the research question for this paper, and the data was sampled through purposive sampling. The sources for the literature review included journal articles, books, policy documents, website articles, dissertations, and thesis. This study selected Character Education Theory, and Social Learning Theory as the suitable theories to support the results, and ideas of this research. Key Terms: Values, constitution, Social Sciences, Social Sciences Education, Curriculum, Hidden curriculum, History of Education ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS CAPS- Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement SS- Social Sciences SLT- Social Learning Theory NCS- National Curriculum Statement RNCS- Revises National Curriculum Statement OBE- Outcomes Based Education CNE- Christian National Education C2005- Curriculum 2005 PSE- Personal and Social Education SA- South Africa UBP- National Unity Party USA- United States of America MoNE- Ministry of National Education EU- European Union UK- United Kingdom Table of Contents DECLARATION.............................................................................................................ii DEDICATION…..........................................................................................................iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...........................................................................................v ABSTRACT..................................................................................................................vi KEY TERMS................................................................................................................vii ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS...................................................................viii TABLE OF CONTENTS.............................................................................................xi Chapter One: Introduction 1.1. Background..............................................................................................................1 1.2. Context......................................................................................................................1 1.3. Rationale and motivation.........................................................................................8 1.4. Purpose and focus.....................................................................................................9 1.5. Concepts to be considered.......................................................................................10 1.5.1. Values as a concept.....................................................................................10 1.6.Theoretical framework.............................................................................................11 1.7.Chapter outline..........................................................................................................12 1.8.Conclusion..................................................................................................................12 Chapter Two: Literature Review 2.1. Introduction...............................................................................................................13 2.2. Understanding Social Science Education...............................................................13 2.2.1. What is Social Science Education? .............................................................13 2.2.2. What are the purposes of Social Science Education? .................................15 2.3. Nature of Curriculums.............................................................................................16 2.3.1. Purpose of curriculums.................................................................................18 2.4. Understanding constitutions....................................................................................19 2.4.1. What is a constitution? ...............................................................................19 2.4.2. Purpose of constitution................................................................................21 184.108.40.206 Education spreading values of governments.............................................22 2.5. Social Science curriculum in South Africa.............................................................26 2.5.1. Textbook Censorship...................................................................................35 2.6. Conclusion.................................................................................................................37 Chapter Three: Research Methodology 3. Research methodology................................................................................................37 4. Discussion.....................................................................................................................39 4.1. South African Curriculums and fostering values of the constitutions……...40 4.1.1. The Revised National Curriculum Statement…………………………..40 4.1.2. Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS)……………….45 4.2. White paper on Education and Training………………………………………..46 4.3. Case studies from Turkey, Iraq, and Cyprus…………………………………..47 4.4. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………49 5. Conclusion and recommendations…………………………………………………49 Is the South African grade 8 and 9 Social Sciences Curriculum Promoting the Democratic Values of the South African Constitution? 1. Introduction Governments around the world use many platforms to influence the kind of citizens they want in their countries including education (Meyer, 1995). The focus of this study is to find out if the government of South Africa is also using education like the Social Sciences curriculum to promote the values of the constitution. South Africa has a history of being under an apartheid ruling government, where non-white people were discriminated on many fronts like economically, politically, socially and environmentally. For an example the National Party from 1948 when they came to power they used education to implement, sustain, and spread the policies of apartheid in South Africa. The use of education as a tool to promote values of the apartheid constitution was done through Bantu education, and Christian Education until 1994 (Msila, 2007). Turkey, Cyprus, Iraq, and Kuwait are among the countries that have used education to influence the values of its citizens (Carnegie, 2013, Bridoux, 2011, Karahasan & Latif, 2011, and Üstel, 2004). It has been 24 years since the end of apartheid, but could we be seeing the very same approach of influencing citizens through education with the aim of rectifying the mistakes made by the apartheid government? 1.1. Background and Context This study is located in South Africa, and based on the post-apartheid context. The South African education has a long history, and different education systems with different aims, from pre-colonial to the present. The first system being in the pre-colonial period was the African Education with the aims of entrenching African values on children (Seroto, 2011). Then in 1737 Missionary Education, which was linked with Christian National Education was established to entrench colonial values of Christianity and westernisation (SA History, 2011). With the emergence of the new democratic dispensation in 1994, the state introduced the Outcomes Based Education (OBE) and then Revised National Curriculum and Curricullum Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) in order to eradicate the values of apartheid in the education system (Msila, 2007). This shows that historically South Africa has used the education system to deal with certain concerns the country find as not fitting the government of the time. Thus, this research tries to investigate if the same is still happening with the current policy the CAPS using Social Science as an example since it is my area of expertise as I am a grade 8 to 9 teacher of the subject. The first education system South Africa had was Indigenous African Education, which was the education that was both formal and informal. The educational practices were through the transmission of indigenous knowledge from an adult to child (Seroto, 2011). It was practiced by the indigenous people of South Africa the Khoi-San and the Bantu-speaking people before the arrival of the settlers in the Cape Colony in 1652 (Seroto, 2011, and Kaya, 2013). The curriculum of Indigenous African Education consisted of traditions, legends and tales and the procedures and knowledge associated with rituals which were handed down orally from generation to generation within each ethnic group (Seroto, 2011). Children learned about work, hunting, rituals and other cultural traits (such as trance dancing, herding and the manufacturing of equipment) from older members of their clans, through experience and by completing tasks such as gathering and preparing food (Seroto, 2011). Colonisation process took place and South Africa was conquered by Britain and they introduced Missionary Education which was the second type of the education system in South Africa had (Christie, 1998). It was established by the colonial British government in South Africa as a way of spreading their language and traditions in the colony, and also as means of social control (cited in Msila, 2007). As a result colleges of education in the Cape Colony were established, such as Lovedale, and the University College of Fort Hare under the British rule (Msila, 2007). Mission schools established included St Matthews, Clarkebury, and other mission schools to promote the British culture (Msila, 2007). The main political aim of Missionary Education for (Christie, 1988) was to make Africans easily manageable and provide labour, and make sure that Africans did not rebel against the rule of the British. Another reason was to force Africans to also contribute to the revenue of the British colony. This is one example of how education has certain political aims for those who consume it, the next paragraph will discuss Christian National Education. The third type of Education in history of South African was the Christian National Education (CNE); According to (Coetzee, 1987) CNE was characterised by protestant Christian principles, and was designed in a manner that would suit the culture of the children intended to, the Afrikaner children. The key principles of CNE according to (Eeden, & Vermeulen 2005, p. 179) included: 1. The instruction and the education of the children of European parents should be based on their parent’s life view of the world which have a Christian foundation and are based on the Holy Scripture (Bible) 2. Under the national principle one should love their country, language, history, and culture, and education should be conducted through the means of religious instruction. 3. No double medium schools – all groupings in South Africa should be separately accommodated. 4. Education to Coloured and African people is regarded as subdivisions of the vocation task of the Afrikaans speaking Afrikaner to Christianise non-Europeans of the country. Education of black people was based on the European’s attitude to life and to the world. From the above principles of the CNE it is safe to say that CNE was promoting Afrikaner nationalism through education. For instance the education system (CNE) promptly stated that Europeans as receivers of the CNE education system should love their “country, history, language, and culture”. The ‘country’ the CNE is referring to is the one ruled by Afrikaners, who are imposing their language on the natives of that country. The last principle of CNE stated above stipulates “Education to Coloured and Black people is regarded as subdivisions of the vocation task of the Afrikaans speaking Afrikaner to Christianise non-Europeans of the country” (Eeden, & Vermeulen 2005, p. 179). This principle confirms that the Afrikaner ruling party was using education to Christianise the non-Europeans of the country. The fourth education system in South Africa was the Outcomes Based Education (OBE), this education system was introduced on two important basis, one is based on the fact that the previous education system did not meet international standards because it was racist, and two it was not democratic (Msila, 2007, p. 150). For OBE the important aspects were the outcomes that learners could reap from the education they were getting. Outcomes meant “having ideas, knowing how to make decisions, and how to solve problems” (Msila, 2007). These outcomes enabled learners to be equipped in life and find employment (Msila, 2007). This was the results of the OBE it was relevant especially considering that South Africa had just got international sanctions lifted in 1994, and many work opportunities which were previously not opened for many black people were open, and they needed the skills to access these opportunities. But there were shortfalls OBE had like - its jargon was difficult, it did not provide sufficient time for development of effective reading skills, and teachers were not properly trained to implement the curriculum (Department of Education Curriculum 2005, 2004, and Parliamentary Monitoring Group, 2000, p. 1). As a result the Curriculum 2005 was to be streamlined, and the Department of Education reviewed C2005 “The revision of Curriculum 2005 resulted in a Draft Revised National Curriculum Statement for Grades R-9 (Schools)” (Department of Education Curriculum 2005, 2004, p. 11) The Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS) is the result of the revision of the National Curriculum Statement (NCS, 2002). The National Curriculum Statement (C 2005) according to (NCS, 2002, p. 2) had to be revised because “the Council of Education Ministers agreed that the Statement of the National Curriculum for Grades R-9 should be revised in accordance with the recommendations of the Report of the Review Committee (31 May 2000) to streamline and strengthen Curriculum 2005’’. The Revised National Curriculum Statement Grades R-9 (Schools) builds on the vision and values of the Constitution and Curriculum 2005 (Revised National Curriculum Statement, 2004, p.5). These principles include: 1. Social Justice, a Healthy Environment, Human Rights and Inclusivity 2. Outcomes-based Education 3. Clarity and Accessibility 4. Progression and Integration 1.1. Social Justice, a Healthy Environment, Human Rights and Inclusivity What the principle Social Justice, a Healthy Environment, Human Rights and Inclusivity means is that the curriculum can play an important role in creating awareness of the relationship between human rights, a healthy environment, social justice and inclusivity (RNCS, 2004). The principle also entails that “all Learning Area Statements reflect the principles and practices of social justice, respect for the environment and human rights as defined in the constitution” (Revised National Curriculum Statement, 2004, p.5). 2.1. Outcomes-based Education The principle Outcomes-based Education considers both the process of learning, and the content as important in the teaching and learning process, In the Revised National Curriculum Statement Learning Outcomes and assessment standards were designed from the critical and developmental outcomes (RNCS, 2004). The critical and development outcomes “are a list of outcomes that are derived from the Constitution and are contained in the South African Qualifications Act (1995)” (RNCS, 2004, p.5). These outcomes describe the kind of citizens the education and training system should aim to create. The critical outcomes envisage learners who will be able to: 3.1. Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking. Participate as responsible citizens in the life of local, national, and global communities. Be culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts. Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information. Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation and community. Clarity and Accessibility The Revised National Curriculum Statement aims at clarity and accessibility both in its design and language, two design features, learning outcomes and assessment standards clearly define for all learners the goals and outcomes necessary to proceed to each successive level of the system (RNCS, 2004, p.5). 