AFTER CLASS EDITS ON THE NOTES ARE WRITTEN IN BLUE AND ITALIC WEEK 9 THE CANTERBURY TALES 1) Do some research on Giovanni Boccaccio and Decameron and try to relate that information to Geoffrey Chaucer and The Canterbury Tales Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist. Some scholars (including Vittore Branca) define him as the greatest European prose writer of his time, a versatile writer who amalgamated different literary trends and genres, making them converge in original works, thanks to a creative activity exercised under the banner of experimentalism. His most notable works are The Decameron, a collection of short stories which in the following centuries was a determining element for the Italian literary tradition. The Decameron is structured with a frame story containing a hundred tales told by a group of ten young men and women sheltering in a villa just outside Florence to escape the Black Death, which had struck the city. 'Decameron' combines two Greek words, deka ('ten') and heméra ('day'), to form a term that means 'ten-day [event]'. The characters of the framing story tell their tales in a ten day period. Each of the ten storytellers is king or queen for an evening, during which time they can set the topic of the evening' tales, such as examples of human willpower, or love stories that end tragically. Only Dioneo, who usually tells the tenth tale each day, is, thanks to his wit, allowed to tell a tale on any topic he wants. Each day also has a short introduction and a conclusion to continue the framing device. Even though the plot and subject matter are really different, there are also many similarities between The Canterbury Tales and The Decameron by Geoffrey Chaucer and Giovanni Boccaccio. Both of these stories are 14th century stories and there are a lot of “borrowing” from some tales of Boccaccio’s work by Chaucer in Canterbury Tales. There are at least three similarities in these stories that can be noticed by the reader. The similarities in each of these works of medieval literature that are identified include both authors’ concern with representing the temporal setting of the stories, the use of the frame story technique in both tales, and the authors’ clever use of morality and its opposite in order to convey messages and meaning about their society and time. 2) Do some research on what frame story is and relate it to The Canterbury Tales. Frame story is a story set within a story, narrative, or movie, told by the main or the supporting character. A character starts telling a story to other characters, or he sits down to write a story, telling the details to the audience. This technique is also called a “frame narrative,” and is a very popular form of literary technique employed in storytelling and narration. Frame story usually is found in novels, plays, poems, television, films, musicals, and opera. It is a unifying tale within which one or more related stories appear. For instance, in Homer’s Odyssey, Odysseus tells about his wandering experience in the court of King Alcinous, or his visit to the island of a sorcerer. In Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer has used frame narrative, bringing different characters, each of whom tells a story. This pilgrimage frame story brings together a number of storytellers, who appear with vivid personality traits, and build up dramatic relationships with one another and with the tales they tell. General Prologue is the section of this poem that deals with frame narrative. The Canterbury Tales: ‘The Prologue’ 3) Discuss the setting (time and place) for the events in ‘The Prologue’. When and where do the various events take place? A tavern and on a pilgrimage from London to Canterbury, England in the late 14th century. -It is in the month of April, which the narrator describes as a time in England where everything is being born again, and people want to take pilgrimages. It is mentioned in the text that the narrator meet fellow pilgrims at the Tabard Inn in Southwark. The prologue takes place the night before they start their pilgrimage. They spent the night at the Tabard Inn and narrator examines and details each pilgrim.- 4) Provide detailed information about the following characters by focusing on their clothes, physical appearance, and personality traits: The Knight, the Squire, the Monk, the Worthy Woman, the Parson and the Pardoner. The Knight: He is the first pilgrim and from ruling class. Chaucer describes him as brave, experienced and prudent. He is also chivalrous, truthful, honourable, loves action and adventure, believes in the ideals of chivalry, he also have survived so many battles all over Europe so that makes him an excellent fighter. From the text, “He possessed fine horses but was not gaily dressed”. He wore a dark fustian tunic (coarse cloth) that had armour stains. He is strong because he has endured many battles, is middle aged because he has a 20 year old son. The Squire: He is the son of the Knight. From the text “embroidered like meadow bright...” Dressed in red and white, his gown was short, sleeves long and wide. He has curly hair, average height, 20 years old. He is physically fit, strong. He sings and plays the flute, likes poetry jousting, horse riding, dancing. He fought on behalf of a lady and did well. He is respectful to his father, hardworking and willing to take risks. The Monk: He is wealthy and so he was wearing wealthy, fine furtrimmed robe, gold brooch. He is bald and fat. He likes to eat. The Worthy Woman: She is The Wife of The Bath, is a middle class seamstress. She is dressed in kerchiefs finely woven, red hose and new shoes. She is deaf, has gapped teeth and large hips. She has a red face. She is bold, argumentative, well-travelled, professional wife and very social. The Parson: Clergy. He is dressed