OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES… What you will KNOW… What is an Analysis Essay? The key components of analysis. What we will DO for preparation: Examine a model prompt, a sample passage, and a student written example of an Analysis essay. Help you plan, organize, and draft portions of your own analysis essay. WHAT IS IT?? ANALYSIS 101… The two questions one needs to answer when analyzing a text : What is the author’s PURPOSE? HOW (strategies / choices) does the author communicate that purpose to the audience? PURPOSE IS… The author’s / speaker’s specific reasons for writing What does he/she hope to accomplish? What does he/she want the audience to do with the ideas put before them? Sometime the purpose may be directly stated; other times it will be implied . AUDIENCE IS… The target of the writer/speaker. This greatly affects HOW the message is delivered. Audience can have several levels: Primary – immediate, intended audience Secondary – future, not the initial focus of the speaker’s intention APPEALS TO THE AUDIENCE logos—logical appeal (i.e. content, facts, statistics, numbers, concrete) pathos – emotional appeal (i.e. anecdotes, sensory language, informal language) ethos – ethical appeal (i.e. speaker’s credibility, qualifications, reputation, demonstration of research) ORGANIZATION, STRUCTURE, FORM • The arrangement of ideas and sequence of thoughts as they interact with the audience’s mind / ears (repetition, parallelism, anaphora, polysyndeton, asyendeton) • What is the significance of the paragraph, line or word within a placement of the text? • Why did the writer choose this particular type of writing (anecdotal, definition, comparison / contrast, cause and effect, satire)? NO MATTER WHAT YOU CHOOSE…. *It is not enough to be able to identify these components in a text; *It is not enough to merely summarize or paraphrase what the device means; one must be able to connect them to the author’s purpose and explain how they help the writer achieve that meaning. LINCOLN’S 2ND INAUGURAL ADDRESS Step 2: How does the author achieve the purpose? Annotate literary & rhetorical devices. Annotate means identify them AND write notes in the margin. Evaluate which ones BEST connect to purpose. LINCOLN’S 2ND Please INAUGURAL ADDRESS remember ALL analysis begins with AUTHOR PURPOSE. Read the speechPurpose carefully. is NOT meaning. What isyour he/she trying to accomplish or do? Analyze:/Annotate Text. Please do not overlook this critical step. Step 1: What is his purpose? Please write it on your paper. Find KEY EVIDENCE in the text that supports your conclusion – how do you KNOW you are right? DEVICES / STRATEGIES • Diction – choice of words • Syntax – sentence structure • Figurative Language / Rhetorical Strategies In sum, just about ANYTHING on your literary terms list. BRAINSTORM THE PROMPT 1. Complete the chart on the back of the speech. Focus on PARALLELISM ALLUSIONS PERSONIFICATION 2. Discuss the devices and how they help Lincoln achieve his purpose. THE ESSAY PROMPT In his second Inaugural address, given one month before the end of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln surprised his audience – which expected a lengthy speech on politics, slavery, and states’ rights – with a short speech in which he contemplated the effects of the Civil War and offered his vision for the future of the nation. Read the address carefully. Then write an essay in which you analyze the rhetorical strategies President Lincoln used to achieve his purpose. Support your analysis with specific references to the text. STUDENT SAMPLE ESSAY What makes a “good” analysis essay? • Effectively written & organized from beginning to end. • Powerful analysis statements (avoidance of lengthy and unnecessary summary). • Well-supported, consistent analysis. • Command of language and style. THE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH The beginning should be broad. As you progress, the information should become more specific, leading to the thesis statement. Thesis statement The main goals of the introductory paragraph are to set up your argument and to make the reader want to continue reading. This is a BRIEF, but CRITICAL part of your essay. WRITING THE INTRODUCTION Step One: Hook Audience Interest Broad universal statement relating to the subject or theme of the text Example: Four years before his Second Inaugural Address, President Lincoln had given a speech about war, “an impending civil war.” WRITING THE INTRODUCTION Step Two – Easing your Way to the Thesis Statement Mention the author / title of the text, if you haven’t already This is your occasion for writing - what you are writing in reaction / response to This sentence (or two) serves as a “bridge” between the universal opening statement and your thesis statement STEP TWO Now, after four years of war, the President is issuing a speech of reconciliation, trying to convince his people to come back together with their Southern brothers, and try and