4.1. Progression and Integration Integration ensures that learners experience the Learning Area as linked and related, It supports and expands their opportunities to attain skills, acquire knowledge and develop attitudes and values encompassed across the curriculum (RNCS, 2004, p.6). The Department of Basic Education in 2012 introduced the Curriculum Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS), which was developed to help implement the curriculum of the South African schools (Department of Basic Education, 2018). CAPS is a single comprehensive Curriculum and Assessment Policy document, which was developed for each subject to replace Subject Statements, Learning Programme Guidelines and Subject Assessment Guidelines in Grades R-12 (Department of Basic Education, 2018). CAPS is also in line with the aims of the National Curriculum Statement, and the values embedded in the NCS. The CAPS document fully supports the usage of the curriculum to foster the values of the constitution, CAPS document acknowledges all the principles of the NCS, as stated below: (a) The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 (January 2012) represents a policy statement for learning and teaching in South African schools and comprises the following: (i) Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements for each approved school subject; (ii) The policy document, National policy pertaining to the programme and promotion requirements of the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12; and (iii) The policy document, National Protocol for Assessment Grades R-12 (January 2012). (CAPS, 2011, p. 3) CAPS is an integral part of the NCS and therefore promotes the values embedded in the NCS, like democracy, social justice and equity, and reconciliation (NCS, 2002, p, 13) which are based on constitution of the republic of South Africa as it state that “From the start of democracy we have built our curriculum on the values that inspired our Constitution (Act 108 of 1996)” (CAPS, 2011, p. 3). The general aims of the curriculum according to (CAPS, 2011, p.4) are to “ensure that children acquire and apply knowledge and skills in ways that are meaningful to their own lives. In this regard, the curriculum promotes knowledge in local contexts, while being sensitive to global imperatives”. The curriculum also serves the purpose of, providing access to higher education, equipping learners irrespective of their socio-economic background, race, gender, physical ability or intellectual ability with knowledge and skills, and values necessary for selffulfilment, and meaning participation in the country (CAPS, 2011, p.5). One cannot help but notice the changing purposes of the curriculum in the history of South African Education, the aims of Missionary Education, and Christian National Education both had political aspirations which were to supress non-white people of the country, and validate the supremacy of the ruling white governments. Then the apartheid system was abolished, the new government based on democratic values introduced curriculums that had different aims than their predecessors. The political aspirations of both C2005, and RNCS were similar in the sense that they both aimed at rectifying the injustices found in the Christian National Education, thereby focusing on teaching issues of social empowerment, removing any discrimination in the curriculum, teaching issues of human rights, and providing all learners with the necessary skills in participating in our country. The South African education in the post-apartheid era has been underpinned by different white papers that have different aspirations, and similar goals. The first white paper to underpin the South African education was the White Paper on Education and Training Notice 196 of 1995. This white paper was the “national policy for the reconstruction and development of education and training” (White Paper on Education and Training Notice 196 of 1995, p. 16). According to the white paper education should be responsible for the realisation of democracy liberty, equality, justice and peace are necessary conditions for the pursuit and enjoyment of lifelong learning (White Paper on Education and Training Notice 196 of 1995, p. 18). It should be a goal of education and training policy to enable a democratic, free, equal, just and peaceful society in South Africa because (White Paper on Education and Training Notice 196 of 1995, p. 18). The White Paper clearly holds education as responsible for encountering the legacy of apartheid and promoting the values underlying democracy. “The education system must counter the legacy of violence by promoting the values underlying the democratic process and the charter of fundamental rights…and by teaching values and skills for conflict management and conflict resolution” (White Paper on Education and Training Notice 196 of 1995, 1995, p. 18) The following white paper to underpin the South African education was the Education White Paper 2 Notice of 130 of 1996 (The organisation, governance and funding of Schools). The purpose of the white paper was to help in transforming the South Africa's pattern of school organisation, governance and funding, which has a legacy of the apartheid system. The Education system according to the white paper must be transformed in accordance with democratic values and practice, and the requirements of the Constitution (Education White Paper 2 Notice of 130 of 1996, 1996m p. 1). The principals underpinning this white paper stipulated that the new structure of school organisation should “create the conditions for developing a coherent, integrated, flexible national system…an improvement in educational quality across the system, democratic governance, and school-based decision making within provincial guidelines”(Education White Paper 2 Notice of 130 of 1996, 1996m p. 6). During 1998 the Ministry of Education introduced the Education White Paper 4 a Programme for the Transformation of Further Education and Training. The main purpose of this white paper was to outline the strategies and processes involved in establishing a new coordinated FET system. The vision of Education White Paper 4 is providing high quality education for a learning society and the flexible development of a co-ordinated FET system and responsive programmed and opportunities (White Paper 4, 1998). During May 2001 the Department of Education introduced the White Paper 5 on Early Childhood Education, this white paper is mainly focused in addressing the establishment of a national system of provision of the Reception Year for children aged 5 years (White Paper 5, 2001). The main goal of the paper is for all children entering grade 1 to have participated in an accredited Reception Year Programme, this white paper then outlines how this will be achieved (White Paper 5, 2001). With regards to education passing transmitting values of the constitution to the learners, the Whiter Paper 5 recognises that “early years have also been recognised as the ideal phase for the transmission of the values that are essential for a peaceful, prosperous and democratic society” (White Paper 5, 2001, p. 9). These values include respect for human rights, appreciation of diversity, tolerance, and justice” (White Paper 5, 2001, p. 9) Special needs education is a challenge that needed a response from the Department of Education, as a response the department formulated the White Paper 6 Special Needs Education. The purpose of the White Paper 6 is to reassure the public that special schools will be strengthened rather than abolished, the quality of education will be improved, and learners with disabilities will be accommodated in the improved special schools (White Paper 6, 2001). This White Paper outlines what an inclusive education and training system is, and how it is going to be built. It also provides the framework for establishing such an education and training system, details a funding strategy, and lists the key steps to be taken in establishing an inclusive education and training system for South Africa (White Paper 6, 2001). The principles guiding the strategies to achieve the vision of the White Paper accept the principles and values contained in the constitution: human rights and social justice for all learners; participation and social integration; equal access to a single, inclusive education system; access to the curriculum, equity and redress; community responsiveness; and cost-effectiveness (White Paper 6, 2001, p. 5). The last White Paper to be formulated and made public on education was the White Paper 7 on e-Education formulated in 2004, schools. This White Paper sets out the government's response to a new information and communication technology environment in education. This White Paper presents frameworks for the collaboration of government and the private sector in the provision of ICTs in education (White Paper 7, 2004). The White Paper 7 also highlight the benefits of providing ICT schools and learners, and it also highlight the challenged faced when providing ICT to learners and schools (White Paper 7, 2004). Based on the background provided the problem statement in this study is to find out if the South African Department of Education is using the Social Sciences curriculum in the senior phase grade 8 and 9 to promote the democratic values of the South African constitution. 1.3. Rationale and motivation Academically this study will reveal whether the South African government is using the Social Science to spread its constitutional values. Personally I believe governments of the world use the media, and education to shape their citizens in the manner they want, with regards to how they see the world, the values they will uphold, and the type of knowledge they will have.. Therefore it is personally important for me to find out if the South African government is using the Social Sciences curriculum to promote the values of the South African constitution. As professionals and academics it is important to always remain professional and keep what’s best for the learners at the top of what we do when we plan the curriculum. South African learners need a curriculum that will teach them about the real past events taught in the manner that they really happened not to romanticise our history for the sake of political agendas. This will enable learners to make sense of the current political, economic, and cultural issues. Of paramount importance are skills to be able to cope in this capitalist world system that we live under, the curriculum designers should not forget that learners need advanced Geography and History skills. These skills need to be taught in Social Sciences so that learners are able to take advance courses when they intend to take further studies in the field of History and Geography. 1.4. Purpose and focus The major objective of doing this study is to find out to what extent South African Department of Education is using the grade 8 and 9 Social Sciences curriculum to promote the democratic values of the South African constitution. I believe this study is needed so that when curriculum planners plan the Social Sciences next curriculum, they will consider constructing a curriculum that will be rich in quality and is able to equip learners with skills that will help them in their next grade. The skills that will be relevant in their context, and up to date with current trends in their society and in the job market. Academically this study will reveal if the curriculum really benefits the learners academically, or it is a tool to spread the government’s own agenda. Personally I believe governments of the world use the media, and education to shape their citizens in the manner they want, with regards to how they see the world, the values they will uphold, and the type of knowledge they will have. The study will also question the professionalism of curriculum planners in that sense. The study is important in the context of South Africa because majority of the people in South Africa do not realise how they are victims of misinformation and how much valuable information is hidden from them so that certain aims of the state can be achieved (Lewis, 2018) 1.5. Concepts to be considered: 1.5.1. Values as a concept For the purpose of this study we are going to use the definition by (Turner, 2004, p.1) who defines values as “provide means of talking about, what is significant to us. “They are ideals we hold that give significance and meaning to our lives and hence they underpin our beliefs, influencing the decisions we make, the actions we take, and the life we lead”. A rather similar definition of values is also provided by Mohan (2016) who contends that values are the forces that govern behaviour of individuals, the character of the individual is further governed by value orientations, attitudinal dispositions, and belief systems with specific reference and relevance to broader social context of the individual. Considering this definition and looking at the History of South Africa, one can say the attitudes of South Africa learners being taught using the CAPS and the RNCS Curriculum, this curriculum is going to be transmitting different values to the contemporary learners. From the learners who were learning through Bantu Education, Christian National Education, and Missionary Education. The National Foundation for Education Research (2000) whilst working on the role of education in inculcating values to learners in the United Kingdom, recognised Social Sciences Education as pivotal in the teaching of values to learners “values are at the heart of Personal and Social Education (PSE), where it is timetabled as a subject to cover topics like: life skills, conflict resolution, controversial issues, and environmental education” (NFER, 2000, p.43). Considering this scenario from the UK, in South Africa Personal and Social Education (PSE) would be Social Sciences. Both the curriculum of Personal and Social Education (PSE), and Social Sciences cover the same topics, the same function in the United Kingdom that PSE plays, which is to teach values to learners (National Foundation for Education Research, 2000) is the same function that SS is playing in South Africa. The role of the teachers in inculcating values on learners is also recognised by (Mohan, 2016, p. 24-25) who argues that teachers mould learner’s behaviour trough their own conduct, in this sense teacher must always set a high standard of moral behaviour before the learners, and teachers must at least spend 510minutes of their time teaching or discussing moral values. The role of the school in the moral values of the child is also recognised as “through the organization of various curricular and cocurricular activities, teachers can foster among children various moral qualities” (Mohan, 2016, p. 25). This function of the school is reminiscent of the South African curriculum, and supports the hypothesis that the Department of Education has been modifying its curriculum to inculcate the values that the government wants its learners to have at the time. 1.6. Theoretical framework Theoretical framework serves as a descriptive device that enables a researcher to make sense and assign meaning to the set of obtained data (Watt, 2007). That means that a theoretical framework is a necessary basis which is used to shape a specified research and to determine the nature of the research discourse in conjunction with the methods used to gather relevant data from the data sources (Munyoki, 2012). In brief a theoretical framework increases the link of the study itself, the study design, and the techniques used in the process of collecting data (Keevy, 2005; Karadag, 2007). This study is underpinned by Character Education Theory, and Social Learning Theory. The following part of the discussion will discuss the two theories, and discuss how they link with this study. Character Education contend that schools, families, and communities should put efforts to help young people understand, care about and act upon core ethical values (Lickona, 1996). The theory is based on the belief that adults and schools have a duty to teach virtue, develop good habits in learners, shape and determine their behaviour, and to form their character (Wynne, 1991). The theory also stresses the need for direct teaching of values by educators in the classroom (Kilpatrick, 1992). This theory is synonymous with this study in the sense that the Department of Education could also be using the school curriculum in grade 8-9 SS to impose the democratic values of the South African constitutions on the learners in order to form the character of the learners. The teachers are the ones responsible for teaching this curriculum that will foster democratic values on the learners, and shaper their character. Social Learning theory is based on the idea that we learn from our interactions with others in a social context, separately by observing the behaviours of others people develop similar behaviours (Nabavi, 2012). After observing the behaviour of others, people assimilate and imitate that behaviour, especially if their observational experiences are positive ones or include rewards related to the observed behaviour (Bandura 1977). There is great synchrony between the ideas of SLT and the Social Sciences curriculum of South Africa because learners who have mastered the curriculum and are able to give the required responses in their test and exams, they given rewards in form of marks. The teachers also applaud and praise learners who show values of democracy, non-racism, and social justice and equity, but for learners tp master such values the teacher will have to demonstrate these values through the curriculum. just like how SLT state that “people assimilate and imitate that behaviour” (Nabavi, 2012, p. 5). Social learning theory also states that an individual’s interpretation of society will determine their behaviour in the society (Elias et al. 2014:279-280). The learners will not necessarily catch the character trait that they are exposed to by observation of others who portray good moral values (Elias et al. 2014:285). But integration of character education into every phase of school life is a good opportunity to develop good character of the learners (Lickona, in Bryant 2008:18). That being said influencing the way learners see society will be the case in this study, by teaching democratic values to the learners teachers are making learners see society from a democratic point of view, and to respond societal problems in under democratic lenses. 