modest, poor. He is a hard working church man who disliked extorting tithe. He practices what he preaches. Holy and virtuous. The Pardoner: Clergy. He pardons people’s sins for a donation to the church. He carries a bag full of fake religious relics. He has a little cap on the head, the hat has a pilgrim medal on it. He has cross on his wallet. He has long greasy yellow hair and is beardless. He is a greedy fraud, shifty, keeps money from blessings to himself, sneaky, untrustworthy, and dishonest. He read and sang sermons well. 5) What is the contribution of the Host to the context of the frame story? The Host has a major role over the frame story of The Canterbury Tales, since it’s he who proposes the tale-telling game and directs it on the way to Canterbury. The Host takes all his tales extremely seriously, becomes very emotionally involved in them. -The Host’s presence demonstrate that the main purpose of this pilgrimage lies not so much in the devout religious act but in the fun that these tourists will have along the way.- 6) What is significant about the end of ‘The Prologue’ in terms of the frame story? -Towards the end the Host proposes to the pilgrims to tell each other tales. He says that he would judge the tales, and that if they play the game he has invented, he swears by his dead father’s soul that they will be entertained. They agree to it. So the next day on the road they start this game which is the base of what frame story is “a story set within a story, told by the main or the supporting character.”- The Canterbury Tales: ‘The Pardoner’s Tale’ 7) Make a list of the characters in the story and provide detailed information (based on the text) about them. The Three Rioters: The three protagonists of the Pardoner’s Tale. All three indulge in and represent the vices against which the Pardoner has railed in his Prologues: gluttony, drunkenness, gambling and swearing. These traits define the three and eventually lead to their downfall. The Old Man: In the Pardoner’s Tale, the three Rioters encounter a very old man whose body is completely covered except for his face. Before the old man tells the Rioters where they can find “Death,” one of the Rioters rashly demands why the old man is still alive. The old man answers that he is doomed to walk the earth for eternity. He has been interpreted as Death itself, or as Cain, punished for fratricide by walking the earth forever; or as the Wandering Jew, a man who refused to let Christ rest at his house when Christ proceeded to his crucifixion, and who was therefore doomed to roam the world, through the ages, never finding rest. 8) Discuss the setting (time and place) for the events in the story. When and where do the various events take place? Tale takes place in Flanders, in Belgium. It begins in a tavern. The Pardoner uses the tavern setting as a discussion of the sins, drunkenness, lechery, gambling, and blasphemous swearing. When he returns to his story about the rioters, they're already at the bar, drunk, before 9 o'clock in the morning. The setting shifts throughout the story. When they decide to kill Death the setting changes to the road to a village. After they encounter an old man. Who tells them that Death is up a path in a grove, it becomes the next setting. 9) What is the aim of the three rioters? After finding a dead body of their friend, killed by Death and finding out all the deaths Death has caused, they swear a pact of brotherhood and make a plan to seek out and kill Death. 10) What is the pledge that the three rioters make and what is ironic about that pledge when the end of the story is taken into consideration? The three rioters swear a pact of brotherhood and make a plan to seek out and kill Death so that he wouldn’t kill anyone, anymore. However, they pledge trust and friendship to each other while harbouring treachery and betrayal in their hearts. Also, they can't kill Death. -They pledge to die for each other and stick together as brothers. “They made their bargain, swore with appetite. / These three, to live and die for one another/ As brother-born might swear to his born brother.” The story as a whole is covered with layers with irony. The ironic part in the pledge was, the rioters don’t try to protect each other. At the first chance they get (to profit themselves separately) they plot against each other. The two older men plan to stab the younger so they can split the gold, and the youngest plans to poison the older men so he can have it all for himself. Basically once they discover the treasure, they no longer seek death. And so on the road they pledge to protect each other and kill death they were out witted by Death himself.- 11) What is the conflict between the three rioters and the old man? How is it resolved? The three rioters encounters the old man on the way to find Death. They treat him rudely and ask him why he is so old he tells them its not his time yet. They accuse him for being a spy for Death and threaten him to point where the Death is. “And you’re his spy, by God! You wait a bit./Say where he is or you shall pay for it,” The old man tells where he is, he directs them to Death. “Well, sirs,” he said, “if it be your design To find out Death, turn up this crooked way Towards that grove, I left him there today Under a tree, and there you’ll find him waiting. He isn’t one to hide for all your prating. You see that oak? He won’t be far to find. And God protect you that redeemed mankind, Aye, and amend you!” Thus that ancient man. 12) What is the plan of the each rioter to get the gold? Does each rioter achieve his aim, why / why not? Two rioters sent the young rioter away after drawing straws to buy equipment and drinks. While he was gone, the other two plan to stab him when he is to return and split the gold. However, the young rioter buys wine and poisons it. His plan is to return and poison the other two so that he can have all the gold for himself. When he returns he is stabbed to death, and the other two take the poisoned wine to celebrate their success. They die from the poison. So in the end no one achieved their aim. 13) What is the message of the story? The pardoner is a fake and a greedy lecher who is extremely inappropriate to be giving the sermon. He does not abide by the rules of the clergy yet he is preaching against the sins of greed. The clear message in The Pardoner’s Tale is that greed is the root of all evil, as it is stated by pardoner. 