Uploaded by Brandon Lawy


Chapter 5
Adapting to Habitat
• Introduction
• Physical and Behavioral Adaptations
Chemical defenses
Body covering parts
• Specific Adaptation
The importance of adaptation
Why is it important that organisms are adapted to their
• The better adapted an organism
is to its habitat, the more
successful it will be when
competing for resources such
as food and mates.
• Adaptations increase an
organism’s chance of survival
and so increase its chance or
body structures that
allow an animal to
find and consume
food, defend itself,
and to reproduce its
help an animal
survive in its
allow animals
to respond to
life needs.
coverings &
Physical and
Camouflage (use of color in a surrounding)
The chameleon can change its color to match its
surroundings. Can you do that?
(looking or sounding like another living organism)
The Viceroy butterfly uses mimicry to look like the Monarch
Not poisonous
I’m the Monarch!
I’m the Viceroy!
Mimicry: Let’s pretend
Some harmless organisms have become adapted to look like dangerous
species. This is called mimicry.
For example, stingless hoverflies have black and yellow bands on their
bodies that resemble those on wasps or bees.
This warns predators to stay away, even though the hoverfly
is incapable of stinging.
Chemical defenses (like venom, ink, sprays)
Chemical Defense: Using poison
Poison has evolved as an adaptation of predators and prey.
Organisms such as snakes, spiders and insects use poison to
paralyze or kill prey.
Other organisms use poison as
a defence. Certain tropical frogs
have poisonous skin that can
make predators very ill or even
They are often brightly coloured
to deter predators from even
trying to attack them.
Body coverings & parts (claws, beaks, feet, armor
plates, skulls, teeth)
The elephant’s trunk is a physical adaptation that helps it to
clean itself, eat, drink, and to pick things up.
Body coverings & parts (claws, beaks, feet, armor
plates, skulls, teeth)
The eagle’s CLAWS is a physical adaptation that helps it to
catch and hold prey, self-defense.
Body coverings & parts (claws, beaks, feet, armor
plates, skulls, teeth)
The flamingo’s BEAKS is a physical adaptation that helps it
to feed on small organisms.
Body coverings & parts (claws, beaks, feet, armor
plates, skulls, teeth)
The kangaroo’s FEET is a physical adaptation that helps it to
run faster.
Body coverings & parts (claws, beaks, feet, armor
plates, skulls, teeth)
The pangolin’s ARMOR PLATES is a physical adaptation
that helps it to self-defense.
• The shape of an
animal’s teeth is
related to its diet.
– Herbivores, such as
deer, have many
molars for chewing
tough grass and
– Carnivores, such as
lions, have sharp
canines to kill and
tear meat.
Specific Adaptation
• Why are the eyes of a
lion set in front of the
head rather than on the
• Eyes in front of the head
allow for depth
perception and ability to
judge distances when
• What is the purpose of the
mane on a male lion? What
is the reason for the lion’s
• A thick mane helps the male
to appear larger and serves
as protection for the throat.
The tawny brown coat color
camouflages the animal and
young among vegetation.
• Why are giraffes able to
go for long periods of
time without water?
• Giraffes drink water
when available, but can
go weeks without it.
They rely on morning
dew and the water
content of their food.
• How are their long necks
adapted to their lifestyle?
• This extra length is thought
to have evolved to help the
giraffe spot predators and
other giraffes in the
distance. Interestingly,
giraffes and humans have
the same number of
vertebrate in their necks.
• How do zebras defend
• Capable of running up to 40
mph. Zebras defend
themselves by kicking and
biting. Coloration also plays
a role in evading predators.
What are a shark’s general adaptations to life in an aquatic
streamlined shape
to reduce friction
when moving
through water
fins provide stability,
power and control
gills have a large
surface area so
that oxygen can be
extracted from the
surrounding water
What are a shark’s specific adaptations to life as an aquatic
specialized sense organs can
detect the sound, movement and
electrical fields of other organisms
highly sensitive
sense of smell that
can detect drops of
blood from miles
lots of very sharp teeth
that are constantly
silver colouring underneath
acts as camouflage
Snowshoe hare
The snowshoe hare lives in northern parts of North America.
How is it adapted to avoid predators such as lynxes?
greyish-brown fur turns white in
winter for camouflage
large furry
feet act as
snow shoes
and protect
the soles from
large ears
help in
vision with a
wide field of
view to see
How are lynxes adapted for catching snowshoe hares?
vision for
warm thick furry coat protects from the cold
sharp teeth
and claws
for puncturing
extra large paws
act as snow shoes
very strong hind leg muscles
capable of pouncing 6.5 metres!
Polar Bear
How is a polar bear adapted to its extremely cold climate?
white greasy fur repels water (keep the bear dry) and acts
as camouflage
thick fur and
layer of body fat
insulate from the
large, wide feet
spread the body’s
weight and act as
good paddles and
snow shoes
Other adaptations that polar bears have evolved to
cope with conditions in the harsh polar environment
small ears and small body
surface area to volume
ratio reduces heat loss
eyes have brown irises to
reduce the glare from the
Sun’s reflection
black skin is a good
absorber of heat
How is a camel adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate?
fat is stored in the hump to reduce overheating. There is
no other body fat to prevent overheating.
little water is lost
through sweating
or urination
long, thin legs help
to increase body
surface area and
increase heat loss
wide feet spread
out body weight on
shifting sand
What other adaptations have camels evolved to cope with
the harsh desert environment?
long eyelashes and
furry ears prevent sand
and dust from getting in
nostrils can be closed
for protection during
very varied diet, ranging
from grass and bark to
thorns and bones, is eaten.
Kangaroo Rat
A kangaroo rat is a mammal that lives in dry desert habitats.
How is this small animal adapted to this harsh environment?
Nostrils can closed when
needed to protect the
camel in sandstorms.
Brown fur for camouflage and
only goes out at night when it is
much cooler.
Most water comes from its diet
of seeds.
Does not sweat, or pant, to
reduce water loss.
A very varied diet ranging
from grass and bark to
thorns and
tail for balance when
Large back feet to escape from
predators allow it
to hop 2 metres at a time!
How is a cactus adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate?
water stored in a fleshy
stem, and a thick, waxy
surface reduces water loss
leaves are narrow spines
to reduce water loss and
protect from predators
roots are either very deep,
or shallow and
widespread to catch
surface water
Pitcher plants
Pitcher plants have a large
hollow filled with fluid that
traps insects or other small
organisms that may fall in.
Hairs on the slippery inside
of the plant are angled down
to ensure that the victim
cannot escape!
The plant digests its victims
to absorb the nitrates it needs!