1.7 Chapter outline This research paper will be structured in such a way that the first section is the introduction which will outline what the discussion in the chapter will be focused on, the introduction will also highlight the concepts that will be discussed in the chapter. And the second part will discuss the literature review of the paper where different literature from different scholars will be presented, the focus of the literature will be on values, government, constitution, and Social Sciences Education. While the third section of the research will discuss the research methodology used for the research which outlines how the data in this research was gathered, why it was gathered using certain methods, and how it will be analysed. The fourth part of the paper will be the discussion of the results and recommendations. Then the last part will deals with the conclusion where I focus on summarising the research and proposes ideas for further research. 1.8 Conclusion This part of this research the introduction focused on explaining the historical background of the South African education, reference was made to indigenous African education, Missionary Education, Christian National Education, Outcomes Based Education, National Curriculum Statement and the Curriculum Assessment Policy Statement . This was followed by the Rationale and research objective which is to find out whether South African Department of Education use Social Sciences grade 8 and 9 curriculum to promote the values of the South African constitution. Then the discussion was focused on explaining the concepts of values as the key concept used in this research, including Social Sciences Education, constitution, and the curriculum. This part of the paper also stipulated the theoretical framework this study fall under, which is Social Learning Theory, and Character Education because under these theories education contributes to character building, through teaching values. This part of the paper was aimed at introducing the topic of the paper “Is the South African Social Sciences curriculum promoting the values of the South African constitution?” 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Introduction The following part of this research study presents the literature review for the study, (Royal Literary Fund, 2018) defines literature review as the search and evaluation of the available literature in a given subject or chosen topic area. Meaning that, literature review focuses on Social Sciences Education, values, constitution, and the curriculum. The literature review in this research is organised in a way that relates to the themes of the research topic, the first part of the literature review will be a presentation of the research on Social Sciences education. The second part will be the presentation of literature on the nature of curriculums, and then a literature presentation about the constitution and its role in education. The last part of the literature review will present literature about different case studies linking the usage of education to promote values on a society. 2.2. Understanding Social Science Education The focus of this research is now going to turn on understanding Social Sciences Education, this is because Social Sciences is a very broad field of study focused in the study of society and the manner in which people behave and influence the world around them (Economic and Social Research Council, 2018) . Social Sciences includes disciplines such as Anthropology, Classics, Religious Studies, Psychology, Political Sciences, Human Geography, History, and Sociology (Quebec Ministere de l’Education, 2012). Therefore understanding Social Sciences Education is pivotal because this research is based on Social Sciences Education. 2.2.1. What is Social Science Education? The study focuses on Social Sciences Education, for this study Social Sciences according the CAPS (2011) refers to “History and Geography, which both should be taught and assessed every term of the school year, the two disciplines are kept separate but the curriculum is designed to complement the knowledge, contents, and skills and concepts outlined in each”. Meaning that integration of the subject must occur in terms of marks end of term and semesters, Mosley (2006) on his work on the integration of social and environmental history does state that , Social History places its emphasis on issues of class, genders, race, and ethnicity, with the aim of broadening and deepening our understanding of the complex causes and consequences of environmental change (Mosley, 2006, p.916). The correlation between Social History and Social Sciences is highlighted by the content found in the SS curriculum with such topics as Turning points in South African history 1948 and 1950s, and Resource use and sustainability (CAPS, 2011). By learning Social Sciences according to Naus (2017) learners become aware of global issues, introduced to learning material that requires critical thinking, and learn to have a holistic view of the world. The benefits of Social Sciences for Dhandhania (2017) include among many things higher order thinking abilities and skills like Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Evaluation and Synthesis, Creativity in students (Dhandhania, 2017, p. 1). Learning a variety of topics such as Natural Resources, Water Resources, Transport, Communication, Caste System, Political Ideologies, Social Reformers, Our Cultures, United Nations, etc. give students a chance to gain appropriate information and data in various contexts. For example in order to investigate poverty in the society, students require knowledge of subjects like History, Economics and Politics. Teaching subjects in an interdisciplinary manner also has its disadvantages for both the educators and the learners, in this case the disciplines being Geography and History Education. Interdisciplinary approach according to (Jones, 2010, p.79) has forced many academics to shift away from the core of their disciplines whilst trying to implement interdisciplinarity. This argument is also supported by (Muravska, and Medne, 2011) who argue that interdisciplinarity as an approach to Social Science creates confusion as “to what extent should the educators of different disciplines collaborate in the creation of new knowledge” Education (Muravska, and Medne, 2011, p.68). For the authors there seems to be a lack of agreement as to how much each discipline should contribute, and how much of their discipline knowledge they should leave out of the process. That causes major issues in practical terms when educators have to integrate History and Geography to teach SS, with many educators not even having the skills to integrate the disciplines. 2.2.2. What are the purposes of Social Science Education? The purpose of Social Sciences in South Africa according to the (Curriculum Assessment Policy, 2011) are to provide learners with opportunities to look at their world with critical outlook. The policy document also aims to introduce learners into worlds beyond their everyday realities. The aims of Social Sciences Education in South Africa will be met through the teaching of depth knowledge through in-depth teaching, leaners will be “trained to speculate, to debate, to make connections, to select, to prioritise and to persist, in tackling real issues and important questions” (Curriculum Assessment Policy, 2011, p. 8).The purpose of SS Education is also highlighted by (Crisolo, & Camposano, 2017) who state that Social Studies will develop the learners’ literate and effective participation as a citizen of a country. To reap such benefits the SS curriculum would have to be designed in a way that will allow these benefits to be acquired. The leaners would also need teachers with the relevant skills to teach SS in such a manner that will benefit them. (Crisolo, & Camposano, 2017, p. 2) also maintain that SS Education “is still relevant today as it provides knowledge, promotes values formation, fosters cultural sensitivity, encourages community participation and broadens global perspective”. Social Sciences Education also has the purpose of introducing learners to their countries politics, and its operations (Goldberg, 2011). This is not to say that learners will be motivated to get into politics. But to introduce them to topics such as Democracy and citizenship in South Africa, Nationalism, and the Cold war (Curriculum Assessment Policy, 2011). As argued by Keskin (2015) such topics will give learners basic understanding of politics, and its history in South Africa. Learners can acquire literacy and numeracy skills in Social Sciences trough analysis of historical text, interpretation of graphs and charts of data relating to stock market fluctuations or election results, studying a historical paintings, and by measuring distances on maps (Goldberg, 2011). From the above discussion, which was based on the purpose of Social Sciences Education, it is critical to note that, SSE is important in the lives of the future citizens of the country because SSE will be the transition that learners need to become effective participants of their country (Crisolo, & Camposano, 2017). Therefore the Social Sciences Education curriculum needs to be designed in a manner that will help learners participate meaningful in the country. 2.3. Nature of Curriculums The nature of curriculums is one which is surrounded by debates hence it is “sometimes characterized as fragmentary, elusive and confusing” (Khayma, 2016, p. 4). There are many definitions of curriculum, (Tyler, 1957) defines curriculum as a science, an extension of a school’s philosophy, and curriculum should be based on student’s needs and interest. He also argues that subject topics must be organised in terms of knowledge, skills, and values which must be taught acquired by the learners. This definition by Tyler confirms that one of the purposes of the curriculum is to transmit certain values to the learners in the school. This definition is synonymous with the research question of this paper. There are also various types of curriculum operating in the schools, (Glatthorn, 1988, p. 3) describes seven types of curriculum operating in the schools. 1. Recommended curriculum- proposed by scholars and professional organizations. 2. Written curriculum- appears in school, district, division or country documents. 3. Taught curriculum- what teachers implement or deliver in the classrooms and schools 4. Supported curriculum- resources textbook computers, audio visual materials which support and help in the implementation of the curriculum. 5. Assessed curriculum, that which is tested and evaluated. 6. Learned curriculum-what the students actually learn and what is measured and 7. Hidden curriculum- the unintended curriculum. The components of the curriculum include curricular policies, curricular goals, programs of study, and Courses of Study (Glatthorn, 2016). Curriculum policies are the set of rules, criteria, and guidelines intended to control curriculum development and implementation (Glatthorn, 2016). CAPS in the South African curriculum is the policy which is responsible for providing the rules, and guidelines intended to control the implementation of the curriculum. CAPS recommends the time which teachers should spend on subjects, which resources teachers can use for particular topics, and also provides the sequencing structure of the topics in the curriculum (CAPS, 2011). Curriculum goals are the long term educational outcomes that the schools system expects to achieve through its curriculum (Glatthorn, 2016). For an example one goal for English language arts might be “Learn to communicate ideas through writing and speaking.” Programs of study is another component of the curriculum, programs of study include the learning experiences offered by a school for a particular group of learners over a multiyear and encompassing several fields of study (Glatthorn, 2016). The program of study is often described in a policy statement that describes which subjects are required and which are electives, with corresponding time allocations. Here is an example program of studies for a primary school: Reading and language arts: 8 hours a week Social studies: 3 hours Mathematics: 4 hours Art: 1 hour Music: 1 hour Health and physical education: 1 hour Courses of study is also another component of the curriculum, It is a set of organised learning experiences, within a field of study, offered over a specified period of time (such as a year, a semester, or a quarter) for which the student ordinarily receives academic credit (Glatthorn, 2016). “Course of study is usually given a title and a grade level or numerical designation, such as “third-grade science” and “English II” are courses of study (Glatthorn, 2016, p.20). The hidden curriculum is one of current controversial curriculum issues in the education at the moment (Alsubaie, 2015). A hidden curriculum refers to the unspoken or implicit values, behaviours, procedures, and norms that exist in the educational setting (Alsubaie, 2015, p.125). Such expectations are not explicitly written, hidden curriculum is the unstated promotion and enforcement of certain behavioural patterns, professional standards, and social beliefs while engaged in the learning process (Miller & Seller, 1990). Another scholar who has written about hidden curriculum is Bowles and Gintis (1976) whose work on hidden curriculum is written from a Marxist perspective. Hidden curriculum according to Bowles and Gintis (1976) includes things that children learn by attending school rather than the alleged educational objectives. The hidden curriculum provides a tolerant and obedient workforce that unquestioningly accepts authority. There is a correlation between the needs of the workforce and the hidden curriculum the grades gained had more to do with personal characteristics than academic ability. As a result education system is creating an unimaginative, uncomplaining workforce that could be dealt with easily by employers Bowles and Gintis (1976). For the scope of this study the four components of the curriculum should be enough, the focus is now going to turn on the importance of the curriculum in schools and on the learners. 