14) Discuss the possible reasons why the Pardoner tells this particular story? The Pardoner tells his moral stories not to help sinners but to help himself. He's greedy and wishes to scare people into buying his indulgences and relics. -Chaucer’s intent is to bring light to the motives of the corrupted men of church. The Pardoner is a hypocrite and is an example of a man who does not “practice what he preaches”. Chaucer wanted his readers to see not all men of church who claim to be good and honest are what say they are.15) Discuss how the story reflects the values of the middle ages. In Pardoner’s Tale author criticize the middle age value of religion. Geoffrey Chaucer satirizes the pardoner by describing how emasculate his appearance was by comparing him to a castrated male horse. People of the middle ages were very gullible so they believed pardoners will free them of their sins. However, the pardoner in this story was rather corrupt. He took the huge part of the money the church desired in order to better their community. Religion was an important aspect of the middle ages. WEEK 10 EVERYMAN 1) Please read pages 7 for allegory and 201 for morality play from A Glossary of Literary Terms by M. H. Abrams and Geoffrey Galt Harpham. Allegory is a narrative in which the agents, actions and setting are contrived by the author to make coherent sense on the literal, or primary, level of signification, and at the same time to communicate a second, correlated order of signification. Morality plays were dramatized allegories of a representative Christian life in the plot form of a quest for salvation. The crucial events are temtations, sinning and the climactic confrontation with death. 1) Make a list of the characters in the play and provide detailed information (based on the text) about them. Messenger: The first character to appear. The Messenger has no role within the story of the play itself, but simply speaks the prologue outlining what the play will be like. God: Appears only at the very beginning of the play. Angry with the way humans are behaving on Earth, he criticizes Everyman’s sinfulness and his ungrateful disregard of Christ’s sacrifice for humanity, God summons Death to visit Everyman and call him to account. Death: God's "mighty messenger", who visits Everyman at the very start of the play to inform him that he is going to die and be judged by God. Everyman: The representative of mankind in general. He dresses in fine clothes, and seems to have had led a wild and sinful life. Throughout the course of the play, he is told that he is going to die (and therefore be judged) and undergoes a pilgrimage in which he absolves himself of sin, is deserted by all of his friends apart from good deeds, and dies. Good Deeds: The only character who does not forsake Everyman - and at the end of the play, accompanies him to his grave. Good Deeds represents Everyman's good actions - nice things that he does for other people. Knowledge: Guides Everyman from around the middle of the play, and leads him to Confession. 'Knowledge' is perhaps best defined as 'acknowledgement of sin'. Angel: Appears at the very end of the play with Everyman's Book of Reckoning to receive Everyman's soul. Doctor: Delivering the play’s epilogue, the doctor summarizes the moral of the story: we can only rely on our good deeds for comfort and salvation, and we must clear our “reckonings” while we are still alive, lest we suffer eternally in hell. 2) Discuss the setting (time and place) for the events in the play. When and where do the various events take place? The play begins in Heaven when God sends Death to summon the main character, Everyman. After that the setting is basically Earth. 3) What is the major conflict in the play? Is it external or inner conflict? The conflict between good and evil (moral conflict) is the major conflict, it is an inner conflict. Dramatized by the interactions between characters, Everyman is being singled out because it is difficult for him to find characters to accompany him on his pilgrimage. Everyman eventually realizes through this pilgrimage that he is essentially alone, despite all the personified characters that were supposed necessities and friends to him. Everyman learns that when you are brought to death and placed before God all you are left with is your own good deeds. 4) What are the reasons for the major conflict? The whole of Everyman consists of dramatic conflict and abstract argument as Everyman struggles for his soul. Everyman has to remain strong in the mind in order to make the right decisions. 