Chapter 5 Adapting to Habitat Contents • Introduction • Physical and Behavioral Adaptations – – – – Camouflage Mimicry Chemical defenses Body covering parts • Specific Adaptation Introduction The importance of adaptation Why is it important that organisms are adapted to their environment? • The better adapted an organism is to its habitat, the more successful it will be when competing for resources such as food and mates. • Adaptations increase an organism’s chance of survival and so increase its chance or reproducing. Behavioral Physical body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species. Camouflage Mimicry help an animal survive in its environment Chemical defenses allow animals to respond to life needs. Body coverings & parts animals’ actions Physical and Behavioral Adaptations Camouflage (use of color in a surrounding) The chameleon can change its color to match its surroundings. Can you do that? Mimicry (looking or sounding like another living organism) The Viceroy butterfly uses mimicry to look like the Monarch butterfly. Poisonous Not poisonous I’m the Monarch! I’m the Viceroy! Mimicry: Let’s pretend Some harmless organisms have become adapted to look like dangerous species. This is called mimicry. For example, stingless hoverflies have black and yellow bands on their bodies that resemble those on wasps or bees. This warns predators to stay away, even though the hoverfly is incapable of stinging. Chemical defenses (like venom, ink, sprays) Chemical Defense: Using poison Poison has evolved as an adaptation of predators and prey. Organisms such as snakes, spiders and insects use poison to paralyze or kill prey. Other organisms use poison as a defence. Certain tropical frogs have poisonous skin that can make predators very ill or even die. They are often brightly coloured to deter predators from even trying to attack them. Body coverings & parts (claws, beaks, feet, armor plates, skulls, teeth) The elephant’s trunk is a physical adaptation that helps it to clean itself, eat, drink, and to pick things up. Body coverings & parts (claws, beaks, feet, armor plates, skulls, teeth) The eagle’s CLAWS is a physical adaptation that helps it to catch and hold prey, self-defense. Body coverings & parts (claws, beaks, feet, armor plates, skulls, teeth) The flamingo’s BEAKS is a physical adaptation that helps it to feed on small organisms. Body coverings & parts (claws, beaks, feet, armor plates, skulls, teeth) The kangaroo’s FEET is a physical adaptation that helps it to run faster. Body coverings & parts (claws, beaks, feet, armor plates, skulls, teeth) The pangolin’s ARMOR PLATES is a physical adaptation that helps it to self-defense. • The shape of an animal’s teeth is related to its diet. – Herbivores, such as deer, have many molars for chewing tough grass and plants. – Carnivores, such as lions, have sharp canines to kill and tear meat. Specific Adaptation Lions • Why are the eyes of a lion set in front of the head rather than on the sides? • Eyes in front of the head allow for depth perception and ability to judge distances when hunting. Lions • What is the purpose of the mane on a male lion? What is the reason for the lion’s color? • A thick mane helps the male to appear larger and serves as protection for the throat. The tawny brown coat color camouflages the animal and young among vegetation. Giraffes • Why are giraffes able to go for long periods of time without water? • Giraffes drink water when available, but can go weeks without it. They rely on morning dew and the water content of their food. Giraffes • How are their long necks adapted to their lifestyle? • This extra length is thought to have evolved to help the giraffe spot predators and other giraffes in the distance. Interestingly, giraffes and humans have the same number of vertebrate in their necks. Zebras • How do zebras defend themselves? • Capable of running up to 40 mph. Zebras defend themselves by kicking and biting. Coloration also plays a role in evading predators. Sharks What are a shark’s general adaptations to life in an aquatic environment? streamlined shape to reduce friction when moving through water fins provide stability, power and control gills have a large surface area so that oxygen can be extracted from the surrounding water Sharks What are a shark’s specific adaptations to life as an aquatic predator? specialized sense organs can detect the sound, movement and electrical fields of other organisms highly sensitive sense of smell that can detect drops of blood from miles away lots of very sharp teeth that are constantly replaced silver colouring underneath acts as camouflage Snowshoe hare The snowshoe hare lives in northern parts of North America. How is it adapted to avoid predators such as lynxes? greyish-brown fur turns white in winter for camouflage large furry feet act as snow shoes and protect the soles from cold large ears help in detecting predators monocular vision with a wide field of view to see predators approaching Lynx How are lynxes adapted for catching snowshoe hares? excellent binocular vision for judging distances warm thick furry coat protects from the cold sharp teeth and claws for puncturing flesh extra large paws act as snow shoes very strong hind leg muscles capable of pouncing 6.5 metres! Polar Bear How is a polar bear adapted to its extremely cold climate? white greasy fur repels water (keep the bear dry) and acts as camouflage thick fur and layer of body fat insulate from the cold large, wide feet spread the body’s weight and act as good paddles and snow shoes Other adaptations that polar bears have evolved to cope with conditions in the harsh polar environment include: small ears and small body surface area to volume ratio reduces heat loss eyes have brown irises to reduce the glare from the Sun’s reflection black skin is a good absorber of heat Camel How is a camel adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate? fat is stored in the hump to reduce overheating. There is no other body fat to prevent overheating. little water is lost through sweating or urination long, thin legs help to increase body surface area and increase heat loss wide feet spread out body weight on shifting sand What other adaptations have camels evolved to cope with the harsh desert environment? long eyelashes and furry ears prevent sand and dust from getting in nostrils can be closed for protection during sandstorms very varied diet, ranging from grass and bark to thorns and bones, is eaten. Kangaroo Rat A kangaroo rat is a mammal that lives in dry desert habitats. How is this small animal adapted to this harsh environment? Nostrils can closed when needed to protect the camel in sandstorms. Brown fur for camouflage and only goes out at night when it is much cooler. Most water comes from its diet of seeds. Does not sweat, or pant, to reduce water loss. A very varied diet ranging from grass and bark to thorns and bones. Long tail for balance when hopping. Large back feet to escape from predators allow it to hop 2 metres at a time! Cactus How is a cactus adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate? water stored in a fleshy stem, and a thick, waxy surface reduces water loss leaves are narrow spines to reduce water loss and protect from predators roots are either very deep, or shallow and widespread to catch surface water Pitcher plants Pitcher plants have a large hollow filled with fluid that traps insects or other small organisms that may fall in. Hairs on the slippery inside of the plant are angled down to ensure that the victim cannot escape! The plant digests its victims to absorb the nitrates it needs!