2.3.1. Purpose of curriculums The curriculum has many purposes including that it provides guidelines to the teachers, about what teachers have to teach, and what learners have to learn (Bharathidasan University, 2015). The curriculum is also important in developing the personality of the student, it helps develop good qualities in students, physical, social, and moral qualities of learners (Bharathidasan University, 2015). The purpose of the curriculum is ensure that students receive integrated, coherent learning experiences that contribute towards their personal, academic and professional learning and development (Finders University, 2018). The design and development of curriculum for subjects, topics, and the sequence of topics should focus on how the educational experience contributes to students' development whilst they are in school (Finders University, 2018). The curriculum also serves a very important purpose of highlighting the aims, values, and purposes of the school for the learners, this also includes all learning and other experiences that the school plans for its pupils (National Curriculum, 2018). The curriculum according to Alvior (2014) must also show solutions to the challenges a particular country, this includes solutions to challenges such as environmental problems, politics, socio-economics, and other issues of poverty, climate change, and sustainable development. There is a synchrony to this point made Alvior (2014) with the South African National Curriculum Statement which is based on the following principles: Social transformation: ensuring that the educational imbalances of the past are redressed, and that equal educational opportunities are provided for all sections of the population; Active and critical learning: encouraging an active and critical approach to learning, rather than rote and uncritical learning of given truths; High knowledge and high skills: the minimum standards of knowledge and skills to be achieved at each grade are specified and set high, achievable standards in all subjects; Progression: content and context of each grade shows progression from simple to complex; Human rights, inclusivity, environmental and social justice: infusing the principles and practices of social and environmental justice and human rights as defined in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 is sensitive to issues of diversity such as poverty, inequality, race, gender, language, age, disability and other factors; Valuing indigenous knowledge systems: acknowledging the rich history and heritage of this country as important contributors to nurturing the values contained in the Constitution; and Credibility, quality and efficiency: providing an education that is comparable in quality, breadth and depth to those of other countries. The curriculum is also gives emphasis on the student’s needs, the listing of objectives and matching the objectives with corresponding activities ensures that the subject content is related to objectives of the curriculum, and the subject content and the activities must be planned by the teacher Werret Charters (1938). Supporting this idea is the work of Bobbitt (1918) who believed that curriculum should start with outlining what the student needs to know in what he called objectives, then it was necessary to develop activities that the students do to achieve the objective. The objectives should prepare learners for adulthood, they should be practical, and the community should also be involved in developing the objectives (Bobbitt, 1918, 1941). This therefore means the educators must have great knowledge about the objectives of the curriculum, and they also be able to design lessons that will meet the objectives of the curriculum. 2.4. Understanding constitutions Not many people understand the main purpose of the constitution or what exactly the constitution is. The following discussion is based on understanding the constitution, the first part will define what a constitution is, and then the second part will discuss what the main purpose of the constitution is. Different sources ranging from government departments, policies, and academic scholars are used in this discussion. 2.4.1. What is a constitution? The constitution according to (The Department of Justice and Constitutional Development, 2017, p. 2) “is a body of fundamental principles according to which a State is to be governed, it sets out how all the elements of government are organised and contains rules about what power is wielded, who wields it and over whom it is wielded in the governing of a country”. It defines the rights and duties of citizens, and the mechanisms that keep those in power in check, especially those trusted with the political power in the country. (Schofield, 2002) views the constitution as responsible for outlining the rules of how society should interact according to the laws set in the constitution, the constitution should also be responsible for making sure that the rules it set out are followed by the citizens. The constitution of South Africa is the supreme law of the country (The Department of Justice and Constitutional Development, 2017)It provides the legal foundation for the existence of the Republic, sets out the rights and duties of its citizens, and defines the structure of the Government (The Department of Justice and Constitutional Development, 2017). The constitution does not only protect the citizens of the country, but it also stipulates the rights that private entities, and foreign citizens are entitled to under the constitution of South Africa. The South African constitution is deeply entrenched with its history of the struggle for freedom, and that history has found itself in the new curriculum. For an example the preamble of the South African constitution reflects the history of the struggle for freedom in South Africa: We, the people of South Africa, Recognise the injustices of our past; Honour those who suffered for justice and freedom in our land; Respect those who have worked to build and develop our country; and Believe that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, united in our diversity. We therefore, through our freely elected representatives, adopt this Constitution as the supreme law of the Republic so as to Heal the divisions of the past and establish a society based on democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights; Lay the foundations for a democratic and open society in which government is based on the will of the people and every citizen is equally protected by law; Improve the quality of life of all citizens and free the potential of each person; and Build a united and democratic South Africa able to take its rightful place as a sovereign state in the family of nations. May God protect our people. Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrika. Morena boloka setjhaba sa heso. God seën Suid-Afrika. God bless South Africa. Mudzimu fhatutshedza Afurika. Hosi katekisa Afrika This preamble reflects the radical transition from the oppressive apartheid regime (a system founded on parliamentary sovereignty) to a constitutional democracy committed to the creation of a society based on democratic values, social justice and fundamental human that South Africa went through (The Department of Justice and Constitutional Development, 2017). This preamble also sets out the guiding purpose and principles of the Constitution 2.4.2. Purpose of constitution The constitution serves many purposes according to needs of a certain country. For (Rosenkranz, 2011) one of the purposes of the constitution is to control government power so the government does not create decisions that are not good for its citizens, or make decisions which will be discriminatory business entities. . As supported by Chopra “the purpose of the constitution is to limit their authority, because if no limitation was imposed upon the authority of the organs, there will be complete tyranny and complete oppression” (Chopra, 2004, p. 335). From reviewing the preamble of the South African constitution it is safe to say one of the purposes of the SA constitution is to portray the democratic laws that all South Africans are entitled to. The South African constitution also serves the purpose of validating the transition of power from an apartheid government, to a new democratic government. Likewise the University of the South Pacific School of Law (1996) emphasises that the constitution has the purpose of controlling the actions of the government by limiting the power the government have, guaranteeing the rights of individuals and groups, promoting important values, and fostering shared loyalty to the country and a sense of common purpose. Thus by reviewing the preamble of the South African constitution it is safe to say one of it purposes is to portray the democratic laws that all South Africans are entitled to. Meaning that, the South African constitution also serves the purpose of validating the transition of power from an apartheid government, to a new democratic government (Seo, 2008, p.348). Such purposes are also engraved in the South African education system (Lemon, 1995) 220.127.116.11 Education spreading values of governments To have an answer to the research question at hand that says “Is the South African grade 8 and 9 Social Sciences Curriculum Promoting the Democratic Values of the South African Constitution?”. One can trace the answer to the work of (Kenneth, & Gangel, 1983) on the history of Christian Education, the authors argued that Greek students studied at home until they were six. Only after they were six they had the chance to enter formal school for physical exercise, instruction in the arts, sciences, and humanities, intended to enable them fit into the cultural setting of the city (Kenneth, & Gangel, 1983, p.1). So if the South African government is using the Social Sciences curriculum to promote the values of the constitution, it would not be for the first time that a state has used education to influence the kind of citizens they seek. This is shown in the case of Cyprus which is politically divided with a pro-Turkish population, and a pro-Greek population, the political division of the country has transcended into the education of the country (Karahasan & Latif, 2011). Three centuries of Ottoman rule in Cyprus were succeeded by British colonialism in 1878(Papadakis, 2008, and Karahasan & Latif, 2011), in the colony there were two different communities (Orthodox and Muslim) and each of them used the language of their ‘respective motherlands’. These languages then led to national identities in these communities (Papadakis, 2008, and Karahasan & Latif, 2011), forming Greek Cyprus, and Turkish Cyprus. In 1960, Cyprus became an independent state, the Republic of Cyprus, with a population of 80% Greek Cypriots and 18% Turkish Cypriots , future wars led to the Turkish Cypriots to settle in the north of Cypriots (Papadakis, 2008). Since then the different two nationals have had different political goals. The two nationalisms that emerged shared the same form, namely, an ethnic nationalism stressing common history; descent; in terms of language; culture; and religion with the people of the “motherlands” Turkey and Greece (Papadakis, 2008). There have been two different History textbooks in Cyprus written since 2004, once during the Republican Turkish Party authority, and the second time following the election of the National Unity Party (UBP) (Karahasan & Latif, 2011). The UBP is a Turkish Cyprus party (McGarry, Loizides, 2015) as a result when the party came into power it changed the curriculum of History of textbooks in Cyprus, as it had promised to do during pre-election (Karahasan & Latif, 2011). Changing the curriculum of History textbooks by the UBP party according to (Papadakis, 2008, and Karahasan & Latif, 2011) were aimed at promoting and cementing the national identity of Turkish Cypriots. The new History textbooks created by UBP covered topics such as “Cyprus in Prehistory and the Middle Ages”, and “The Life of Dr. Fazıl Küçük and his Significance in Our National Struggle” (Karahasan & Latif, 2011). These topics are pro Turkish Cypriot, and they promote and glorify Turkish Cypriot identity, in contrast to Greek Cypriot identity. The textbooks designed in 2004 covered topics such as “Cyprus before the Ottomans” “Socioeconomic Life during the Ottoman Era”. These topics present an unpleasing image of Turkish Cypriots and their national identity, (Karahasan & Latif, 2011, p.439). The authors (Karahasan & Latif, 2011) argue that the curriculum designed in 2004 “attempt to avoid presenting the ‘other’ (Turkish Cypriots) in a negative sense but to take a humanistic stance”. The preface of the 2004 textbooks reads: ‘Contemporary history education aims to encourage critical thinking and to encourage students to develop their own ideas. One of the aims of contemporary History of the Republican Turkish Party is not to deny the existence of the ‘other’ but to look at events from a multicultural perspective’. On the other hand, the preface of the 2009 textbooks influenced by the National Unity Party (UBP) is as follows: ‘We [the commission of 2009] would like to emphasize that the reason we wrote this history book was to provide historical facts, to say that Turkish Cypriots are a sovereign power on this island; and to educate youngsters who appreciate their own republic and the state, who are peaceful, and who are bonded to Atatürk’s revolutions, principles’ (Karahasan & Latif, 2011, p.439). This case study of Cyprus is an example of how those in power within a state can use education to promote the socio political aspirations of the state. Another country is Kuwait their economic and development organisation believed that the education is critical in giving learners citizenship skills beyond skills for employment, but must include “knowledge, and values related to pluralism, conflict resolution, and civic engagement” (Carnegie, 2013, p.7). In this case Carnegies and the South African Department of Education see education as having the same function, which according the (Revised National Curriculum, 2002, p.7) the South African curriculum “encapsulates our vision of teachers and learners who are knowledgeable and multi-faceted, sensitive to environmental issues and able to respond to and act upon the many challenges that will still confront South Africa in the 21st century”. Education in this case has the same function in both Kuwait and South Africa, which means using education to influence one’s citizens is not only embedded in the government of South Africa. The public education system in Algeria for instance according to (Hedhiri, 2013) also promotes the values of the constitutions of Algeria, the four main themes according in the curriculum include civic society and systems, civic principles, national identity, and civic participation. These values of the constitution according to (Hedhiri, 2013, p.1) are achieved through textbooks content “Civic education textbooks teach civic participation by encouraging participation in voting, voluntary community service, and caring for the environment”. This appears to be a normal trend among African Countries, especially countries previously envisaged by colonialism. The common goal amongst these African countries is to remove the mind-set and view of themselves as being second citizens like as when they were still colonised. Their aim is to now impart human rights knowledge, and social justice through education. Education in this regard plays two functions, teaching academic content, and content governments think their societies need in order to survive in the “21st century” that is needed in the society (Revised National Curriculum, 2002). In his work on globalisation and education (Robertson, 2007, p.2) contends that education has been a key institution in “constructing citizens” who are members of the community in their countries, with the process being referred to as “nation building”. The concept of “nation building” is also embedded in the curriculum of South African education (Revised National Curriculum, 2002, p.6). Nation building in South African education is envisaged that it be achieved through teaching content that is encompasses the values of the constitution, and content that aims to reach the aims of the constitution (Revised National Curriculum Grade R-9, 2002, p.7). The country of Iraq which according to (Roches, 2009) was under the rule of President Saddam Hussein who is described by (United States Institute of Peace, 2005, p. 2) as someone who was heading a form of government that “represses free speech and assembly; that rejects cultural tolerance; and that engages in arbitrary arrest, imprisonment, and even execution of those with differing political opinions”. This “brutal tyrant” was removed in power in 2003 after eleven years ruling Iraq (Mac farquhaR, 2006). Considering this history of Iraq, one can say that Iraq and South Africa during the apartheid era had a similar history in terms of democracy, and ruling governments. Just like South Africa after ending apartheid rule the country had to implement measures to foster democracy in the society, Iraq as well has to perform the same protocol, including in education. For Iraq to initiate a democratic society through education, the country had to offer educational content that teaches learners about human rights, and democratic values (Boateng, 2015). The USA according to (Bridoux, 