5) What happens to Everyman throughout the play? What is his aim? Relate these events to the conventions of morality play? Death warns Everyman that he will be judged by God when he dies. Terrified, Everyman turns to Fellowship, but his friends desert him. Everyman then turns to his Good Deeds, but they have been weakened by his sins. Everyman eventually arrives in Heaven with the help of his other attributes, but he learns that only his Good Deeds will come with him. He'll be judged by his actions alone. Everyman is a morality play, which details the life and death of the allegorical Everyman, who embodies all of humanity and allegorical characters such as “fellowship” and “knowledge”. Morality plays contain a protagonist who represents either humanity as a whole or a smaller social structure, in this play it is Everyman. Supporting characters are personifications of good and evil, most of the morality plays focus on evil but Everyman focuses on good. 6) What is the message of the play? How can you relate it the function of morality play? The message is firstly that one cannot enter heaven with earthly goods when one dies - these have no value and are left behind. Secondly, only the good that one does can bear witness to one's grace at Judgement, and thirdly, one should do penance and seek forgiveness for one's sins before entering the Kingdom of Heaven. Everyman uses abstract qualities like Good Deeds, Knowledge as characters. It is a kind of personification. It upholds the teachings of church and Christianity. It allegorizes many virtues and is didactic in tone. The tone is clearly moral and religious. All those things are virtues that can be converted into assets and liabilities to help change one’s spiritual state. Everyman allegorically stands for every Christian and urges them to live a virtuous life to get salvation. 7) Discuss how the events in the play reflect the values of the Middle Ages. Middle Ages are a period when religion occupied the central place in lives of the people. The drama of the period dealt with religious themes to disseminate messages of Christianity and it informed people of their position in the world. To teach these religious and moral lessons the play wrights used the literary device called allegory through which religious themes were dramatized indirectly. Everyman is a typical period play within these explanations. WEEK 11 THE ENGLISH RENAISSANCE (1485-1625) 1) Define what Renaissance is and make a list of its major characteristics. Renaissance is a French word meaning rebirth. It was both a period in history and an artistic movement. It developed gradually in Italy during 14th and 15th centuries and spread across Europe. It came to an end towards the end of the 16th century with the Mannerist style. This period marked the end of the Middle Ages and the star of modern times. The most important feature of the Renaissance is intellectual rebirth or regeneration. It conveys the idea that for centuries. Europe had been dead intellectually and then by some means, had recovered life. The rebirth or regeneration came to Italy first and then to other European countries. Freedom of thought and action is another important feature of the Renaissance. An awakening of the minds of men, freedom of thought, and action were the dominant passions of the Renaissance. Thirst for knowledge is another important feature of the Renaissance. It was an age of great curiosity and thirst for knowledge. Man desire to know the unknown and to see the unseen. Scientific Outlook: During the Renaissance period, the European explorers and scientists contributed significantly to the development of inquiry. Humanism is another important feature of the Renaissance. During the Elizabethan age, there was the revival of classical learning which passion became with the people. The rediscovery of Greek and Roman antiquity gave birth to a new culture and that is called Humanism. Love for adventure: The age Renaissance was an age of great curiosity and love for adventure. During this age, the people show their love for adventure. In the 15th century, Columbus reached America and Vasco da Gama reached India. This kind of love for adventure influences the Renaissance greatly. Love for beauty is another feature of the Renaissance. Here beauty signifies the beauty of culture, the beauty of the civilized world the beauty of women, and so on. We notice this kind of love for beauty in Renaissance literature. The desire for unlimited power and wealth is another important feature of the Renaissance. England’s trade and Commerce improved and the country grew rich and prosperous. Dr Faustus by Christopher Marlowe is one of the best examples of the Renaissance play in which the hero sold his soul to Lucifer only to get earthly wealth and power. 2) Do some research on significance of Florence regarding the emergence of Renaissance? The Renaissance is considered to have begun in the city-states such as, Florence, Milan, Rome, Naples, Genoa and Venice. Florence is of the most significant city-states from the Renaissance in Italy. It is often named as the birthplace of the Renaissance. The early writers and artist of the period sprung from this city. Florence was very prosperous during the Renaissance. There were many guilds that were very successful in Florence. The textile guild was very powerful. Florence became a very wealthy city because of the trade of textiles, especially the trade of wool. The workers took untreated and unfinished wool from other places and worked it into high quality wool that was sold in many places. As the city prospered economically, it was not only the government but also the wealthy families that invested money in art, adorning the city’s churches and cathedrals. So the city became a place where artists can thrive. 3) What are the developments that contribute to the age of explorations? The Age of Exploration was rooted in new technologies and ideas growing out of the Renaissance, these included advances in cartography, navigation, and shipbuilding. The most important development was the invention of first the Carrack and then caravel in Iberia. First, European countries were seeking new trade routes to distant trading partners in the Far East, including: China, India and Japan. A second reason for the beginning of the Age of Exploration was the rise of absolute monarchies in Europe. The powerful monarchs of Europe had centralized the authority and wealth of each country and used their vast wealth to fund the expeditions of many explorers. Third, Europeans had made some dramatic improvements in their navigational skill and technology that allowed early explorers to travel further and more accurately at sea. The final reason for why the Age of Exploration began is because Europeans of the time were interested in foreign cultures and goods. In general, the Renaissance in Europe caused an expansion of new ideas and new understandings of the world. Europeans were interested in learning about these new ideas and expanding on their worldviews. 