heal the horribly wounded nation. WRITING THE INTRODUCTION Step Three – The Thesis Statement • Answers the question / Addresses all the prompt • Provides a specific assertion or point to prove • Outlines the plan for the body paragraphs THE THESIS A gifted speaker, the President used three primary literary tools to make his point: parallel structure to illustrate similarities between Northerner and Southerner, allusions to the Bible to highlight the Christian values so important to both, and personification to paint the war as an evil enemy, and the nation as a wounded friend. THE BODY PARAGRAPHS • Remember the key lies in your ability to prove your thesis, so choose your examples carefully • Always connect the example to the thesis – show why that particular example does what you are claiming it does USING EXAMPLES CORRECTLY • Identify the strategy / device • Use paraphrasing or short quotations – Avoid long, unnecessary quotations • Analyze how the example helps the writer achieve his purpose (connect to meaning) • ANALYZE not explain or summarize. EXAMPLE The Christian values shared by both sides are further emphasized by Lincoln through allusions. He says in the third paragraph “let us judge not, lest we be judged.” This is a direct allusion to Jesus and his statement “judge not lest ye be judged.” It reflects the Christian value of forgiveness, something North and South share, and that should certainly apply for both in their current situation. INCORPORATING QUOTATIONS Incorporate the quotation into a sentence of your own. Make a “Quote Sandwich” First, lead in to the idea Next, cite the quotation Finally, analyze the effectiveness of the example in the text DO NOT use a lengthy quote – use key word details. DO NOT have a quote in an isolated, separate sentence all by itself. HOW TO INCORPORATE QUOTATIONS Always include quoted detail in your own sentence – do NOT separate it out. . USE A SIGNAL PHRASE TO INTRODUCE THE QUOTE AND ABSORBS IT AS PART OF A LARGER, COMPLETE SENTENCE In this example, the quote is an independent sentence with no direct relation to any other part of the paragraph. WRONG: In The Good Doctor, the Narrator directly addresses the audience. "It's quite alright, you're not disturbing me" (Simon 7). * BETTER: In The Good Doctor, the Narrator begins the play by directly addressing the audience: "It's quite alright, you're not disturbing me" (Simon 7). HOW TO INCORPORATE QUOTATIONS Use a signal verb with the author's name (if possible) to introduce the quotation. In this example, the verb "advocates" is part of the quote, not the sentence. And a sentence without a verb is a fragment. Also, the author's name does not need to appear in the parenthetical citation if it appears in the text. WRONG: In his article on horse racing, Merrill "advocate[s] the use of children as jockeys for professional horse races" (Merrill 15). BETTER: In his article on horse racing, Merrill staunchly supports "the use of children as jockeys for professional horse races" (15). CONCLUSION • CONSIDER: How are the arguments in the essay connected? • What have I proven? • Why are my arguments important? • Do my conclusions speak to a greater truth about the human condition? (hint: they always should) All of these questions and the answers they produce are part of your essay’s impact. This component is vital to the success of your essay. CONCLUSION At the start of his second term, Lincoln realized the necessity for the repairing and healing of the nation. In his inaugural address, he appealed to the hearts and minds of the people and tried to mend the rift that had grown between North and South. GRAMMAR? Grammar cannot be ignored if you wish to become a more successful writer. Follow these basic tips to increase the effectiveness of your writing. No first person or second person – Avoid “I think” and the temptation of commands Pronoun clarity – Avoid the evils of “it” and “There is” Verbs – Utilize action and active verbs - the most important part of any sentence No informalities – Avoid contractions, slang, abbreviations, symbols, “a lot”, texting language… A TYPICAL ANALYSIS PROMPT Read [the speech] carefully. In a wellorganized essay, analyze the rhetorical strategies (organization, diction, syntax, tone) that make [the speaker’s] argument effective for his audience. PARTS OF THE PROMPT Three objectives must be achieved before you can write your thesis or plan your essay. Who is the speaker’s audience? What is the speaker’s purpose? Which particular devices or strategies (literary devices / rhetorical devices) are most effective in helping him to achieve his purpose? YOUR REAL ESSAY & TOPIC The prompt will come to you ________. The passage will be one we have collectively chosen (all AP teachers) for your success. You will have at least 24 hours to read, analyze, brainstorm your essay, & fill in your planning page for writing. NOTE: *this does NOT happen in a REAL AP Assessment. You will type the full essay IN CLASS on _______.