2011,) had to review the education curriculum of Iraq with the aim of spreading democratic ideals. According to (Bridoux, 2011, p. 124-125) “textbooks with reference to Saddam Hussein or his Ba’ath Party were erased which dramatically changed how Iraqi history was projected in classrooms after the invasion and were replaced with textbooks and programmes with democratic values as their main themes”. These strategies are reminiscent of some countries using education to promote democracy. Turkey is another country which we can assess in order to understand the answer to the research question at hand one. The historical roots of Turkey using education to foster certain values on its citizens date back to the period when Turkey was still the Ottoman Empire, but the education system was restored by the foundation of the Turkish Republic (Ersoy, 2014). The process of using education to influence the values of citizens in Turkey started during the Turkish Republic in 1923 (Ersoy, 2014). This can process can be examined under three periods, the single party period (1923–1950), the multi-party period (1950–1987), and the European Union (EU) accession period (1987 to the present day) (Çayır & Gürkaynak, 2008). During the single party period education was practices were shaped by republican and nation state-oriented policies (Kadıoğlu, 2007) and generally focused on teaching the duties and responsibilities of the good citizens while aiming to create a modern culture (Üstel, 2004). During the multi-party period, the national education curriculum started to include information on rights and textbooks highlighted the role of democracy in the family, as well as in schools (Üstel, 2004). Then there was the European Union (EU) accession period which is the period where Turkey wants to become a member of European Union (EU), one of the things Turkey has to do to be accepted in the EU is to strengthen human rights, civil society, and democracy (Ersoy, 2014). In this regard the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) developed a curriculum based on the norms, aims, and educational concepts of the EU (Ministry of National Education, 2004). The MoNE also implemented several EU sponsored project of democratic citizenship and human rights education to revise regulations and curriculum, raise school staff awareness of democratic citizenship education and human rights, and overall to develop a democratic school culture (MoNE, 2008). By studying the case of Turkey it is revealed in literature that Turkey is indeed using education to influence the values of it citizens to adapt to the societal needs in the country. The usage of education to influence the values of the citizens of a country has been used for a long period, and in all cases the process is unique to that country. 2.5. Social Science curriculum in South Africa Introduction The discussion is now going to focus on the South African curriculum with extensive focus on the textbooks used in the grade 8 and 9 Social Sciences curriculum. The discussion is based on examining whether the Social Sciences do have any content that is in line with the democratic values of the South African constitution. The Manifesto on Values, Education and Democracy in South Africa (Department of Education, 2001, p.3) identifies ten fundamental values of the Constitution: Democracy, Social Justice and Equity, Non-Racism and Non-Sexism, Ubuntu (Human Dignity), an Open Society, Accountability (Responsibility), Respect, The Rule of Law, and Reconciliation. The current grade 8 and 9 Social Sciences curriculum consist of content topics which foster the above values of the constitution, for instance in the grade 8 Social Sciences textbook (Oxford Successful, 2017, p.27) on the topic “The Industrial Revolution in Britain and southern Africa 1860”. The textbook (Figure 1) acknowledges how it was the “wealth from slave trade that was one of the causes of the Industrial Revolution in Britain” (Bottaro, Cohen, & Dilley 2013, p.28). But the atrocities committed to the African people by the Europeans is not included in the content, neither are the effects slave trade left on the families of the “slave”, or even how those events are effecting us today. But that type of content would derail the efforts of the government of achieving “reconciliation” because if a black leaner is aware that his white classmate’s family owns a farm which is on a land which was owned by a black family, and that black family had to be removed by Europeans. That black learner is not going to have an easy time getting along with his classmate whose family has a European decent he/she will start to question the whole democratic system of South Africa, in the process derailing the efforts of the government of reaching a “rainbow nation”. Figure 1 (Bottaro, Cohen, & Dilley, 2013, p. 28) On the topic “Further land dispossession and defeat of African Kingdoms: Xhosa 1878 and Pedi and Zulu 1879” (Ranby, & Johannesson, 2013, p.144) the same tone of romanticising the historical events are repeated (figure 2). The tone of romanticising history according to (Dryden, 1991, p.815) was is used in the United State of America to normalise the political structure of the country, and in South Africa it is being used to normalise the cruel treatment of black people by the apartheid government. The authors of the textbook acknowledge how the Boers and the English disposed the African off their land, but this is explained in a manner as if it was normal custom to be done, and there were not any sufferings from those the land was omitted from. This tone of romanticising events is further fostered by the class activities found in the textbook about this topic. Below in figure 3 is a picture of a class activity about “topic “Further land dispossession and defeat of African Kingdoms: Xhosa 1878 and Pedi and Zulu 1879” (Ranby, & Johannesson, 2013, p.144). The class activity again does not allow learners to be critical thinkers, it only requires them to remember facts, rather than requiring the learners to analyse the historical event. By analysing the events of land dispossession the learners would be able to know how that culturally affected the African race, land in African culture is very vital for cultural purposes. Through analysis the learners would be able to understand how the events of land dispossession affect the financial stance of their families, why they live in the land they live in. Considering it was through Land Act 1913 , and Group Areas act 1950 that the apartheid government justified disposing African people of land which was rich in terms of farming, and natural resources (Loveland, 1999), (Baldwin, 1975). Social Sciences is a combination of History and Geography (CAPS, 2011), and in this topic the authors could have done a good job of combining the two, but that would give learners the knowledge that would derail the efforts of a “rainbow nation”. Figure 2 (Ranby, Johannesson, & Montheith, 2013, p. 144) Figure 3 (Ranby, Johannesson, & Montheith, 2013, p. 144) The geography content itself is not “innocent” in the grade 8 topic of Social Issues Related to the Rapid growth of Cities (figure 4), the authors of the textbook mention there are many people living in informal settlements, but that content is incomplete. Because the authors does not supplement the content with the History part of Social Sciences, the reasons they give for such a large amount of informal settlement is “shortage of houses, lack of urban planning, and a large number of migrants” (Ranby, & Johannesson, 2013, p. 78). They could have stated that one of the many reasons why there was such a huge shortage of houses, and many people living in informal settlements is because of apartheid acts like the Land Act of 1913, and Glen Grey Act 1894 (Ngubo, 1910), (Molemo, 1920). Which according to the acts meant that non-white people had to leave land in which they were living in for many years, so that white people could live in that land, and prevented access and restricted ownership to land by black people (Ngubo, 1910, p. 45), (Molemo, 1920, p. 240). Even the class activity (figure 5) of the topic Social Issues Related to the Rapid growth of Cities does not link with the historical events that were not democratic in our country. Again in this topic as well the authors of the textbook could have used the History part of Social Sciences to compliment the Geography part, as put by (Hornton, 2007, p. 1) “integrate Geography to History which enjoys a secure place in the curriculum”. For Hornton (2007) integrating History and Geography will enrich both the disciplines and create more meaning to them. But learners who know they are living in congested spaces with poor infrastructure because of decisions made during times of oppression will not understand, or take ownership of the concept of democracy, for someone who wants foster ownership to democracy on learners it would be best to leave out the content that will hamper this goal. Figure 4 (Ranby, Johannesson, & Montheith, 2013, p. 78) Figure 5 (Ranby, Johannesson, & Montheith, 2013, p. 79) Further scrutiny of the grade textbook also signals the trend if not linking the historical events to everyday lives of the learner, in terms of how the learners are still affected by the choices which happened in the past. The section on “Apartheid laws” in the grade 9 Social Sciences curriculum in the textbook Study and Master Social Sciences by (Coetzee, Holmes, & Johnston, 2006, p.56). The textbook does define what the apartheid are, and the impact they had on the lives of the people at the time, but the content does link the impacts of apartheid laws to the today’s society (figure, 6). For instance 73% of farming land in South Africa is owned by white people (Crowley, 2017) of the reasons for that because of apartheid laws such as Land Act 1913, and Group Areas act 1950. Which black people were disposed of their land it was given to white people, which is one the many reason why 73% of farming land is owned by white people. Mixed race marriage in South Africa is something uncommon and which many societies despise of, but the curriculum does not link such racial acts which are happening in today’s society to apartheid act like the 1949 Mixed Marriages Act which made it illegal for people of different race to marry. Figure 6 (Coetzee, Holmes, & Johnston, 2006, p.56) Education for democratic citizenship in South Africa is not concerned about the nature of a learners childhood or adulthood, rather it is concerned with the Republic of South Africa’s Constitution’s (1996) provision for every citizen the right to, access, defend and preserve individual liberties and appeal to the public goo (Ndofirepi, & Mathebula, 2011). In light of this statement, one can say education in South Africa has taken a stance to achieve its political aspirations than focusing on academic excellence. According to (Hamm, 1989) the concept of education includes a sociological view of education that places an emphasis on socialising the child into the existing culture, e.g. family norms and practices. A similar view is also held by Plato (1994) who claims the State uses its political authority to educate the child to desire not only what is good for themselves, but for their society, so as to pursue the good of all people. This is what we are witnessing of South Africa’s education, which is socialising learners into a culture of democratic values. The view that education in South Africa is used to foster the desired citizens of the country, (Ndofirepi, & Mathebula, 2011) also share the sentiments that in South African schools the State as the ‘political parent of all its school children (7 to 18 years of age), hopes to foster good citizenship, and what the former Head of State Thabo Mbeki called a ‘new patriotism’ (Department of Education, 2001, p. 15). 2.5.1. Textbook Censorship Introduction The textbook plays a very importance role in the teaching and learning process in schools, the textbook contains material which is to be learnt in class, and it is the textbook that determines the right and wrong information in the classroom, in the process it determines what culture to pass on (Brunner, 2013). Due to the high influence that textbooks have on society in recent years textbooks have undergone a lot of censorship from pressure groups, minority groups, political parties, parent groups, professional education organisations, governments, and business groups (Gerke, 1983). The following discussion is going to focus on discussing textbook censorship. The first part of the discussion will discuss what textbook censorship is, the second part of the discussion will discuss why textbooks are censored, and the last part of the discussion will discuss the impact of textbook censorship. Defining textbook censorship Textbook censorship is when the content written in the textbook goes against the beliefs, values, and ideas of the government, education departments, or those responsible for the type of knowledge the learners will learn (Kibata, 1999). Textbook censorship is normally influenced by political correctness and religious conservatism, which will even lead to authors self-censoring themselves. Japan in 1910 invaded and occupied Korea and China, in the colonies Japan tried by all means to eradicate Korean identity, schools were only allowed to teach Japanese history, language (Hundt, Bleiker, 2007). But when Japanese textbook designers in 1978 wrote about this history of Japan their work went under heavy censorship from the government (Kibata, 1999). When the author Kibata used the expression “Japanese invasion” to describe the action Japan in China during 1910 in his History textbook, the author was asked by the censoring authorities to change this expression , the author instead used a lighter expression “Japanese intrusion” (Kibata, 1999). Reasons for textbook censorship Textbook censorship in Japan started in 1945 under the Japanese Ministry of Education issued detailed orders to amend textbooks (Baets, 2002). Textbook censorship in Japan was implemented because the country was going a democratisation process, and reforming its history was regarded as one of the processes’ key factor (Kibata, 1999). Under this system textbook which were not democratically inclined were required to be re-written, democratic minded people welcomed this process (Kibata, 1999). Alridge (2006) notes that textbooks and the curriculum in this trend become means by which to indoctrinate, socialize, and control the society, and its future citizens (Alridge, 2006). Textbook censorship is not only done in Japan, in the United States of America pressure groups, minorities, political lobbies, ethnic groups, textbook writers, education department, and textbook writers have all exert strong influence upon textbook knowledge (Gerke, 1983). These groups all want to influence the knowledge of textbooks in order to either contain or redirect school knowledge to correspond to their perception of the truth (Gerke, 1983). For instance before the American Civil War in 1861 Northern America textbooks were revised by Southern publishers who deleted materials critical of slavery, and for a generation following the war, both North and South carried regional viewpoints, and during the 19th century some publishers modified content to suit the position of reformers (Gerke, 1983). Textbook censorship has impacts on the knowledge taught to the learners, the following paragraph will discuss how censorship affects the teaching and learning process. Impact of textbook censorship on the learning process Textbook censorship leads to uninformative material which draws education away from conceivably more highly developed means of teaching history, and it also fosters a teaching that degrades knowledge and promotes the ideologies of pressure groups (Brunner, 2013). The type of knowledge taught to young people during high school can have a lifelong impact, and so it is imperative that we teach learners actual events so that they can critically think for themselves instead conforming to the status quo (Brunner, 2013). The textbook has a very crucial role in transmitting the knowledge which learners will keep for the rest of their lives (Baets, 2002). But today’s history textbooks have moved away from an actual historical account of what happened and on to an understanding of history as constructed by that which is most appealing in terms of money, power, politics, and personal interests (Tobin, 2008). Conclusion This part of the paper was focused on discussing how textbook censorship works, and the impact it has on the leaners learning process. The first part of the discussion discussed what textbook censorship is, the second part of the discussion discussed why textbooks are censored, and the last part of the discussion discussed the impact of textbook censorship on learners learning process. 