4) What are the reasons for the Protestant Reformation? What are its impacts on England? On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses to the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church, thus marking the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. This movement permanently divided Western Christendom. The abandonment of Rome by the Popes, the period of schism, known as the Great Schism, produced several rival claimants to the papacy. The seesaw battle between popes and anti-popes gradually weakened the idea of the pope as a central spiritual authority in the minds of Christians. The rise of nationalism, the hundred years war between England and France (1337-1453), which ended with the campaigns of Joan Arc and her successors, only “enhanced national feeling”, and thus weakened the religious bond that had previously held together Christians throughout Western Europe. The Black Death, in 1342-1350, plague broke out in Europe. By the time it was over, somewhere between 30-60% of Europe’s population was dead. Plague had not only shaken the physical and political structure of European society. It had begun to effect the faith itself. The decline of Latin, with the rise of nationalism had also given rise to a growing preference for local speech. In addition, the Renaissance had brought about a recovery of the classics and especially a recovery of the knowledge of Greek. The excitement about the new, secular learning, combined with the growing preference for non-Latin languages, further eroded the bond of faith between Western European Christians. Corruption in the Church, the spiritual authority of the pope and his hierarchy was also undermined by the growing wealth of the Church. The endowments of the Church were very large, and corruption, both in monastic establishments and among the seculars, was increasing. 5) Discuss the significant developments that took place during the reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII. The first Tudor monarch, Henry VII, inherited an England that had been depleted and exhausted by years of civil war. By the time he had died in 1509, he had rebuilt the nation’s treasury and established law and order. In doing so, he had restored the prestige of the monarchy and had set the stage for successors. Like his father, Henry VIII was a practicing Catholic. He even wrote a book against Luther, for which a grateful Pope granted him the title “Defender of the Faith.” Henry’s marriage with Catherine of Aragon had not produced a son, and so he tried to obtain an annulment from the Pope so that he could marry Anne Boleyn but the Pope refused. Henry married anyway. This defiance of papal authority led to an open break with the Roman Catholic Church. Under the Act of Supremacy (1534), the king assumed full control of the Church in England and severed all ties with Rome. Henry became supreme head of the new Church of England (or Anglican Church). Although the Protestant Reformation was not directly responsible For Henry’s break with Rome. It helped to pave the way. Henry used ruthless measures to suppress opposition among monks, friars, and a few others. He even had his former friend and leading advisor, Thomas More, executed, because More had refused to renounce his faith. 6) Discuss the significant developments that took place during the reigns of Edward VI and Mary I. Henry VII’s son, Edward VI, became king at the age of nine and died at the age of fifteen. During his brief reign, a series of parliamentary acts were instituted that dramatically changed the nation’s religious practices. English replaced Latin in church ritual, and the Anglican prayer book, or Book of Common Prayer, became required in public worship. By Edward’s death in 1553, England was well on its way to becoming a Protestant nation. After his death, his half-sister, Mary, took the throne. Mary I was herself Catholic, and she restored the Roman practices to the Church of England. She also restored the authority of the Pope over the powerful Spanish state. Many people found these acts unpatriotic. People was also disturbed by Mary’s violent repression of Protestants. She earned the nick name Bloody Mary after ordering the execution of 200 Protestants. 7) Discuss the significant developments that took place during the reign of Elizabeth I. After Mary I’s death, her half-sister, Elizabeth I, came to the throne. She would be the last of the Tudors, dying unmarried and childless, after a long successful reign. Since William the Conqueror, Elizabeth was probably England’s ablest monarch. She received a Renaissance education and read widely in the Greek and Latin classics. Many of the era’s greatest literary works bear a dedication to the queen, and word Elizabethan has come to signify the English Renaissance at its height. She also put an end to the religious turmoil that had existed during Mary I’s reign. She re-established the monarch’s supremacy in the Church of England and restored the Book of Common Prayer, and she instituted a policy of religious moderation that enjoyed great popular support. The biggest problem Elizabeth had was her cousin Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland, by birth and (as granddaughter of Henry VII) next in line for the throne of England. Because Catholics did not recognized the marriage between Anne Boleyn and Henry VII, Elizabeth’s parents, they considered Mary the queen of England. For nineteen years, Mary was in England as a prisoner of Elizabeth, while she was there she became the center of numerous Catholic plots against Elizabeth. While punishing the plotters, Elizabeth let her loyal cousin live. Finally, however, a court convicted Mary of plotting to murder Elizabeth. Mary went to the block in 1587, a Catholic martyr. Her famous motto “In my end is my beginning,” took on new meaning when her death led Catholic Spain to declare war on England. 