2.6. Conclusion The literature of this paper was based on the concepts discussed in the research paper, the first part of the literature included literature on Understanding Social Science Education under. This subheading literature was divided into different subheadings: Understanding Social Science Education, What is Social Science Education?, What are the purposes of Social Science Education?. The second part of the literature review was a construction of literature based on the nature of curriculums, to understand the nature of curriculum the literature review included discussions on the purpose of the curriculums, and hidden curriculum. Then the following part of the literature review discussion was based on understanding the constitution within the scope of this research, the discussion focused on the following subheadings: What is a constitution?, and the Purpose of the constitution. The third part of the literature review included literature which was based on “Education spreading the values of governments” under this part of the literature review case studies on Turkey, Iraq, Kuwait, and Greece were discussed as examples of countries who have used education to spread the values of their governments. The literature review was based on the research question of this research paper, the literature review included data from policy documents, scholarly articles, website articles, and case studies. 3. Research methodology The main objective of this study is to find out whether South African Department of Education is using Social Sciences grade 8 and 9 curriculum to promote the democratic values of the South African constitution”. The appropriate paradigm to achieve this objective is interpretivism paradigm, this research therefore falls under the interpretivism paradigm. Researchers working on the interpretivist paradigm “aim to describe and understand how people make sense of their world, and how they meaning of particular situations” (Bertram, &Christiansen, 2013, p. 26). Researchers using interpretivism believe data is “out there” and it needs to be interpreted so does this research which is going to interpret data available for this topic based on secondary documents. This paradigm is also in synchronic the aims of this research, which aims to find the out to whether the South African Department of Education is using the grade 8 and 9 Social Sciences curriculum to promote the democratic values of the South African constitution. The research style used for this study is desktop analysis (PMR Consulting & Research, 2018, p.1) define desktop analysis as “desk research comprising of searching for information using existing resources, such as the press, the Internet, analytical reports and statistical publications”. This research style is most appropriate because the research material (literature review) for the study is found online in documents and in the library, and is more conveniently accessible in this manner. One of the advantages of using this style of research is that it is “cost effective” (Johnston, 2013, p. 624) The collected data in this research is secondary data, according to (Johnston, 2013, p.1) secondary data is data which was collected by someone else for another primary purpose. In another definition (Bertram, &Christiansen,2013) argue that information found on the Department of Education databases about how many teachers are qualified, and matric pass rates, are examples of secondary data. Observation, and interview transcripts are also examples of secondary data, this data can be used and analysed in different ways and for different purposes (Bertram, &Christiansen, 2013, p.98). But the advantages of using desktop research are that the data is already there, therefore as a researcher you do not have to collect the data yourself. The form of sampling used for this study is purposive sampling “means as the researcher I would have choice about which people, group, or objects would be included in the sample” (Bertram, &Christiansen, 2013, p.60). For this research the data that was collected, was data that mainly focused on the education curriculum, policy, social sciences, constitution, values, and South African history and I chose which ones are relevant for the research. This study fall under the interpretivist paradigm and one of the limitations associated with interpretivism relates to subject nature of the approach great space for bias on behalf of the researcher, even the data gathered is influenced by personal viewpoints and values of certain individual (Dudovskiy, 2008). The personal viewpoints in the data also undermine reliability and representativeness of the collected data (Hunt, 2009). Social science research takes place in natural, everyday settings, which will always contain particular and unique features that cannot be exactly reproduced in a second setting, or even in the same setting at a different point in time. To increase the credibility of the findings in this research we have employed triangulation, triangulation is “capturing and respecting multiple perspectives,” (Patton, 2002, p. 546). Yeasmin (2012) also defines triangulation as a combination of two or more theories, data sources, methods or investigators in one study of a single phenomenon to converge on a single construct, and can be employed in both quantitative (validation) and qualitative (inquiry) studies. Under triangulation researchers are encouraged to get variety in the data sources, the greater the variety of data the more it will be rich in breadth, and depth (Morrow, 2007). The purpose of triangulation in specific contexts is to obtain confirmation of findings through convergence of different perspectives (Yeasmin, 2012). This study in order to provide confirmation of the results, increase the credibility, and validity of the results different sources have been used to confirm the phenomenon in question. For instance when defining Social Science Education different definitions were to define Social Sciences Education “Social Sciences according the CAPS (2011) refers to “History and Geography, which both should be taught and assessed every term of the school year, the two disciplines are kept separate but the curriculum is designed to complement the knowledge, contents, and skills and concepts outlined in each”. “Social History places its emphasis on issues of class, genders, race, and ethnicity, with the aim of broadening and deepening our understanding of the complex causes and consequences of environmental change (Mosley, 2006, p.916)”. This is an example of how triangulation in this study was used in order to increase credibility. Data from different platforms such as scholarly articles, books, policies, and official websites was also used to gather data for this research paper. That process creates variety in the data collected increasing the credibility of the research data. 4. Discussion The results found in this study are based on the study of the South African education curriculum, educational policies, South African constitution, history of South African education, and on the work of different scholars who have written about how the school curriculum can influence the citizens of a country. The results of the study are also based on cases where education has been used to influence the values of the citizens, notably in Iraq, and Turkey. What has been discovered by this study is that the South African grade 8 and 9 Social Sciences curriculum is promoting the values of the South African constitution based on the policies that underpin the South African education. This includes policies such as the: Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS), Education White Paper 6, Revised National Curriculum Statement, National Curriculum Statement, Manifesto on Values, Education and Democracy, White Paper on Education and Training, South African Constitution. The way the grade 8 and 9 content is structured and taught to learners is also supporting the promotion of Reconciliation, and democratic values, as shown in figure 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. There is also evidence from other countries that education can be used as a tool to influence the values of the citizens of the country the case studies of Turkey, Cyprus, and Iraq were the examples of countries using education using to promote the desired values on its citizens. Character Education Theory which this research is underpinned by also supports the view that education is responsible for direct teaching of values to the learners in school, the theory hold educators, parents, and the community is responsible teaching, and shaping values to learner (Wynne, 1991). 4.1. South African Curriculums and fostering values of the constitutions Introduction The focus point of this discussion is now going to be based on the South African curriculum fostering the values of the constitution. The discussion is going to start by discussing the Revised National Curriculum Statement on how it is promoting the values of the constitution. The second part of the discussion will focus on discussing the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements. The third part of the discussion will discuss the role of White paper on Education and Training in South African education. 4.1.1. The Revised National Curriculum Statement The Revised National Curriculum Statement which is the present school curriculum used in schools is based on the following principals: Social Justice, a Healthy Environment, Human Rights and Inclusivity, Outcomes-based Education, Clarity and Accessibility Progression and Integration. The South African constitution is also based on these values notably “democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights”. There is a synchrony between the values at which the South African constitution is based on, and the principals of the Revised National Curriculum Statement. The synchrony suggest the curriculum is based on the values of the constitution, and further study of the content material does suggest that the curriculum is promoting the values of democracy as pointed in page 144 on the analysis of the topic “Further land dispossession and defeat of African Kingdoms: Xhosa 1878 and Pedi and Zulu 1879”. The result of the analysis of this topic was that the authors of the textbook used a romanticising tone to describe the historical events in the textbook. For instance the authors of the textbook acknowledge how the Boers and the English disposed the African off their land, but this is explained in a manner as if it was normal custom to be done, and there were not any sufferings from those the land was omitted from the black people. Figure 18.104.22.168. (Ranby, Johannesson, & Montheith, 2013, p. 144) The analysis of the topic “Social Issues Related to the Rapid growth of Cities” in page 23 the analysis also points out that there is avoidance in the textbooks of history content that will derail the teachings of democratic values on the learners. In the textbook acknowledge mention that there are many people living in informal settlements, but that content is incomplete. The reasons they give for such a large amount of informal settlement is “shortage of houses, lack of urban planning, and a large number of migrants” (Ranby, & Johannesson, 2013, p. 78). They could have stated that one of the many reasons why there was such a huge shortage of houses, and many people living in informal settlements is because of apartheid acts like the Land Act of 1913, and Glen Grey Act 1894 (Ngubo, 1910). Such portrayal of historical events perpetuates the view that the Social Sciences curriculum is promoting democratic values of the South African constitution. Figure 22.214.171.124 (Ranby, Johannesson, & Montheith, 2013, p. 78) 4.1.2. Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS) CAPS which is a policy statement designed to help the teachers implement the education curriculum of the South African schools also promotes the democratic values of the South African constitution. The Social Sciences grade 8 and 9 CAPS is based on the values that are inspired by the Constitution (Act 108 of 1996) (CAPS, 2011, p. 3). It indicated clearly in CAPS that study of History also supports citizenship within a democracy by: Explaining and encouraging the values of the South African Constitution The fact that a policy which was developed to help implement the curriculum of South African schools is based on the values inspired by the constitution, means the curriculum itself is actually promoting the values of the constitution which are embedded in the curriculum, as argued by (Ersoy, 2014; Kadıoğlu, 2007). This study found that the process of using education to transmit certain values on the citizens of South Africa is not recent, during the colonial era in South Africa this was done by the colonial British government in 1882 in South Africa through Missionary Education (Christie, 1998; Msila, 2007). The British colonial government used Missionary Education as means of spreading their language and traditions in the colony, and also as a means of social control (Msila, 2007). This study also found that following education curriculum - Missionary Education, Christian National Education, Outcomes Based Education, National Curriculum Statement, and Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS). These curriculums all had aimed transmitting different values to learner through the curriculum. The RNCS which is the current school curriculum in South Africa is also built on the vision and values of the constitution of South Africa (RNCS, 2004) CAPS?. The vision of the current South African constitution is to create a society that is open and democratic, and that which emphasises dignity, justice, and equality (Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996). The values of the constitution which the RNCS is based on include democratic values such as equality, justice, sovereignty, diversity, and patriotism. Therefore it is safe to say that the curriculum is fostering the democratic values of the constitution, as shown in figure 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 this is also done in the classroom. The results of this research paper are that the South African grade 8 and 9 Social Sciences curriculum is promoting the values of the South African constitution. This process is supported by policies such the CAPS, RNCS, White Papers on Education, constitution, and the Manifesto on Values, Education and Democracy. Educators are the facilitators of this process because they are the one who have to teach the content that promotes the values of the constitution. What this research paper found was that certain historical events in the Social Sciences curriculum are taught in a romanticised manner in order to allow for the process of reconciliation (Dryden, 1991). This has a negative impact on the learners because the learners do not get to understand the true reflection and consequences of the historical events which happened in our country. As clearly argued by (Crisolo, & Camposano, 2017; Goldberg, 2011). Social Sciences is very important subject on a learners life, as the subject introduces the learner to the social issues of society, it also enables the learner to view things from a holistic point of view. Therefore the curriculum planners should not allow for political goals to overcome the academic importance of the subject. Hence Brunner (2013) that it is important for education not to be used to foster the government’s ideals and objectives but teach learners for life. 4.2. White paper on Education and Training White Paper on Education and Training Notice 196 of 1995 which is the national policy for the reconstruction and development of education and training recommended many strategies to the development of education in South Africa. One of the recommendations included that education should be responsible for the realisation of democracy liberty, equality, justice and peace are necessary conditions for the pursuit and enjoyment of lifelong learning. This suggests that from the beginning of the transformation process of the post-apartheid education the Department of Education has acknowledged the potential of education to transmit the values of democracy. The White Paper on Education and Training Notice 196 of 1995 blatantly states that education system “must counter the legacy of violence by promoting the values underlying the democratic process”. The promotion of the democratic values is not confined only on certain subjects, but on all school subjects taught to learners. Which according to the grade Social Science grade 8-9 CAPS is clearly stated that the study of History also supports citizenship within a democracy by: Explaining and encouraging the values of the South African Constitution The Education White Paper 2 Notice of 130 of 1996 which was formed for transforming the South Africa's pattern of school organisation, governance and funding, which has a legacy of the apartheid system maintains that change has to occur to support the vision of the constitution as clearly indicated in (Education White Paper 2, 1996, p.1). This white paper recommended that schools must be transformed in accordance with democratic values and practice, and the requirements of the Constitution. White paper 3 is also based on principles of democracy: Equity and redress, Democratisation, Development, Quality, Effectiveness and efficiency, Academic freedom, and Public accountability. During 2001 the Department of Education introduced a white paper on a very critical part of a child’s school career, White Paper 5 on Early Childhood Education. The main focus of the paper was addressing the establishment of a national system of provision of the Reception Year for children aged 5 years. The White Paper 5 contends that the early years have been recognised as the ideal phase for the transmission of the values that are essential for a peaceful, prosperous and democratic society. Thus far all the white papers which underpinned the South African education have all acknowledged that education in South Africa should be responsible for the transmission of democratic values including Social Science learning Area. The democratic values are also the same values being promoted by the constitution of South Africa, these different White Papers are concerned with different segments of the education in South Africa. But all their policies contend that education in South Africa should promote democratic values. This also shows that all the different segments of education are interlinked, as they all vow for the promotion of democratic values by education. 4.3. Case studies from Turkey, Iraq, and Cyprus This study also found that even in other countries education is used to foster the vision of the constitution of the country and promote certain values to the citizens. Turkey did use education to promote the values which the government of the country wanted its citizens to have at the time. During 1923 which was the Single Party period in Turkey education was practices were shaped by republican and nation state-oriented policies (Kadıoğlu, 2007). The constitution was generally focused on teaching the duties and responsibilities of the good citizens while aiming to create a modern culture (Üstel, 2004). During the multi-party period the national education curriculum started to include information on human rights and textbooks highlighted the role of democracy in the family, as well as in schools (Üstel, 2004). Then there is the European Union accession period, where the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) developed a curriculum based on the norms, aims, and educational concepts of the European Union (Ministry of National Education, 2004). The MoNE also implemented several European Union sponsored project of democratic citizenship and human rights education to revise regulations and curriculum, raise school staff awareness of democratic citizenship education and human rights, and overall to develop a democratic school culture (MoNE, 2008). This is another great example of how education has been used to promote democratic values on the learners of a country. This process is synonymous with the Character Education theoretical framework which contends for direct teaching of values by teachers in the classroom. The textbooks used in the grade 8 and 9 textbook, and the class activities in the textbook which allow for the process to happen in the classroom, as shown in figure 4.3.1. The textbook does define what the apartheid are, and the impact they had on the lives of the people at the time, but the content does not link the impacts of apartheid laws to the today’s society (figure, 4.3.1). For instance 73% of farming land in South Africa is owned by white people (Crowley, 2017) of the reasons for that because of apartheid laws such as Land Act 1913, and Group Areas act 1950. Which black people were disposed of their land it was given to white people, which is one the many reason why 73% of farming land is owned by white people. There seems to be a trend among the textbook authors to avoid the content that will derail the reconciliation process and teaching of democratic values. Figure 4.3.1 (Coetzee, Holmes, & Johnston, 2006, p.56) 4.4. Conclusion The aim of this discussion was to discuss all the main points discussed in this research paper, and reveal the findings of the research paper. The first part of the discussion discussed the results that were found by this study, which indicate that the South African grade 8 and 9 Social Sciences curriculum is promoting the values of the South African constitution. Based on the policies that underpin the South African such as the Revised National Curriculum Statement, National Curriculum Statement, Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement. The second part discussed the Revised National Curriculum Statement, White paper on Education and Training, and the Curriculum Assessment Policy Statement. As part of the discussion case studies of Turkey, Iraq, and Cyprus were also discussed to make examples and reference of countries which are using education to spread the values of its governments. 5. Conclusion and recommendations Based on the research finding the research question was answered, that yes the Social Sciences grade 8 and 9 curriculum is promoting the democratic values of the South African constitution. Based on evidence from the constitution, the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement, National Curriculum Statements, Revised National Curriculum Statement (Social Sciences), and the White Paper on Education and Training. The mentioned policies all underpin the South African education, including Social Sciences and their aims and visions are inclined with promoting the democratic values of the South African constitution. . To answer the research question locating the background and context of the study was of paramount importance, this study is located in South Africa, and it is based on the post South Africa context. Locating the background and context of the study makes it possible for the reader to understand the history of the South African education, and how that history has affected the current state of our education. The important concepts in this research are Values, Social Sciences, Social Sciences Education, Curriculum, and the Constitution. Explaining these concepts in reference to the research question was also vital to answering the research question of this research paper. To support the findings and arguments made in the research paper theoretical frameworks were used, which are Character Education Theory and Social Learning Theory, both the ideas of these theories are in line with the arguments and results of this study. A literature review comprising of all the concepts of the research Values, Social Sciences, Social Sciences Education, Curriculum, and the Constitution, was also constructed in order to be able to answer the research question. To also answer the research question we have also used case studies of countries who have used and are still using education to promote the democratic values of their governments, this include case studies of Iraq, Turkey, Greece, Kuwait, and Cyprus. Determining whether the Social Sciences curriculum is promoting the democratic values of the constitution, meant that an analysis of the grade 8 and 9 Social Sciences had to be conducted. An analysis in four different textbooks was conducted, an analysis on the tone used to describe the historical events on the textbook, the kind of values the content knowledge and activities transferred to the learners was all analysed. As evidence of the analysis pictures of the textbooks were also included in the research paper. This research therefore falls under the interpretivism paradigm, since main objective of this study is to find out whether South African Department of Education is using Social Sciences grade 8 and 9 curriculums to promote the democratic values of the South African constitution. This study employed purposive sampling because the collected data is mainly focused on the education curriculum, policy, social sciences, constitution, values, and South African history and only the data relevant for this research was selected. Advantages and Disadvantages The main advantage with the government using education to promote democratic values is that learners are taught such values at an early age, and they grow up knowing and understanding these values. Minority groups also get a chance to be also represented in the school curriculums as curriculum planners have to set the curriculum in adherence to given policies that govern curriculum development (OAS General Assembly for High Schools, 2008). Teaching values through education also diminishes violence, aggression, and drug in take amongst the learners (Schulze, 2014). The main disadvantage of using education to spread democratic values is that learners will end up learning content that is regarded as correct by only a few in power of education in the country (Brunner, 2013). Learners will also not get to understand the actual historical events as they really happened, because they may be obstructing the aims of those in charge of the education system (Kibata, 1999) Recommendations The curriculum planners when planning the Social Sciences curriculum should not include too much of the curriculum that will promote the democratic values of the constitution, in place of content that will help learners be able to cope with History and Geography in their later grades and become critical learners. The government of South Africa should also make other means of improving reconciliation efforts in South Africa other than using education to reconcile citizens. As educators we should also scrutinise the set curriculum for our learners, we should ask ourselves is the content I am teaching really happened as it is described in the textbook? Is this content going to make my learner more conscious? If we are not satisfied with the knowledge the curriculum is giving our learners we should take our concerns through proper channels such as in teacher’s conference meetings. Teachers could also write official reports criticising the content they think does not reflected as it really happened, as especially on the History part of Social Sciences, teacher union’s support could be vital in publishing these reports. Teachers could also create awareness campaigns about censorship of textbooks, present the effects of censorship to the governing bodies, parents, education officials, and to the learners. Conclusion The results found in this research were that the Social Sciences grade 8 and 9 curriculum is promoting the democratic values of the South Africa constitution. The process is underpinned by policies such as the White Paper on Education and Training, Manifesto on Values, Education and Democracy, and the Revised National Curriculum Statement. The process is then facilitated by the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement, and the textbooks which are used to teach the subject such as the textbook by Bottaro, J Oxford Successful, Social Sciences; Ranby, P Platinum Social Sciences. References Alridge, D, P. (2006). “The Limits of Master Narratives in History Textbooks: An Analysis of Representations of Martin Luther King, Jr.” Teachers College Record 108.4. Alsubaie, M. (2015). Hidden Curriculum as One of Current Issue of Curriculum. Journal of Education and Practice. ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.6, No.33. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1083566.pdf Alvior, M, G. (2014). THE MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT. Simply Educate Me. Retrieved from: https://simplyeducate.me/2014/12/13/the-meaning-andimportance-of-curriculum-development/ Asmal, K. (2001). Manifesto on Values, Education and Democracy. Pretoria: Government Printer. Baets, A. (2002). CENSORSHIP OF HISTORY TEXTBOOKS. Censorship: A World Encyclopedia. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191. Bertram, C., & Christensen, I. (2013). Understanding Research. Bobbitt, F. (1918). The curriculum. Bobbitt, F. (1941). The curriculum of modern education Burns, H. (1964). Social Values and Education in Latin America. The Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 45, No. 4, Problems and Promises of Education in LatinAmerica (Jan., 1964), pp. 198201. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/20343087 Boateng, R. (2015). DEMOCRACY PROMOTION AND US HEGEMONY: A CASE STUDY OF IRAQ. Allborg University. Retrieved from: https://projekter.aau.dk/projekter/files/213096115/FINAL_2.pdf Baldwin, A. (1975). Mass Removals and Separate Development. Journal of Southern African Studies.1(2), 215-227. Bottaro, J., Cohen, S., Dilley, L., Versfeld, R., & Visser, P. (2013). Oxford Successful, Social Sciences. Bottaro, J., Cohen, S., Dilley, L., Versfeld, R., & Visser, P. (2013). Oxford Successful, Social Sciences. pp. 28 Bridoux, J. (2011). American Foreign Policy and Postwar Reconstruction: Comparing Japan and Iraq. Burns, H. (1964). Social Values and Education in Latin America. The Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 45, No. 4, Problems and Promises of Education in Latin America (Jan., 1964), pp. 198-201 Buzov, E. (1990). SOCIAL VALUES AND EDUCATION FOR THE NEW WORLD ORDER. Professors World Peace Academy. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/20751476.pdf?refreqid=search%3A8e1a052fd45b64afffee51 5aa825a123 Brunner, T. (2013). Censorship in History Textbooks: How Knowledge of the Past is Being Constructed in Schools. Ursidae: TheUndergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado: Vol. 3 : No. 2 , Article 9. Available from: http://digscholarship.unco.edu/urj/vol3/iss2/9 Cambridge University. (1909). The Constitution of South Africa. The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 3, No. 3 (Jul., 1909), pp. 691-694. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2186692.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A43477855bf46eae6b7c0 0a1af3be7000 Çayır, K., & Gürkaynak, I. (2008). The state of citizenship education in Turkey: Past and present. Journal of Social Science Education, 6, 50-58. Chisholm, L. (2005). The politics of curriculum review and revision in South Africa in regional context. A Journal of Comparative and International Education. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1080/03057920500033563 Cilliers, J.L. (1981). A phenomenological analysis of Christian-National Education (CNE). The South African Association for the Advancement of Education, s.a, 1-8. Retrieved from: http://encore.seals.ac.za/iii/encore_ru/record/C__Rb1315033__Schristian%20national%20ed ucation__Orightresult__X6;jsessionid=A7133DC641E5CFB850C35AF39440B382?lang=en g&suite=ru Christie, P. (1988). The Right to Learn. Coetzee, E., Holmes, P., Johnston, P., & Smith, L. (2006). Study & Master, Social Sciences. Coetzee, E., Holmes, P., Johnston, P., & Smith, L. (2006). Study & Master, Social Sciences. pp.56 Crowley, K. (2017 October 29). Whites Own 73% of South Africa’s Farming Land, City Press Says. Bloomberg. pp1 Davis, E. (October 2005). Strategies for Promoting Democracy in Iraq. United States Institute of Peace. pp. 1-20. Retrieved from: https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/sr153.pdf Department of Education (2004). Revised National Curriculum Statement Grades 7-9 (Schools). Pretoria: Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://www.gauteng.gov.za/government/departments/education/Curriculum/Senior%20Phase %20Curriculum/RNCS%20for%20Senior%20Phase.pdf Department of Education. (2001). Manifesto on Values, Education and Democracy: Special Schools Supplement. Pretoria: Government Printers. Department of Education. (2001). Manifesto On Values, Education and Democracy. Retrieved from: http://www.dhet.gov.za/Reports%20Doc%20Library/Manifesto%20on%20Values,%20Educa tion%20and%20Democracy.pdf Department of Education. (2002). Revised National Curriculum Statement Grade R-9. Pretoria: Government Printing Works. Department of Education. (2004). Revised National Curriculum Statement Grade 7-9. Pretoria: Government Printing Works Department of Basic Education. (2011). Curriculum Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS). Retrieved from: https://www.education.gov.za/Curriculum/CurriculumAssessmentPolicyStatements(CAPS).a spx Department of Basic Education. (2011). Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement Grade 7-9 Social Sciences. Pretoria: Government Printing Works Dhandhania, T. (2016, November 26). The Importance Of Social Studies In The School Curriculum. The Progressive Teacher. Retrieved from: http://www.progressiveteacher.in/theimportance-of-social-studies-in-the-school-curriculum/ Dryden, E. (1991). Romanticizing History, Historicizing Romance. Modern Philology, Vol. 89, No. 1 (Aug., 1991), pp. 52-62. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/438054 Economic and Social Research Council. (2018). What is Social Sciences. Retrieved from: https://esrc.ukri.org/about-us/what-is-social-science/ Eeden, E. & Vermeulen, L. (2005) Christian National Education (CNE) and People’s Education (PE): Historical perspectives and some broad common grounds. New Contree, No. 50. Retrieved from: http://www.populareducation.co.za/sites/default/files/No_50(2005)_Van_Eeden_ES_&_Ver meulen_LM.pdf Elias, M.J., Kranzler, A., Parker, S.J., Kash, V.M. & Weissberg, R.P. 2014. The complementary perspectives of social and emotional learning, moral education, and character education. In Nucci, L., Krettenauer, T. & Narvaez, D. (Eds). Handbook of moral and character education. Finders University. (2018). Curriculum Development. Retrieved from: http://www.flinders.edu.au/teaching/teaching-strategies/curriculum-development/curriculumdevelopment.cfm Fuller, E. (1962). The Role of Government in Curriculum Innovation. Educational Leadership. Retrieved from: http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/journals/ed_lead/el_196205_fuller.pdf Gerke, R. (1983). American Textbooks: Perspectives on Public Controversies and Censorship. The High School Journal, Vol. 67, No. 1. Available from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40365333 Glatthorn, A. A. (1987). Curriculum leadership. London: Scott Foresman & Co Glatthorn, A. A. (1980). A guide for developing an English curriculum for the eighties. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED193671.pdf Glatthorn, A. (1988). A Curriculum for the Twenty-first Century. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/citedby/10.1080/00098655.1988.10113994?scroll=top&nee dAccess=true Goldberg, S. (2011). Social Studies is Essential for Literacy. Social Education. Retrieved from: https://www.socialstudies.org/publications/socialeducation/may-june2011/essential-role-ofsocial-studies-reflections-on-arne-duncan-article Halsted, J & Taylor, M. (2000). The Development of Values Attitudes and Personal Qualities. National Foundation for Education Research. Retrieved from: https://www.nfer.ac.uk/publications/91009/91009.pdf Hamm, C.M. (1989). Philosophical issues in education: An introduction. Hatchard, J. (1994). The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. Journal of African Law, Vol. 38, No. 1. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/745474 Hayes, E. (1913). Social Values. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 18, No. 4 (Jan., 1913), pp. 470-508. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2763309.pdf?refreqid=search%3Acf8250e33920dac956bb3b 413f58bcc2 Hergenhahn, B. R., & Olson, M. H. (2005). An introduction to theories of learning (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River. New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Jansen, D. (1998). CURRICULUM REFORM IN SOUTH AFRICA: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF OUTCOMES-BASED EDUCATION. Repository. Retrieved from: https://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/132/Jansen%20%281998%29a.pdf Jansen, J. (1999). The school curriculum since apartheid: Intersections of politics and policy in the South African transition. Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN: 0022-0272. Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tcus20 Johnston, M, P. (2013). Secondary Data Analysis: A Method of which the Time Has Come. Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Libraries (QQML) 3:619 –626. Retrieved from: http://www.qqml.net/papers/September_2014_Issue/336QQML_Journal_2014_Johnston_Sep t_619-626.pdf Jones, C. (2010). Interdisciplinary Approach - Advantages, Disadvantages, and the Future Benefits of Interdisciplinary Studies. ESSAI. Vol 7. Retrieved from: https://dc.cod.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=essai Kadıoğlu, A. (2007). Denationalization of citizenship: The Turkish experience. Citizenship Studies, 11, 283-299. Karadag, E. (2007). Typology of analytical errors in qualitative educational research: An analysis of the 2003-2007. Education Science Dissertations in Turkey. Eskisehir Osmangazi University College of Education, 674-681. Kaya, H. & Seleti, Y. (2013). African indigenous knowledge systems and relevance of higher education in South Africa. The International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives, 2013, 12(1), 30–44ISSN 1443-1475. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1017665.pdf Kenneth O., Gangel., & Warren S. (1983) Christian Education: Its History and Philosophy. Kellner, D. (2005). Toward a critical theory of education. Democracy & Nature, 9(1):1-17. Retrieved from: http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kelllner/ Accessed 18 March 2009). Kibata, Y. (1999). History Textbooks: Continuing Controversies. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34, No. 44. Available from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4408560 Keskin, S., Kirtel, A., and Keskin, Y. (2015). Associating "Citizenship" Concepts in Social Studies Curriculum, Which is Performed in Turkey, With Other Concepts. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 197. Retrieved from: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/82121762.pdf Kilpatrick, W. (1992). Why Johnny Can’t Tell Right from Wrong: Moral Illiteracy and the Case for Character Education Lemon, A. (1995). Education in Post-apartheid South Africa: some lessons from Zimbabwe. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/3099767.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A4a3750a2e1f74fca27b4 2541aa155d76 Lewis, A. (2018, May 4). SA journalists discuss the impact of fake news on media. South African Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved from: http://www.sabcnews.com/sabcnews/sajournalists-discuss-impact-fake-news-media/ Lickona, T. (1991). Educating for Character: How our Schools can Teach Respect and Responsibility. Loveland, I, (1999). By Due Process of Law?: Racial Discrimination and the Right to Vote in South Africa 1855 -1960. M, R. (2003). The Elephant in the Living Room. The Denial of the Importance of Race by Whites in the New South Africa. Retrieved from: http://scnc.ukzn.ac.za/doc/SOC-cult/RaceRacism/Ballard-R_Elephant_in_importance_of_race_by_Whites_in_new_SA_.pdf MacFarquhar, N. (2006, December 30). Saddam Hussein, Defiant Dictator Who Ruled Iraq With Violence and Fear, Dies. The New York Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/30/world/middleeast/30saddam.html Magubane, B, M. (1979). The Political Economy of Race and Class in South Africa, New York and London: Monthly Review Press McKinney, C. (2007). Caught between the ‘old’ and the ‘new’? Talking about ‘race’ in a post-apartheid university classroom. Race Ethnicity and Education Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2007, pp. 215–231. Meyer, P. (1995). Introduction. A culture of democracy: a challenge for school. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0009/000998/099812eo.pdf Middle East Centre. (2013). The education of future citizens. Retrieved from: https://carnegieendowment.org/files/Faour_Summaries.pdf Miller, J. P., & Seller, W. (1990). Curriculum, Perspectives and Practice. Mohan, A. (2016). Role of Teachers in Inculcating Values among Students. IJARIIE-ISSN(O), Vol-1 Issue-2 2016. Retrieved from: http://ijariie.com/AdminUploadPdf/Role_of_Teachers_in_Inculcating_Values_among_Stude nts_c1256.pdf Molema,S, M. (1920) The Bantu Past and Present. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.za/books?id=j_QttAEACAAJ&dq=Molema,S,+M.+(1920)+The+Ban tu+Past+and+Present&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj9uqKW0aPdAhXLCcAKHa5FC3UQ6 AEIJjAA MoNE. (2008). Demokratik vatandaşlık ve insan hakları eğitimi projesi. The project of democratic citizenship and human rights education. Retrieved from: http://projeler.meb.gov.tr MoNE. (2008). Demokratik vatandaşlık ve insan hakları eğitimi projesi. The project of democratic citizenship and human rights education. Retrieved from: http://projeler.meb.gov.tr Mosley, S. (2006). Integrating Social and Environmental History. Journal of Social History, Vol. 39, No. 3, [Special Issue on the Future of SocialHistory] (Spring, 2006), pp. 915-933. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3790300 Msila, V. (2007). From Apartheid Education to the Revised National Curriculum Statement:Pedagogy for Identity Formation and Nation Building in South Africa. Nordic Journal of African Studies. 16(2): 146–160. Retrieved from: http://www.njas.helsinki.fi/pdffiles/vol16num2/msila.pdf Munyoki, M. (2012). INTEGRATING PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION AND THE GOALS OF EDUCATION IN EDUCATION PRACTICE AT KENYAN HIGH SCHOOLS. Muravska,T. & Ozoliņa, Z. (2011). Interdisciplinarity in Social Sciences: Does It Provide Answers to Current Challenges in Higher Education and Research? University of Latvia Press. Retrieved from: https://www.lu.lv/fileadmin/user_upload/lu_portal/apgads/PDF/Book_Interdisciplinarity.pdf Nabavi, R. (2012). Bandura’s Social Learning Theory & Social Cognitive Learning Theory. ResearchGate. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267750204 National Curriculum. (2018). Aims, values and purposes. Retrieved from: http://archive.teachfind.com/qcda/curriculum.qcda.gov.uk/key-stages-1-and-2/aims-valuesand-purposes/index.html Naus, W. (2017). Why Social Sciences? Consortium of Social Science Associations. Retrieved from:http://www.cossa.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Why-Social-Science-Naus-20171.pdf Ngubo, A. (1973). The Development of African Political Protest in South Africa, 1882-1910: An Analytical Approach. OAS General Assembly for High Schools. (2008). FINAL BOOK OF RESOLUTIONS. Retrieved from: http://www.moas.oas.org/english/High_schools/27%20MOAS%20High%20Schools/Final%2 0Book%20of%20Resolution%20-%2027th%20MOAS%20for%20High%20Schools.doc Ozoliņa, Z., & Muravska, T. (2011). Interdisciplinarity in Social Sciences: Does It Provide Answers to Current Challenges in Higher Education and Research? University of Latvia Press. Retrieved from: https://www.lu.lv/fileadmin/user_upload/lu_portal/apgads/PDF/Book_Interdisciplinarity.pdf Parliamentary Monitoring Group. (2000). Curriculum 2005 Review Committee Report. Retrieved from: https://pmg.org.za/committee-meeting/3204/ Patty, W, L. (1938). A study of mechanism in education; an examination of the curriculummaking devices of Franklin Bobbitt, W.W. Charters, and C.C. Peters from the point of view of relativistic pragmatism. Pildes, R. (2013). Romanticizing Democracy, Political Fragmentation, and the Decline of American Government. The Yale Law Journal. Retrieved from: https://www.yalelawjournal.org/article/the-decline-of-american-government PMR Consulting & Research. (2017). Desk Research. Retrieved from: http://www.researchpmr.com/desk-research Proctor, N. (1987). History, Geography and Humanities: a Geographer's Interpretation. Teaching History, No. 48 (June 1987), pp. 8-12. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/43256584 Quebec Ministere de l’Education. (2012). Social Sciences. Retrieved from: http://www.marianopolis.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/PROGRAM_300A0a_SOCIALSCIENCE-Sciences-humaines.pdf Ranby, P., Johannesson, B., & Monteith, M. (2013). Platinum, Social Sciences. Ranby, P., Johannesson, B., & Monteith, M. (2013). Platinum, Social Sciences. pp. 144 Ranby, P., Johannesson, B., & Monteith, M. (2013). Platinum, Social Sciences. pp. 78 Robertson, L, S. (2007). Globalisation, Education Governance and Citizenship Regimes: New Democratic Deficits and Social Injustices. Handbook on Education and Social Justice. Retrieved from: https://susanleerobertson.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/2007-lipman-socialjustice-citizenship.pdf Roches, D. (1990). SADDAM HUSSEIN AND THE USES OF POLITICAL POWER. University of London. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a228567.pdf Royal Literary Fund.(2018). What is a Literature Review? Retrieved from: https://www.rlf.org.uk/resources/what-is-a-literature-review/ Schulze, C. (2014). Teachers’ experience of the implementation of values in education in schools: “Mind the gap”. South African Journal of Education; 2014; 34(1). Retrieved from: http://www.scielo.org.za/pdf/saje/v34n1/08.pdf Schofield, N. (2002). Evolution of the Constitution. British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 32, No. 1. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4092205 Seo, S. (2008). A STUDY ON DEMOCRATIC TRANSITION IN SOUTH AFRICA: DEMOCRACY THROUGH COMPROMISE AND INSTITUTIONAL CHOICE. University of South Africa. Retrieved from: http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/3401/thesis_seo_s.pdf Seroto, J. (2011). Indigenous education during the pre-colonial period in southern Africa. Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Volume 10, Issue 1, Jan 2011, p. 77 – 88. Retrieved from: https://journals.co.za/content/linga/10/1/EJC61385 South Africa. Department of Justice. (1996). Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. Pretoria: Government Print Works. South Africa. Department of Education. (1995). White Paper: White Paper on Education and Training. Pretoria: Department of Education. South Africa. Department of Education. (1996). White Paper: Education White Paper 2 The Organisation, Governance and Funding of Schools. Pretoria: Department of Education. South Africa. Department of Education. (1997). White Paper: Education White Paper 3 A Programme for the Transformation of Higher Education. Pretoria: Department of Education. South Africa. Department of Education. (1998). White Paper: White Paper 4 A Programme for the Transformation of Further Education and Training. Pretoria: Department of Education. South Africa. Department of Education. (2001). White Paper: White Paper 5 On Early Childhood Development. Pretoria: Department of Education. South Africa. Department of Education. (2001). White Paper: White Paper 6 Special Needs Education. Pretoria: Department of Education. South Africa. Department of Education. (2004). White Paper: White Paper 7 on e-Education. Pretoria: Department of Education. The Department of Justice and Constitutional Development. (2017). The Basic Provisions of the Constitution. Retrieved from: http://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/constitution/FoundingProvisions_Constitution.pdf Tholappan, A. (2015). Knowledge and curriculum. Bharathidasan University .Retrieved from: http://www.bdu.ac.in/cde/docs/ebooks/BEd/II/KNOWLEDGE%20AND%20CURRICULUM .pdf Thornton, S. (2007). Geography in American History Courses. Delta Kappan, Vol. 88, No. 07, March 2007, pp. 535-538. Retrieved from: http://www.pdkintl.org Tobin, G, A. & Dennis, R. (2008) The Trouble with Textbooks: Distorting History and Religion. Turner, M. (2004). Values and Beliefs. Coach the Coach, Vol 7. Retrieved from: http://www.crowe-associates.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/The-Mentoring-Wheel.pdf Tyler, R. W. (1957). The curriculum then and now. In Proceedings of the 1956 Invitational Conference on Testing Problems. Üstel, F. (2004). ‘Makbul vatandas’’ın peşinde: II. Meşrutiyet’ten bugüne vatandaşlık eğitimi. Obeyed citizens: Citizenship education from 2nd constitutionalmonarchy to today Yell, M. (2011). Where the Rubber Meets the Road. Social Education. Retrieved from: https://www.socialstudies.org/publications/socialeducation/may-june2011/essential-role-ofsocial-studies-reflections-on-arne-duncan-article Wynne, E, A. (1991). Character and academics in elementary school.