8) What are the reasons for the conflict between Elizabeth I and Mary Stuart? After Mary’s husband Francis II, the King of France, died in 1561, she returned to Scotland with hopes of taking the English throne by coup. In 1567, Mary’s subjects assassinated her husband Darnley. In 1568, the Scots drove Mary out of power. Elizabeth was horrified at the idea that the common people might revolt against their ruler. Elizabeth, fearing that Mary might go abroad and raise an army, and also afraid that the people of Scotland might lock her up, acted quickly to imprison her nemesis in Lochleven Castle, from which Mary successfully plotted her escape. Several plots against Elizabeth were discovered in the following years. This all happened because Mary Stuart wanted to claim the throne. 9) Discuss the significance of the defeat of the Spanish Armada. By fending off the Spanish fleet, the island nation saved itself from invasion and won recognition as one of Europe's most fearsome sea powers. The clash also established the superiority of heavy cannons in naval combat, signalling the dawn of a new era in warfare at sea. 10) Discuss the significant developments that took place during the reign of James I. Elizabeth I named Scotland’s King James VI as her successor, before she died. James’s claim to the throne rested on his descent from King Henry VII through his mother, Mary Stuart, Elizabeth’s old antagonist. Unlike Mary, however, James was a Protestant. The years of new King of England, James I, are described as the Jacobean era, From Jacobus, the Latin word for James. James took measures to further England’s position as a world power, sponsoring the establishment of England’s first successful American colony, Jamestown, Virginia. During his reign, a conflict began developing that would later erupt into war. He and parliament became involved in a power struggle, quarrelling over taxes and foreign wars. James I also persecuted the Puritans, who were strongly presented in the House of Commons. Prompted by James’s religious intolerance, a group of puritans migrated to America, and established the Plymouth Colony in 1621. WEEK 12 THE ENGLISH RENAISSANCE (1485-1625): PROSE AND POETRY 1) Please read pages 124-127 regarding the background to Sir Thomas More & pages 133-138 of your course pack regarding Utopia and on your notebooks answer the following questions by providing specific examples from the text: · Discuss the attitude of the Utopians to war, army, victory and the various strategies they put into practice before, during and after the war. Utopians hate war, regarding it as inhuman, something not practiced by any wild beasts. What is often called the glory achieved in war seems to them inglorious. However, they train constantly in the disciplines of war, both men and women, to be ready for anything. For them the causes for engage in war are: first, to defend their country; second, to defend their friend; and, third, to deliver a weak nation from oppression or tyranny. In battle they do not seek to gain victory through great bloodshed but prefer to overcome the enemy through strategy. Once war has been declared, they circulate leaflets through the enemy's country, offering a huge reward to anyone who kills the king or other leaders, aiming by that means to sow suspicion and dissension through the nation. They prefer not to use their own citizens in battle unless their own country is invaded, and in such an event they employ only volunteers. 2) Please read pages 336-337 for the sonnet and the sonnet cycle from A Glossary of Literary Terms by M. H. Abrams and Geoffrey Galt Harpham and write down their conventions. Sonnet: A lyric poem consisting of a single stanza of fourteen iambic pentameter lines linked by an intricate rhyme scheme. (Refer to meter and rhyme.) There are two major patterns of rhyme in sonnets written in the English language: The Italian or Petrarchan sonnet: This fall into two main parts, an octave (eight lines) rhyming abbaabba followed by a sestet (six lines) rhyming cdecde or some variant, such as cdccdc. The English sonne or Shakespearean sonnet: This sonnet falls into three quatrains and a concluding couplet: abab cdcd efef gg. There was a notable wariant, the Spenserian sonnet, in which Spenser linked each quatrain to the next by a continuing rhyme: abab bcbc cdcd ee. A number of Elizabethan authors arranged their poems into sonnet sequences, or sonnet cycles, in which a series of sonnets are linked together by exploring the varied aspects of a relationship that constitutes a kind of implicit plot. · Please read the following sonnets: “Rima 134” by Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch), “Whoso List to Hunt” by Sir Thomas Wyatt, “Sonnet 31” by Sir Philip Sidney, “Sonnet 75” by Edmund Spenser, “Sonnet 116” and “Sonnet 130” by William Shakespeare. · On your notebooks write down the major themes, conflicts and the resolution of the conflicts that are treated in these works. Rima 134 Based on the persona’s love that is unreciprocated by his beloved, the Poet illustrates in this sonnet, an internal conflict in the persona. The wholly bitter tone establishes a holistically integrating theme of being torn apart for love and also an atmosphere of histrionic resentment engorged with Petrarch’s hyperbolized emotions. Whoso List to Hunt This poem is about love; its speaker describes love as a desperate and violent pursuit, in which a man attempts to hunt down the woman he loves. This pursuit has failed, so the speaker spends the poem explaining why he is giving up the hunt. The theme is unrequited love, but it’s not exactly romantic. Poet describes a hunt wherein a deer is pursued and ultimately owned by the royal who owns the land. Scholars generally believe that the poem is an allegory referring to Anne Boleyn’s courtship by King Henry VIII, such that when poet speaks of the deer as royal property not to be hunted by others, he is acknowledging that Anne has become the property of the King alone. The poet, Sir Thomas Wyatt, was said to have been interested in Anne and may have been her lover but would have to withdraw as a suitor after the King made clear his wish to claim her. Sonnet 31 The poet immortalizes his lost friends and lovers in his poetry. The poet thought his dead friends and lovers were lost forever to him when he cried at their funerals, but his poem is a grave that lets him keep them alive. The love his friends felt for him, and the love he felt for his friends, now live in his poetry. His poem is where their love for each other resides. So his conflict is the death of loved ones and the resolution is this sonnet. Sonnet 75 The theme of this sonnet is that no one lives forever, but his lady’s virtues and their love for each other will be immortalized forever in the poem. The poet wants to immortalize his lover by writing her name in the sand, but it would wash away, and so he resolves this with writing his love in his poems so they will be eternalized. Sonnet 116 This sonnet’s theme is the transcendent nature of true love and how it overcomes any barriers or obstructions. True love does not change or alter with the passing of time, or with the fading of beauty and youth. In this sonnet, poet describes the conflict between a passionate love compared to a logical love; more specifically the sonnet argues that a love that is true will not only be a guiding force in one’s life but will also stand the test of time. Poet does not attempt to come to any significant conclusion because no resolution is needed. Sonnet 130 The main theme of this sonnet is that his love for his mistress does not depend on telling lies about her. His love is more real than a love that needs to do those things. There isn’t a traditional conflict, rather, sonnet satirizes typical romantic poetry of the time. We can say that the conflict in the sonnet is that the woman being described does not measure up to these elevated standarts of beauty, but poet presents the idea in a clearly satirical way. · Discuss how these poems reflect the values of the Renaissance period. ??? · Discuss how these poems challenge the values of the Medieval period. ??? · Discuss how these poems demonstrate the conventions of the sonnet as a literary genre. ??? WEEK 13 THE ENGLISH RENAISSANCE (1485-1625): DRAMA AND PASTORAL POETRY · Please read pages 214-215, 266-267 from Prentice Hall Literature: The English Tradition and about the Elizabethan Drama and Theater. On your notebooks write down the names and the works of major dramatists and the characteristics of the Elizabethan stage. William Shakespeare (1564-1616) 1590 - King Henry VI 1591 - Henry VI 1592 - The Comedy of Errors 1594 - The Two Gentlemen of Verona , 1595 - Romeo and Juliet 1595 - A Midsummer Night's Dream 1596 - Merchant of Venice 1599 - Julius Caesar 1599 - As You Like it 1601 - Hamlet 1602 - All`s Well That Ends Well 1604 - Othello 1605 - King Lear 1606 - Macbeth 1606 - Antony and Cleopatra 1607 - Timor of Athens Ben Jonson (1572-1637) The Alchemist Sejanus His Fall Every Man out of His Humour Every Man in His Humour Volpone Francis Beaumont (1584-1616) The Woman Hater (1606) The Coxcomb (1608–10) The Captain (1609–12) Cupids Revenge (1611) The Scornful Ladie (1613–17) Loves Pilgrimage (1616) There was this group called University Wits they were a group of Elizabethan playwrights. The university wits were a group of oxford and Cambridge university scholar Shakespearean University Dramatists are known as the university wits before Shakespeare it was the earliest stage of the development of Drama as a popular. The University wits were a group of seven people. These University men were usually actors as well as Dramatists. This group contributed to establish the Elizabethan theatre. They popularized the form of Drama. Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593) Dr. Faustus King Edward Tamerlane The Jew of Malta The Massacre at parish Dido Queen of cartage George Peele(1558-1597) Edward 1 The old wives The Love of King David Robert Greene (1558-1592) The Scottish History of James 4 The History of orlando Furioso A looking Glass for London and England The Comicall History of Alphonus King of Aragon John Lily (1554-1606) Alexander and Campaspe Endimion Thomas Kyd (1558-1594) Spenishtragedy Jeronimo Aplology for actor The tragedy of solyman and person Thomas Lodge (1567-1601) The Wounds of civil war A Looking glass for London & England Thomas Nashe(1558-1625) The Unfortunate traveller Jack woillson Dido Queen of cartage and summers Last will and testament Characteristics of Elizabethan Dramatist: 1. Tragedy must end in some tremendous catastrophe involving in Elizabethan practice the death of the principal character. 2. The catastrophe must not be the result of mere accident, but must be brought about by some essential trait in the character of the hero acting either directly or through its effect on other persons. 3. The hero must nevertheless have in him something which outweighs his defects and interests us in him so that we care for his fate more than for anything else in the play. Characteristics of Elizabethan Age: First, Elizabethans were prolific in their writing. Plays, poems, pamphlets, treatises, and other works were created in abundance, widely circulated, and freely read and discussed. Second, Elizabethans returned with gusto to the classics of Greek and Latin and made them their own. As part of the Renaissance movement, Elizabethan writers delved into the history and mythology of the classical past and created new works that explored and adapted classic themes. Third, at the same time, Elizabethans dared to reach out in new directions, into the world of romanticism, where they plunged into the adventures, wonders, and beauties of the supernatural and the natural world. Fourth, Elizabethans developed their scholarly side as well. Many of them, including the queen herself, worked on translating the classics of Greek and Latin into English to make them more widely accessible. Fifth, the Elizabethans were an independent lot. They may have borrowed from the classics, but they used what they borrowed in new and creative ways. · Please read pages 232-235 from Prentice Hall Literature: The English Tradition and for the excerpt from The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus. On your notebooks answer the following questions: 1) Who is Dr. Faustus and what is the major conflict that he experiences at this point in the play? Dr Faustus is a well-respected German scholar. He isn’t satisfied with the limits of traditional forms of knowledge, medicine, logic, religion and law, and decides that he wants to learn to practice magic. The major conflict in the play, Doctor Faustus, can be found within the character of Faustus. He willingly sells his soul to the devil, and yet, he comes to fear the fate he has set for himself. The desire to change his mind to repent, is overwhelming. 2) Discuss the particular setting (time and place) for the events in the play? Provide specific examples from the text. ???????? 3) What does Dr. Faust want, does he achieve his aim, why/why not? Discuss by referring to events in the play. Intro of the play says “Early in the play, Dr. Faustus, the main character, contracts his soul to the devil for special powers of the mind. Now, facing death, he makes a desperate attempt to repent and save his soul.” So his aim was to have special powers of the mind but his contract ends and with that the Devil, Lucifer, comes to take him to hell. 4) How does Dr. Faustus feel at the end of the play? Discuss by referring to the play. On the final night of his life, Faustus is overcome by fear and remorse. He begs for mercy, but it is too late. The clock strikes midnight and a group of devils enter Faustus' study to claim his soul. He concludes his soliloquy by recognizing the fact that he is still a creature with a soul and is doomed to spend eternity in hell. He then curses his parents for having him, but quickly takes it back and decides to curse himself and Lucifer, who "hath deprived thee of the joys of heaven". 5) Relate the play to the values of the Renaissance period. Provide specific examples from the text. Humanist scholars of the Renaissance refocused their studies on the individual human subject, while the Protestant reformation affirmed the individual's prerogative to interpret scripture instead of relying on the pope and the hierarchical Catholic Church. A flourishing of education and other social changes made it more and more possible for people to rise up through society through their own hard work and ambition. Faustus embodies many of these changes: he is a self-made man, from humble origins, who has risen through education. He is ambitious and constantly desires to learn and know more about the world through various forms of scholarly inquiry. But Faustus also demonstrates some possible dangers in the Renaissance stress on one's own individual self. Renaissance notion of the power and importance of the individual and the Christian stress on obeying God fills and animates Doctor Faustus. · Please read pages 240 for pastoral poetry from A Glossary of Literary Terms by M. H. Abrams and Geoffrey Galt Harpham and on your notebooks write down its conventions. Pastoral: a deliberately conventional poem expressing an urban poet’s nostalgic image pf the supposed peace and simplicity of the life of shepherds and other rural folk in an idealized natural setting. The pastoral convention sometimes uses the device of “singing matches” between two or more shepherds, and it often presents the poet and his friends in the disguises of shepherds and shepherdesses. Themes include, notably, love and death · Please read “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love” by Christopher Marlowe and “The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd” by Sir Walter Raleigh. On your notebooks write down the major points that make these two works examples for pastoral and anti-pastoral poetry, respectively. “The Passionate Shepherd to His love” is a celebration of love, innocence, youth, and poetry. Since the traditional image of shepherds is that they are innocent and accustomed to living an idyllic setting, the purpose of such a pastoral poem is to idealize the harmony, peace and simplicity of the shepherd’s life. “The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd” revolve around a central unified argument of realism or pessimism over idealistic naivety. This poem is some kind of a refutation of the other one. There are three major points poem indicates: love is not enough to survive, rural life is so much more difficult that pastoral poetry idealize and youth and pleasures are fleeting.